The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241)
Consistory of September 18, 1227 (I)
Celebrated in Anagni


(1) 1. HALGRIN, O.S.B.Clun., Jean (ca. 1180-1237)

Birth. Ca. 1180, Abbeville, diocese of Amiens, Picardy, France. Son of Gui (or Guillaume) de Abbeville and Ide de Boubers; or of Girard D'Abbeville. He is also listed as Jean d'Abbeville; his first name as Giovanni; and his last name as Halgren, Hollegrin, Allegrin and Alegrin.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at Cluny (1). Studied in Paris at Collège de Cluny; magister in theology; regens in theologia in 1217. Condisciple of Ugolino dei conti di Segni, future Pope Gregory IX.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Professor of theology at the University of Paris for a long time. Prior of the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Abbeville. Canon chantre of Saint-Vulfran, Abbeville, before 1217. Canon and dean of the cathedral chapter of Amiens, October 27, 1218 until April 1225.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Besançon in March 1225. Consecrated on October 19, 1225, in Reims, by Cardinal Romano Bonaventura, papal legate in France. Promoted to the patriarchate of Constantinople on December 23, 1226; he did not accept the promotion probably due to health reasons.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Sabina in the consistory of Saturday September 18, 1227. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 23, 1227 and August 25, 1237. Legate in Spain from February 22, 1228 until January 3, 1230, to preach the crusade against the Saracens; he met Raimundo de Peñafort, future saint, who helped him in his mission; presided over a council in Lérida in 1229; and completed the protocol for the geographical separation of the dioceses of Sigüenza and Osma. From February 1230, with Cardinal Tommaso da Capua, he was legate before Emperor Friedrich II to obtain the peace; he met the emperor in Capua on July 23, 1230, before the peace of San Germano, signed the following July 23; the excommunication against the emperor was lifted on August 28 of that same year; during his mission, he occasionally traveled to Rome. After spending a brief period in the Roman Curia until February 8, 1233, the cardinal was sent again in 1234 before Emperor Friedrich, with Cardinal Pietro Caputo, minor. He accompanied Pope Gregory IX in several trips to central Italy. He wrote four books of sermons, containing 196 Sunday sermons on the Gospels and Epistles; as well as a treatise on Expositio in Cantica canticorum, published in Paris.

Death. September 28, 1237 (2), after a long illness and a slow agony, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 243-245; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 79-80; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 200-201; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 117; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 38, 137 and 205; Féret, Pierre. La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus célèbres : moyen-age. 4 v. Paris : Picard, 1894-1897. Note: Added t.p.: La Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres. Other title: Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres, I, 228-231; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova : Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 21-31.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in French, p. 200-201; biography, in French, p. 228-231; biography and works, in English, toward the end of the page; biographical entry and works, in English, toward the end of the second third of the page; biographical entry and bibliography, in English; Un acte de la Légation du Cardinal Jean Halgrin en Espagne by Lucien Auvray, Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire, 1896 Volume 16, Issue 16, pp. 165-179, in French; Maison d'Abbeville, in French; Notre-Dame Cathedral of Amiens by Steven Murray, Cambridge University Press, ch. 2; and his engraving.

(1) Some sources omit this information entirely; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, I, 24, says that modern historians have great reservations concerning his belonging to this religious order.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 117; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 245; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 79, indicate that he died in 1237; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, p. 6 and 38, says that he died in 1238; his biography in French, linked above, says that he died on September 23, 1240; the page on the cathedral of Amiens, linked above, says that he died in 1233; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, I, 28, says that different necrologies date his death September 23, 26, 28 and October 4, 1237.

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(2) 2. CASTIGLIONI, Goffredo (?-1241)

Birth. (No date found), Milan. Of the noble and famous Castiglione family, Palatine counts. Son of Giovanni Castiglioni and Cassandra Crivelli. Nephew of Pope Urban III, on his mother's side. His first name is also listed as Gaufridus. Other cardinals of the family were Branda Castiglione (1411); Giovanni Castiglione (1456); Francesco Abbondio Castiglioni (1565); and Giovanni Castiglione (1801).

Education. Acquired a vast theological formation from Rolandino da Padova, student of Boncompagno da Signa (1).

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Milan; later, its archpriest. Chancellor of the archdiocese of Milan from July 18, 1223 until March 31, 1226.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marco in the consistory of September 18, 1227. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 23, 1227 and March 24, 1239; April 15, 1239 and May 29, 1240.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina in 1239. Consecrated (no information found). Legate before Emperor Friedrich II; and later, in Etruria and in Cissalpine Gaul. Participated in the papal election of 1241 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on October 25, 1241. Took the name Celestine IV. He fell ill two days after the election and was never crowned (2). He did not create any cardinals or issue any documents.

