The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent III (1198-1216)
Consistory of 1205 (IV)
Celebrated in Rome


(11) 1. ROMANIS, Nicola de (?-1219)

Birth. (No date found), Rome.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Frascati (1) in the consistory of 1205 (2). Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between May 30, 1205 and May 7, 1216; August 12, 1216 and September 14, 1219. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1211. In September 1213 to June 1214, he was legate in England to preach the crusade. Legate in Prussia. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III. Grand penitentiary in 1216. He was a great friend of Domenico, founder of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) and future saint; he helped the founder reform the life of the monks in Rome and reestablish the observance of the rule in the monastery of S. Sisto.

Death. At the end of 1219, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Bihl, Michael. "Nicolaus de Romanis (+ 1219), fueritne primus Cardinalis O.F.M.?." Archivum Franciscanum Historicum, XIX (1926), 2, 286-289; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 196-198; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 111; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 111; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4 and 38.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biography, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) Frascati was resurging from the ruins of Tusculum, which had been destroyed after 1189.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 111, says that he was probably created cardinal in March 1205, during Lent. Fr. Michael Bihl, O.F.M., "Nicolaus de Romanis (+ 1219), fueritne primus Cardinalis O.F.M.?." Archivum Franciscanum Historicum, XIX (1926), 2, 286-289, questions if he was the first Franciscan cardinal.

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(12) 2. PIERLEONE, Guido (?-1228)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a noble family. He is also listed as Guido di Bisontio da Orvieto.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Piacenza.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano in the consistory of 1205 (1). Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church from 1205. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between May 30, 1205 and April 13, 1216; and August 12, 1216 and April 27, 1221. Cardinal protodeacon in 1213. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III; as cardinal protodeacon, he crowned the new pope. He donated the arms of S. Alessio and relics of S. Bonifazio, martyr, to his diaconal church.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 18, 1221. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between April 3, 1222 and September 26, 1225; and May 7, 1227 and March 13, 1228. Legate in Lombardy. Participated in the papal election of 1227, in which was elected Pope Gregory IX.

Death. April 25, 1228, Rome. Buried (no information found). He left several objects to the cathedral of Piacenza.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 199; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 111; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4, 37 and 52; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova, Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 12.

Webgraphy. Reference to his death, p. 138.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 111, says that he was created cardinal in March 1205.

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(13) 3. MORRA, Pietro di (?-ca. 1206)

Birth. (No date found), Morra Irpina, near Conza, Avellino. Relative of Pope Gregory VIII. His last name is also listed as Mora (1).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Apostolic subdeacon. He wrote, in the name of Pope Innocent III, a book of decretal letters.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria in the consistory of 1205 (2). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between May 30, 1205 and May 6, 1206. Legate in France to reestablish the peace between Kings Philippe-Auguste of France and Richard I the Lionhearted of England; he presided a council in Montpellier against the Albigenses. Legate in Aragón and in Toledo.

Death. Ca. 1206 (3), Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 200-201; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 111; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4 and 49.

(1) Because of the similarities in their biographical data, he may be confused with Cardinal Pierre Duacensis (1212).
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 111, says that he was created cardinal in March 1205.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4 and 49; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 111; other sources say that he died in 1213 or 1216.

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(14) 4. PIROVANO, Uberto da (?-1211)

Birth. (No date found), Brianza. Of a noble Milanese family. He was called el Catalán. He is also listed as Umberto IV da Pirovano; and his first name as Oberto.

Education. Studied theology in Paris.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Valencia, Mallorca and Monza. Papal subdeacon.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of 1205 (1); his title is not known (2).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, December 11, 1206; enthroned, April 11, 1207. Consecrated (no information found). Papal legate. On December 18, 1208, Pope Innocent III asked Cardinal Pirovano to return to the Poveri Cattolici, who had separated themselves from the heresy of Valdo, a house in Porta Orientale, sequestered by the archbishop, Filippo da Lampugnano, by political motives; the Poveri Cattolici established relations with Credenza di sant'Ambrogio; Pope Innocent III granted Durando d'Osca and the Poveri Cattolici the land, outside of Pavia, where they had built a house and a church dedicated to St. Augustine. On April 18, 1209, Pope Innocent III thanked the cardinal for welcoming the Poveri Cattolici and informed him that Durando d'Osca and his followers had alerted the pope that around one hundred more heretics wished to reconcile themselves with the Church. He crowned Emperor Otto IV as king of Italy in the metropolitan basilica of Milan in 1209 (or 1210). In 1210, he promoted the redaction of Liber iurum of the church of Milan to impede the assault of the ecclesiastical possessions.

