The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241)
Consistory of December 1228 (II)
Celebrated in Rome


(7) 1. VITRY, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Jacques de (ca. 1160/1170-1244)

Birth. Ca. 1160/1170, Vitry-en-Perthois (1), Champagne, France. He is also listed as Giacomo de Vitriano Giacomo de Vitrè and James of Vitry; his first name as Jacobus; and his last name as Viteri, Vitré and Vitriaco.

Education. Studied at the University of Paris under Pierre le Chantre at the end of the 12th century; obtained the title of magister.

Early life. Curé in Argenteuil, near Paris. Perhaps prebendary of Wasiers. After finishing his studies, he visited Marie d'Oignies, a mystic with reputation of holiness, who counseled him to join the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine; he entered the monastery of Saint-Nicolas de Willeboreck, later d'Oignies, diocese of Liège, 1208; later, he became her confessor.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1210 in Paris. Papal Legate Raymond d'Uzès invited him around 1212 to preache a crusade against the Albigenses in the diocese of Liège. Pope Innocent III had called a new crusade against the Albigenses in January 1213, and he actively participated in its preaching.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Acco (or Saint-Jean de Acre), Syria, in 1214; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated in Perugia on July 31, 1216 by the new Pope Honorius III. From Genoa, he went to his see in the autumn of 1216. From 1217, he welcomed the first crusaders. From June 1218 to September 1221, he followed the army in its military operations in Egypt and witnessed the capture of Damiette (1218-1219), which he reported in his letters. After the failure of the fifth crusade, Bishop Vitry returned twice to Europe. At the time of the first voyage, he went to Rome (1222-1223). In the second, in 1225, he went to the diocese of Liège, and particularly to Oignies; he then resigned his see in 1228, and his decision was accepted by Pope Gregory IX; between 1226 and 1229, he exercised the functions of auxiliary bishop of Liège; he assisted Bishop Hugues de Pierrepont at his death on April 12, 1229.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Frascati in the consistory of December 1228 (2). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between July 29, 1229 and June 23, 1239. Legate in France against the Albigens. Legate in Palestine. Postulated patriarch of Jerusalem by the cathedral chapter after September 1239; before May 1240, the pope declined the request of the chapter, indicating that the presence of the cardinal in Rome was indispensable. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1240. He wrote Vita Mariae Oigniacensis; Historia Orientalis seu Hierosolymitana; Historia Occidentalis; Sermons; as well as the treatise De la Nature.