Death. November 10, 1241, Angani (3). Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. His tomb has been lost.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 245-246; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 80 and 95-98; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 117; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 38, 44; Ilari, Annibale. "Celestino IV." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 250-251; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 191-192; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. "Celestino IV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 380-384; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova : Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 32-40.

Webgraphy. Biographical entry, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); portrait and biography, in Italian; engraving, arms and biography, in Italian; engraving and biography, in English; biographical entry, in English; biography, in German; his genealogy, A1 B1 C1; his engraving and arms, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving and arms, also from Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving as a cardinal; his engraving and arms as a pope; and three engravings.

(1) Ilari, "Celestino IV." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 250-251, says that he entered the Order of the Cistercians at the abbey of Hautecombe in Savoia; several other sources do not mention this information or say that it is very improbable.
(2) This is according to all the sources consulted, except that his second biography in English (Britannica) and his genealogy, linked above, say that he was crowned on October 28, 1241.
(3 This is according to Paravicini Bagliani, "Celestino IV." Enciclopedia dei papi, II, 383; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 117, says that he died at the Vatican.

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(3) 3. CONTI DI SEGNI, Rinaldo (ca. 1185-1261)

Birth. Ca. 1185, Jenne, diocese of Anagni, near Rome. Of the counts of Segni. Son of Filippo Conti di Jenne. Relative (cousin? or nephew?) of Pope Gregory IX. He is also listed as Rinaldo da Jenne; and his first name as Raynaldus and Orlando. His family gave the church two other popes: Innocent III and Innocent XIII. Uncle of quasi-cardinal Andrea Conti, O.F.M. Other members of the family promoted to the cardinalate were Giovanni dei conti di Segni (1200); Ottaviano dei conti di Segni (1205); Lucido Conti (1411) (pseudocardinal); Giovanni Conti (1483); Francesco Conti (1517). Carlo Conti (1604); Giannicolò Conti (1664); and Bernardo Maria Conti, O.S.B.Cas. (1721).

Education. Obtained a doctorate at the University of Paris before 1221. Some sources say that he entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) and other the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Early life. Apostolic subdeacon. He accompanied Cardinal Ugolino Conti di Segni, future Pope Gregory IX, in his legation to Lombardy in 1221.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in the consistory of September 18, 1227. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in 1227. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 23, 1227 and January 3, 1234; August 24, 1234 and May 29, 1240; September 26, 1243 and July 22, 1254.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, October 21, 1232 (or September 5, 1231). Consecrated in March 1235. Participated in the papal election of 1241, in which was elected Pope Celestine IV. Participated in the papal election of 1241-1243, in which was elected Pope Innocent IV. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1244. Legate in Viterbo, in Lombardy, in Ferentino and several other places. Participated in the papal election of 1254 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on December 12, 1254. Took the name Alexander IV. He was crowned on December 20, 1254, by Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi, protodeacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria, his nephew. He kept the administration of the see of Ostia e Velletri after his election to the papacy. He created two cardinals in two consistories.

Death. May 25, 1261, Viterbo. Buried in the cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Viterbo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 246; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 80-81 and 135-144; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 117; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 7, 35 and 49; Ilari, Annibale. "Alessandro IV." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 43-44; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 193-194; Manselli, Raoul. "Alessandro IV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 393-396; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova : Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 41-60.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; engraving, arms and biography, in Italian; medal and biography, in Italian; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his image in the painting "Le triomphe de saint Thomas d'Aquin" by Benozzo Gozzoli, musée du Louvre, Paris; his engraving as a cardinal; his engraving as a pope; three engravings; and his engraving and arms.

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(4) 4. FIESCHI, Sinibaldo (ca.1195-1254)

Birth. Ca. 1195, in the small town of Manarola, near La Spezia, Genoa. Of the counts of Lavagna. Son of Count Ugo Fieschi of Lavagna. His first name is also listed as Sinibaldus; and his last name as Flisco and Fiescho. Uncle of Pope Adrian V (1276). Uncle of Cardinal Guglielmo Fieschi (1244). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Luca Fieschi (1300). The family gave the Church several other cardinals: Giovanni Fieschi (1378); Ludovico Fieschi (1384); Giorgio Fieschi (1439); Niccolò Fieschi (1503); Lorenzo Fieschi (1706); and Adriano Fieschi (1834).