Death. March 13, 1211 (3), Milan. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 225-226; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 150-152; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 38; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 111; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 5, note 1, and 332; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, I, 199-201; II, 34; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIII, 251.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biographical information, in Italian, in "1206 novembre", "1208 18 dicembre" "1209 18 aprile", and "1210"; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 111; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 225; and Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 38, says that the date of his promotion to the cardinalate is unknown.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 111; his first biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was created cardinal deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 111 and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 332; his first biography in Italian, linked above, says that he died on March 24, 1211.

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(15) 5. FERENTINO, Giovanni da (?-1216)

Birth. (No date found), Ferentino.

Education. Maestro in arts.

Early life. Apostolic subdeacon. Notary of the Holy Roman Church. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church from 1203 until 1205; as such, signed the papal bulls from January 9 to December 5, 1205; later, chancellor. Writer of papal bulls from March 23, 1203 to December 2, 1204. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata in the consistory of 1205 (1). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between May 4, 1206 and April 20, 1212. Legate in England before King John Lackland for two years. Legate in France with Cardinal Pietro Caputo to establish the peace between the kings of England and France. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which Pope Honorius III was elected.

Death. 1216 (2), Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 199-200; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; Cheney, C. R. "Cardinal John of Ferentino, papal legate in England in 1206." English Historical Review, LXXVI, 301 (October 1961), 654-660; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 111; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4 and 52.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, 1929, p. 111, says that he was created cardinal in March 1206.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 111; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4 and 52. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 200, says that he died in 1210.

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(16) 6. BICCHIERI, Can. Reg. di S. Pietro of Pavia, Guala (ca. 1150-1227)

Birth. Ca. 1150, Vercelli. His first name is also listed as Jacopo and Giacomo and his last name as Beccaria.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of S. Pietro of Pavia. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the University of Bologna.

Early life. Canon of the chapter of the cathedral of S. Eusebio, Vercelli.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vercelli 1182; occupied the see until 1184. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae in the consistory of 1205 (1). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between April 21, 1206 and May 31, 1211. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, in 1211. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 30, 1211 and February 18, 1216; September 4, 1219 and May 9, 1226; and the one of June 30, 1227. Legate in France with seven Cistercian abbots to preach the crusade against the Albigenses. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III. Legate in England, where he crowned King Henry III in the church of the abbey of Gloucester on October 16, 1216. Legate in Germany, with Cardinal Paio Galvão, before Emperor Friedrich II. In 1217, he received the abbey of Saint Andrew of Chesterton from King Henry III of England. Cardinal protoprete after 1217. In 1219, he founded with his own money the church and abbey of S. Andrea in Vercelli for the canons regulars of S. Pietro. He helped reform the clergy of his former diocese. Participated in the papal election of 1227, in which Pope Gregory IX was elected. On May 29, 1227, he obtained permission from the pope to make his testament. He also carried on diplomatic missions in Florence, Romagna, Marches, Passau and Salzburgo.

Death. Shortly after June 30, 1227, Rome. Buried in the church of the abbey of S.Andrea in Vercelli.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 201-203; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4, 46 and 51; Hessel, A. ; Bulst, W. "Kardinal Guala Bichieri und seine Bibliothek." Historische Vierterjahrsschrift, XXVII (1932), 772-794 Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova, Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 14.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Eglish; biography, in Italian; biography, in Italian; Il "cassone" della discordia", history of the coffer used as casket for the cardinals remains, in Italian; La cassa già deposito delle ossa del cardinale Guala Bicheri illustrata da Edoardo Mella, Torino, 1883, article on the coffer, in Italian; view of the coffer, in color, now in Palazzo Madama, Turin; biography and other coffers brought by the cardinal to England, in Italian; plaque memorializing the cardinal, via G.Ferraris 101, Vercelli; Catalog of the bishops of Vercelli, click on the cardinal's name to see his portrait painted at a later time.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, 1929, p. 112, says that he was created cardinal in March 1206.