Death. May 1, 1240 (3), Rome. The following year, his body was taken to Oignies, according to his will, and buried in the church of Saint-Nicolas de Willeboreck, near the tomb of Saint-Marie d'Oignies; the monastery of the Saint-Nicolas de Willeboreck was his beneficiary.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 249-252; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 83-85; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 203-207; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 118; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 38 and 68; Féret, Pierre. La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus célèbres : moyen-age. 4 v. Paris : Picard, 1894-1897. Note: Added t.p.: La Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres. Other title: Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres, I, 238-249; Funk, Philipp. Jakob von Vitry, leben und werke.Leipzig : Berlin : B.G. Teubner, 1909. (Beiträge zur kulturgeschichte des mittelalters und der renaissance ...; hft. 3). Note: Chapters I-VII were published as the author's inaugural dissertation. Tübingen. 1908; Jacobus, de Vitriaco. The exempla or illustrative stories from the Sermones vulgares of Jacques de Vitry. Ed., with introduction, analysis, and notes, by Thomas Frederick Crane. London : Pub. for the Folk-lore Society, by D. Nutt, 1890. (The Folk-lore Society. Publications. 26; Variation: Folklore Society (Great Britain); Jacobus de Vitriaco. Lettres de Jacques de Vitry, 1160-1170 - 1240. Edition critique par R. B. C. Huygens. [sl. : sn.], 1960; acques, de Vitry. The faces of women in the Sermons of Jacques de Vitry. Commentary, editions and translations by Carolyn Muessig. Toronto : Peregrina Pub., 1999. (Peregrina translations series); Jacques, de Vitry. Histoire de l'Orient et des croisades pour Jérusalem. Traduit du latin par François Guizot ; édition préparée par Nathalie Desgrugillers. Clermont-Ferrand : Paleo, 2005. (Les sources de l'histoire de France); Jacques, de Vitry. Histoire orientale de Jacques de Vitry. Traduite et annotée par Marie-Geneviève Grossel. Paris : Champion, 2005. (Traductions des classiques du moyen âge,; 72). Note: Translation based on edition of F. Moschus (1597), completed by that of Bongars (1611) and Martène-Durand (1711) of Book I, and on medieval manuscripts considered to be Book III of de Vitry's Historia hierosolymitana abbreviata--back cover; Jacques, de Vitry ; Hinnebusch, John Frederick. The "Historia Occidentalis" of Jacques de Vitry. A critical ed. [by] John Frederick Hinnebusch. Fribourg : The University Press, 1972. (Spicilegium Friburgense ; v. 17; Variation: Spicilegium Friburgense ; Bd. 17). Note: "The present work represents the first critical edition of the Historia Occidentalis, the second book of the author's Historia Hierosolimitana abbreviata"; Jacques, de Vitry. Lettres de Jacques de Vitry, 1160/1170-1240, évêque de Saint-Jean d'cre. Édition critique par R. B. C. Huygens. Leiden : E. J. Brill, 1960; Jacques, de Vitry. Lettres de la Cinquième Croisade. Text latin établi par R.B.C. Huygens ; traduit et présenté par G. Duchet-Suchaux. [Belgium?] : Brepols, 1998. (Sous la règle de Saint Augustin ; 5); Jacques, de Vitry. The life of Marie d'Oignies. Uniform Title: Vita Mariae Oigniacensis in Namurcensi Belgii diocesi. 2nd, rev. ed. Translated with introduction and notes by Margot H. King. Toronto : Ont. : Peregrina, 1989. (Peregrina translation series, 2 [i.e. 3].; Matrologia Latina; Variation: Peregrina translation series ; 3.; Peregrina translations series ; Matrologia Latina); Jacques, de Vitry. Reuerendissimi D. Iacobi de Vitriaco S.R.E. Cardinalis, Episcopi Tusculani, theologi et concionatoris, cum eruditissimi, tum dissertissimi, Sermones in Epistolas et Euangelia dominicalia totius anni. Antverpiae, : In aedibus viduae & haeredum Ioannis Steelsij, 1575. Note: Publisher's device with initials IS and motto "Concordia res parvae crescunt" on t.p./ Colophon reads: Antuerpiae, excudebat Theodorus Lyndanus. 13. Cal. Iun. sumptibus viduae & haeredum Ioannis Stelsii. Anno 1575. Other titles: Reverendissimi D. Iacobi de Vitriaco S.R.E. Cardinalis, Episcopi Tvscvlani, theologi et concionatoris, cvm eruditissimi, tum dissertissimi, Sermones in Epistolas et Euangelia dominicalia totius anni; Sermones in Epistolas et Euangelia dominicalia totius anni Responsibility: ab ipso authore ` trecentis quinquaginta & amplius annis, conscripti: nunc autem primym summa diligentia in lucem editi; Jacques, de Vitry. La traduction de l'Historia Orientalis de Jacques de Vitry.Édition, introduction, notes et glossaire par Claude Buridant. Paris : Klincksieck, 1986. (Bibliothèque française et romane. Série B, Edition [sic] critiques de textes ; 19; Variation: Bibliothèque française et romane.; Série B, Éditions critiques de textes ; 19). Note: Text in Old French; introd. and notes in French./ "Manuscrit français 17203, Bibliothèque nationale, Paris"--cover; LaVere, Suzanne Michelle. The preaching and writings of Jacques de Vitry (1170-1240). Dissertation: Thesis (Honors)--College of William and Mary, 2002; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova : Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 99-112; Sandor, Monica. The popular preaching of Jacques de Vitry. Toronto : University of Toronto, Centre for Medieval Studies, 1993. (Canadian theses = Thèses canadiennes); Thomas, de Cantimpré Jacques, de Vitry. Supplement to the life of Marie d'Oignies. 2nd rev. ed. Translated with introduction and notes, by Hugh Feiss OSB. Toronto : Peregrina Pub. Co., 1990. (Peregrina Translation Series ; 3). Contents: Supplement to the life of Marie d'Oignies--The Anonymous History of the foundation of the venerable Church of Bl. Nicholas of Oignies and the Handmaid of Christ, Marie d'Oignies.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in Italian; his arms and biography, in French, p. 203-207; biography, in French, p. 238-249; biography, in French; bibliography and biography, in French; his portrait and biography, in English, under "James of Vitry (+ 1240)" in the section "French"; biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in German; bibliography and biographical entry, in English; and his engraving.

(1) Some sources indicate that he was born in Vitry-sur-Seine, near Paris.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, 1792, I, pt. 2, 249; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col.83; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 118; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 6 and 38; Paravicini Bagliani, Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, II, 98, indicates that the consistory took place toward the middle of 1229, probably in Perugia.
(3) This is according to Paravicini Bagliani, Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, II, 108; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 118, says that he died on April 30, 1244; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 84; and his first biography in French, linked above, p. 206; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 6, syas that he died in 1240; and on p. 38, adds that there are sources that say he died on April 30, 1244; his second and third biographies in French, linked above, say that he died on May 1, 1240; his biography in German, linked above, says that he died in 1254. He does not appear listed among the participants in the conclaves of 1241 and 1241-1243 (published by Chacón, II, cols. 96 and 99-100; and Eubel, I, 6 and 7) although at that time, he was the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

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(8) 2. CONTI DI SEGNI, Niccolò (?-1239)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of the counts of Segni.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Apostolic subdeacon. Papal chaplain. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of December 1228 (1). Legate in Armenia to regulate differences relative to the principality of Antioch; this explains why he does not appear as subscriber of any papal bull.

Death. December 27, 1239, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 252-253; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 85-86; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 118; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6 and 43; Necrologi e libri affini della Provincia romana. A cura di Pietro Egidi. Roma : Forzani e c., tipografi del Senato, 1908-1914. (Fonti per la storia d'Italia, pub. dall' Istituto storico italiano; 44- Antichità. Secoli XI-), I, 291; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254. 2 vols. Padova : Antenore, 1972. (Italia sacra, 18-19), I, 98.

Link. His engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Paravicini Bagliani, Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie. Dal 1227 al 1254, II, 98, says that no cardinal by this name existed in the first half of the 13th century.

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