Education. Studied under his uncle Obizzo Fieschi, bishop of Parma (1). Studied Roman and canon law at the University of Bologna under Azon and Accursio from 1213. Maestro in law.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Parma, where his uncle was bishop, in 1216. He became one of the better known canonists of his time, especially for having been the precursor of the elaboration of the concept of the juridical person. Went to Rome and entered the service of Cardinal Ugolino Conti di Segni, future Pope Gregory IX.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Albenga ca. 1225 (1). Consecrated (no information found). Resigned the see and went to Rome. Auditor litterarum contradictarum and as such signed documents issued on November 14, 1226 and May 7 to September 29, 1227. Legate in Genoa, together with Cardinal Ugolino dei Conti di Segni. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church in July 1227.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in the consistory of September 18, 1227. Subscribed the papal bulls issued from September 23, 1227 until May 24, 1239. Rector in Marca Aconitana, 1234 to 1240; and in Angani. Participated in the papal election of 1241, in which was elected Pope Celestine IV. Participated in the papal election of 1241-1243 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on June 25, 1243. Took the name Innocent IV. Crowned, June 28, 1243, Anagni, by Cardinal Rainiero Capocci, O.Cist., protodeacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. He entered Rome on October 16, 1243. Resided in Lyon from 1244 to 1251. He granted the use of the red hat to the cardinals during the First Council of Lyon in 1245. He created fifteen cardinals in two consistories.

Death. December 7, 1254, Naples. Buried in the cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Naples.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 247; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 81; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 117; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 7, 43 and 81; Guglielmi, Felice. "Innocenzo IV." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 612-613; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 192-193; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova : Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 61-71; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. "Innocent IV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 384-393.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; biography, in German; his image and biography, in English; his portrait, arms and biography, in Italian; biograohy, in Spanish; biographical article, in English; Innocentius IV papa, Sinibaldo dei Fieschi. Leben und Werk, eine Einführ ung by Jörg Müller, München, 1997, in German; Potere assoluto: Innocenzo IV a 750 anni dalla morte by Carlo Moggia, Tesionline.com, in Italian; biography, in German; biography by Kenneth Pennington, in English; his genealogy, no. 2; his portrait by Giuseppe Franchi, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan; Pope Innozenz IV. the rule of the order confirms the Clarissen, Danube School, 1515; his engraving as a cardinal; his engraving as a pope; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; Louis IX and Pope Innocent IV, miniature, 14th century, manuscript "The Grandes Chroniques de France"; his funeral monument, metropolitan cathedral of Naples; his engraving in color; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another engraving from the same foundation; another engraving; his image, fresco, at the bottom of the mural, basilica of S. Salvatore dei Fieschi (Cogorno); four engravings; and plaque in his memory, Manarola, La Spezia, Genoa.

(1) Guglielmi, "Innocenzo IV." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 612, says that before starting his legal education in Bologna, he entered the religious life at the abbey of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria, Turin.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 117. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 81, says that he was named bishop of Albenga in 1235.

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(5) 5. BARTHÉLEMY (?-1230)

Birth. (No date found), Champagne, France (1). He is also listed as Bartolomeo di S. Pudenziana.

Education. Maestro in decretals (canon law).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Chálonssur-Marne.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chálons-sur-Marne after February 1226; at the same time Canon Robert de Thourotte of Reims, was also elected bishop of that see; Pope Gregory IX ordered an inquest about the election; on March 22, 1228, the pope indicated in a letter that the canons who had voted for Barthélemy represented the pars sanior. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana in the consistory of September 18, 1227 (2). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 23, 1227 and July 5, 1230. He accompanied Pope Gregory IX in his travels in central Italy. On July 3, 1230, he pronounced a sentence concerning a disagreement between the abbey of Tre Fontane in Rome and the cathedral chapter of Orbetello. The pope asked him to take part in the effort to bring about a rapprochement between Siena and Florence but no positive result was obtained.

Death. March 15, 1231, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 241; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 63; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 198-199; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 117; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 46 and 175, n. 2; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova : Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 72-75.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in French, p. 198-199; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to the majority of the sources consulted; Paravicini Bagliani, Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, I, 72, says that Alberico de Trois-Fontaines, Borgognese chronicler, indicates that he was born in Lombardy.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 117; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 6 and 46; and Paravicini Bagliani, Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, I, 73; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col 63, indicates that he was created cardinal on November 4, 1220 by Pope Honorius III; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 240, says that he was created cardinal by Pope Honirus III in November 1219 or in 1220; Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. 131, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1219.