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(17) 7. SEGNI, Ottaviano dei conti di (?-1234)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. He is also listed as Ottaviano Conti. Cousin of Pope Innocent III. His family also gave the Church Popes Gregory IX, Alexander IV and Innocent XIII. Other members of the family promoted to the cardinalate were Giovanni Conti di Segni (1200); Andrea Conti, O.F.M. (quasi-cardinal); Lucido Conti (1411) (pseudocardinal); Giovanni Conti (1483); Francesco Conti (1517); Carlo Conti (1604); Giannicolò Conti (1664); and Bernardo Maria Conti, O.S.B.Cas. (1721).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Apostolic subdeacon. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Legate in Picenum with Cardinal Giordano, O.Cist. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in 1200 (?), or in December 1206 (?) or in 1216 (?).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco in the consistory of 1205 (1). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between May 4, 1206 and April 13, 1216; August 12, 1216 and May 9, 1226; and May 7, 1227 and July 14, 1233. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III. Cardinal protodeacon in 1221. Legate in Marches. Participated in the papal election of 1227, in which was elected Pope Gregory IX; he crowned the new pope. On June 28, 1228, he signed a bull with the title of Ss. Pietro e Paolo, unknown title (2).

Death. Shortly after July 1231 (3), Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 204; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 111-112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4 and 52; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova, Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 14.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, 1929, p. 111, says that he was created cardinal in March 1206.
(2) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, 1929, p. 112, says that it could be that he had been appointed archpriest of the the patriarchal basilica of S. Pietro in 1227 and occupied the post until his death.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, 1929, p. 112; Paravicini, Cardinali di curia e familiae cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, I, 14, says that he died in January 1234; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 204, says that the year of his death is uncertain but that he was still alive in 1232 because in that year he signed a bull of Pope Gregory IX, issued in the Lateran palace, in favor of the church of Monopoli; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4 and 52, says that he died in 1231.

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(18) 8. CRESCENZI, Can. Reg. of S. Reno, Gregorio (?-1226 or 1230)

Birth. (No date found), Verona. Of a noble Roman family. Relative of Cardinal Gregorio Crescenzi (1188).

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of S. Reno.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Teodoro in the consistory of 1205 (1). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between June 22, 1206 and April 13, 1216; and August 12, 1216 and May 9, 1226. Governor of Lazio and of Campagna in the first year of the pontificate of Pope Honorius III. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III. Legate in Denmark from 1220 to 1222. Legate in Sicily. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1221.

Death. After May 9, 1226 or in 1230, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 204-206; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4 and 52.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, 1929, p. 112, says that he was created cardinal in March 1206.

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(19) 9. GIOVANNI (?-1217)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Papal chaplain. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano in the consistory of 1205 (1). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between May 4, 1206 and February 5, 1216; and October 11, 1216 and April 10 (?), 1217. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo after December 22, 1216. Subscribed a papal bull issued on January 18, 1217.

Death. Shortly after January 18, 1217, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 206; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 27; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4, 42 and 49.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, 1929, p. 112, says that he was created cardinal in March 1206.

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(20) 10. GALVÃO, O.S.B., Paio (ca. 1165-1230)

Birth. Ca. 1165, Guimaraes, small city near Braga, Portugal (1). Son of Pedro Galvâo and Maria Pires. He is also listed as Pelagio Albano, Pelagio Albanense, Pelagius Albanensis and Pelayo Gaytan. His first name is also listed as Pelagio; and his last name Gaitán, Galvani, Galvano, Galván and Galvá.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictine) in the monastery of S. Jerónimo, in Santa Marinha da Costa, ca. 1178. Mestre in theology at the University of Paris; there, he was a condisciple of Lotario dei Conti di Segni, future Pope Innocent III.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Returned to Portugal and was name school master of a collegiate, where he was lector of moral theology. Sent by King Sancho I to present his obedience to the new Pope Innocent III; the pontiff kept him in Rome and named him vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio in the consistory of 1205 (2). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between May 4, 1206 and April 10, 1210; May 31, 1211 and April 20, 1212; August 3, 1213 and May 7, 1216; August 12, 1216 and May 9, 1226; and May 7, 1227 and March 8, 1229. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Cecilia in 1210. Legate in the 5th Crusade.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano in 1212. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III. Participated in the papal election of 1227, in which was elected Pope Gregory IX. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1227. Subscribed a papal bull issued on January 26, 1230 in Perugia.

Death. January 30, 1230 (3), Monte Cassino. Buried in the abbey of Monte Cassino.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 206-208; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 27-28; Donovan, Joseph Patrick. Pelagius and the fifth crusade. Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4, 35, 40 and 50; Mansilla Reoyo, Demetrio. "El cardenal hispano Pelayo Gaitán (1206-1230)". Anthologica annua : publicaciones del Instituto Español de Estudios Eclesiásticos, 9 (1961) 417-473; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova, Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 11-12.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Portuguese, under "Paio Galvâo"; biography, in English; brief biographical entry, in Portuguese; brief biographical entry, in Portuguese, under "Paio Galvâo"; brief biographical information, in Spanish, at the end of p. 374; biographical information, in Spanish, 15th paragraph, which starts: "Merece también nuestra memoria el cardenal Pelagio o Pelayo Galván"; bibliographical and biographical information, in English, under "Pelagius Albanensis "; and his engraving.</P>

(1) Several sources indicate that he was a Spaniard, born in Gusendos (de los Oteros), a small locality near León.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, 1929, p. 112, says that he was created cardinal in March 1206.
(3) This is according to Donovan, Pelagius and the fifth crusade, p. 115; Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 112, says that he did not die before October 1232; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. XXII, says that he died on January 29, 1240.

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(21) 11. LANGTON, Stephen (ca. 1150/1155 or 1160/1170-1228)

Birth. Ca. 1150/1155 or 1160/1170, Langton, near Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England. One of the three sons of Henry de Langton.

Education. Studied in Canterbury and Paris; obtained a doctorate at the Faculty of Theology of Paris.

Early life. Professor of theology at the University of Paris; later, its chancellor. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Crisogono in the consistory of 1205 (1). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between June 22, 1206 and March 27, 1207. When a dispute erupted between the members of the cathedral chapter of Canterbury and the bishops of that ecclesiastical province as to who had the right to elect the archbishop, the matter was ended when Pope Innocent III promoted Cardinal Langton to that see.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Canterbury and primate of England, June 1207 (2). Consecrated, June 17, 1207, Viterbo, by Pope Innocent III. He could not take possession of the see because of the refusal of King John Lackland, who had his own candidate for the see, Bishop John de Gray of Norwich; Cardinal Langton remained in the Cistercian abbey of Potigny for five years; returned to Rome in 1212; the pope placed England under an interdict and excommunicated the king; because of the excommunication, the sovereign had to forfeit his crown; King Philippe August of France was ready to seize England; King John defeated the move by surrendering his crown to the pope; he received it back in 1213, from Papal Legate Pandolfo, to rule as a fief of the Holy See; the English king was thus under the pope's protection and the king of France's plan was frustrated; the archbishop of Canterbury was allowed to return to England; King John met him at Dover, in July, welcoming him and prostrating before him; the archbishop was triumphantly received in Canterbury and absolved the monarch on July 20, 1213. The English barons were discontented about King John's injustices and brutality; they met at St. Paul's, London, on August 25, 1213; Cardinal Langton calmed them and persuaded them to make their demands more reasonable; the cardinal stood between the barons and King John's vengeance; the monarch demanded that the barons be excommunicated because he was the pope's fief and any rebellion against him was an act against the papal suzerain; misled by reports from England, Pope Innocent III ordered that the barons be excommunicated; the cardinal withheld publication of this sentence based on the ground that the pontiff had been deceived by false reports from the king; the cardinal wrote a statement of liberties the barons should put before the king and this was the basis of Magna Carta (June 15, 1215); the cardinal then set off to attend the Fourth Lateran Council, celebrated in Rome in 1215. On his way to Rome he received a rebuke from the pope for not having excommunicated the barons and was suspended as archbishop; the cardinal discreetly attended the council; the suspension was confirmed by Pope Innocent in November, 1215; King John had signed the Magna Carta, five months earlier; a true account of events in England reached the Holy See and in the spring of 1216 the pope absolved the cardinal but required him to remain in Rome until England was completely at peace; he remained in the Eternal City three years; during that time, both the pope and the king died. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III. Returned to Canterbury in 1218. On May 12, 1220, he presided over the second coronation of King Henry III in Westminster abbey (he had been crowned in Gloucester before); the cardinal used the occasion to publish the papal bull of canonization of St. Hugh of Lincoln. On July 7, 1220, to mark the jubilee of Archbishop Thomas à Becket's martyrdom, he presided over the translation of the saint's body to a new shrine in a celebration of great splendor; he visited Rome later that year and took with him relics of his predecessor and gave them to Pope Honorius III; the relics were later returned by the Holy See and are probably those now enshrined in the Catholic church of St. Thomas at Canterbury; he obtained from the pope support for his request that no resident papal legate in England would be appointed during his lifetime; he also obtained restrictions on papal appointments to vacant benefices as well as the recognition of the precedence of Canterbury over York. Celebrated a provincial synod at Osney abbey, outside Oxford, in June 1222; the synod enacted forty-two canons, which are still the basis of ecclesiastical law in England. Participated in the papal election of 1227, in which was elected Pope Gregory IX (3). In 1228, the cardinal was asked by Pope Gregory IX to excommunicate the emperor but he was already suffering from a mortal illness. The cardinal rebuilt much of the archiepiscopal palace of Canterbury; obtained the bull which declared King Henry III of age to rule; and went to Normandy to try to regain that territory for the king under the treaty of Lambeth. He brought the Dominican and Franciscan friars to his archdiocese. He made reference to the Scriptures easier by dividing the Greek text into chapters, a system adopted throughout the Church and by the Jews (4). He also wrote several biblical treatises of use to later scholars. The prose of Veni Sancte Spiritus is attributed to him.