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(6) 6. MONFERRATO, Oddone di (?-1250/1251)

Birth. (No date found), Casale, Lombardy. Son of Marquis Guglielmo di Monferrato (1). He is also listed as Othon de Montferrat, Otto de Monteferrato, Ottone Candido and Ottone da Tonengo (2). He was called "Candido" and "Bianco".

Education. He studied mathematics. Maître of arts.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Ivrea and counselor general of its bishop from 1214. In 1224, he was one of the ambassadors sent by Bologna before Pope Honorius III to obtain the approval of the statutes of its university. In 1225, the pope sent him to England as his nuncio for the financial relations between that country and Rome; he left England before Easter 1226. By May 31, 1227, he was a papal chaplain. He authored a treatise in astronomy (or astrology).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere in the consistory of September 18, 1227. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 23, 1227 and April 13, 1237; September 26, 1243 and April 26, 1244; January 23, 1245 and October 23, 1247. Legate in before Emperor Friedrich II, with Cardinal Tommaso da Capua, in December 1227. Legate in Germany and Denmark from 1229 to 1231; he left the Roman Curia after February 3, 1229; on April 12, 1229, he was in Paris, where, with the Cardinal legate Romano Bonaventura, he participated in efforts to bring peace between King Louis IX of France and Count Raymond de Toulouse; from there, he continued to Germany and Denmark; he celebrated an unsuccessful synod in Würzburg from January 8 to February 24, 1231; he left Germany between April 15 and June 29, 1231; by the following July 15, he was already back in the Roman Curia. On January 11, 1232, he was sent again before Emperor Friedrich II, with Cardinal Giacomo da Pecorara, in a peace mission to find a modus vivemdi between the emperor and the Lombard League when the legates arrived in Bologna, the emperor had left for Friuli, and they then promoted negotiations between the imperial representative, Ermanno, and the league. From February 1233 until April 1237, he resided in the Roman Curia. He was named legate in England, Wales and Ireland on February 12, 1237, at the request of King Henry III of England made toward the end of 1236; at his arrival in England, the legate was received by the king in person; he celebrated a synod in London in 1237, in which he solved the controversy between the archbishops of York and Canterbury concerning the primacy; the legation lasted until January 1241. On his return to Rome, he was captured by Enzio, son of the emperor, and taken to Pisa with Cardinal Giacomo Pecorara, O.Cist. (3); by taking them to that city, the emperor expected to impress the two cardinals favorably in order for them to mediate with the pope in the matter of his excommunication in 1239; after the death of Pope Gregory IX on August 22, 1241, the emperor had them transferred to Tivoli, near Anagni, where the papal election took place but they were not allowed to participate in the papal election of 1241, in which was elected Pope Celestine IV; at the beginning of March 1242, they were transferred to Capua; the following month, after the death of Pope Celestine IV, he was again taken to Tivoli and freed in August 1242. Participated in the papal election of 1241-1243, in which was elected Pope Innocent IV.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Porto e S. Rufina on May 28, 1244. Consecrated (no information found). Before going to the First Council of Lyon (1245), he went before Emperor Friedrich II for the third time, at the latter's request, to conduct peace negotiations; the mission was unsuccessful. He accompanied Pope Innocent IV to France in November 1244 and remained with him in Lyon. He was named the first protector of the Order of the Umiliati in 1246.

Death. Between the end of 1250 and the beginning of 1251, Lyon. Buried in the Dominican church in that city.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 247-249; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 81-83; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 117; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 36 and 52; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova : Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 76-97.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A1 F1 G5; and another genealogy, no. 2.

(1) This according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 117; his first genealogy, linked above, says that his father was Guglielmo V "il Vecchio"; the second genealogy, also linked above, indicates that his father was Guglielmo VI; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 81, says that he was son of Guglielmo III.
(2) Tonengo is a locality of Monferrato.
(3) On May 3, 1241, in front of Pisa, between the island of Montecristo and the Giglio, took place a famous battle between the Genovese, who were transporting numerous prelates to the council convoked by Pope Gregory IX in Rome, and the Pisans led by Enzio, son of Emperor Friedrich II. Among the prelates were Cardinals Giacomo da Pecorara, returning from France; and Oddone da Monferrato, returning from England; and future Cardinals Pierre de Colmieu, archbishop of Rouen; and John of Toledo, O.Cist. All the prisoners, except the two cardinals, were taken to Rocca di San Miniato; on June 10, 1241, they were transferred by sea to Naples, and then to Amalfi.

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