Death. July 6/9, 1228, Slindon, Sussex. Buried in the chapel of Saint Michael (Warriors Chapel), metropolitan cathedral of Canterbury; later, his remains were re-interred under the altar.

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, p. 11-16; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 8-11; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 211-215; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 31-33; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4, 40 and 163; Féret, Pierre. La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus célèbres : moyen-age. 4 v. Paris : Picard, 1894-1897. Note: Added t.p.: La Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres. Other title: Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres, I, 276-284; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, p. 15-28; Isaacson, Charles S. The story of the English cardinals. London : Elliot Stock, 1907, p. 20-38; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova, Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 1 and 13; Pattison, Mark. Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury. London : J. Toovey, 1845. (Newman, John Henry. Lives of the English saints, v. 10; Variation: Newman, John Henry. Lives of the English saints ; v. 10); Powicke, Frederick Maurice. Stephen Langton ; being the Ford lectures delivered in the University of Oxford in Hilary term, 1927. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1928; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, p. 16-18; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 22-26; Williams, Robert Folkestone. Lives of the English cardinals, including historical notices of the papal court, from Nicholas Breakspear (Pope Adrian IV) to Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal Legate. 2 vols. Westmead, England : Gregg International, 1969. Responsibility: London, Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1868, I, 205-248.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in English, no. 44; his image and biography, in English; and another biography, in English; biography, in French, p. 276-284; engraving with the barons to defend the Magna Carta by W. Ward, end of the 18th century; his statue, façade of the County Courthouse, Cuyahoga, Ohio; another view of the statue and explanation; his tomb, chapel of Saint Michael, metropolitan cathedral of Canterbury; explanation about his tomb, in English, under "Cathedral and Precincts"; chapel of Saint Michael (Warriors Chapel), metropolitan cathedral of Canterbury; his tomb is at the back, below the stained glass window; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, 1929, p. 112, says that he was created cardinal in March 1206.
(2) According to Paravicini, Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, I, 1, the College of Cardinals entered a new phase in the first half of the 13th century, when from Pope Innocent III in 1216, the pontiffs did not allow the cardinals to assume the direction of a see other than the suburbicarian ones. Cardinal Langton was the last residential bishop of the 13th century.
(3) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 215; and Dr. Frank Burkle-Young in his notes to the conclave of 1227. Paravicini, Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, I, 13, says that he did not participate in that conclave.
(4) Cardinal Hughes de Saint-Cher, O.P., divided the chapters into verses.

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(22) 12. SASSO, Pietro (?-1219)

Birth. (No date found), Anagni. His last name is also listed as Sassi, Saxo, Saxonia and Saxonis.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana in the consistory of 1205 (1). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between May 4, 1206 and March 7, 1216; and January 18, 1217 and May 31, 1219. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1212. Legate in Germany to try to bring peace to the empire which was very unstable. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III. Vicar of Rome around 1217.

Death. Towards the end of 1219, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 208-209; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 29; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 4 and 46.

Webgraphy. His engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 4. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 112, says that he was created cardinal in March 1206. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 208; and Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 29, say that he was created cardinal in December 1207 in Rome.

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