The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory X (1271-1276)
Consistory of June 3, 1273 (I)
Celebrated in Orvieto


(1) 1. JULIÃO, João Pedro (ca. 1205/1220-1277)

Birth. Ca. 1205/1220, Lisbon, Portugal. Son of Juliáo Rebelo, a physician of a noble and well known family, and Teresa Gil. He is also listed as Pietro di Giuliano, Pietro Iuliani, Pietro Ispano, Petrus Juliani , Petrus Hispanus, Pedro Hispano and Pedro Hispano Portucalense.

Education. Initial studies at the school of the cathedral of Lisbon; then, he studied in Paris; obtained a master's in arts, ca. 1240; he studied medicine in Montpellier (or Salerno) and obtained doctorates in medicine and theology.

Early life. Professor of medicine at the new University of Siena, 1247-1250. Dean and master of schools in Lisbon in 1250. Archdeacon of Vermoim, a diginity of the cathedral of Braga. He traveled to Rome in 1262 and returned to Lisbon. Entered the service of Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi, future Pope Adrian V, ca.1262. Prior de Santo André de Mafra in 1263. Major treasurer of Oporto. Prior of the collegiate church of Guimaraes. Through Cardinal Fieschi, he met Pope Gregory X, who named him his personal physician in 1271.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Braga by its cathedral chapter toward the end of 1272; he was never confirmed by the pope; occupied the see until1275; he was succeeded by Ordonho Alvarez, future cardinal, in May 1275. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Frascati in the consistory of June 3, 1273. Signed the papal bulls issued between March 7, 1274 and April 1, 1275. Participated in the Second Council of Lyon (1274). Participated in the first conclave of 1276, which elected Pope Innocent V. Participated in the second conclave of 1276, which elected Pope Adrian V. Participated in the third conclave of 1276 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on September 8, 1276, Viterbo. Took the name John XXI (1). Crowned, September 20, 1276, cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Viterbo, by Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano. He wrote numerous works on theology and Sacred Scriptures as well as in hygiene and medicine; among them Summulæ logicales, a logic textbook; Problemata quædam, commentaries on Aristotle and the mystical theologian Pesudo-Dyonisius; De Oculis, a study in ophthalmology; and Thesaurum Pauperum, a popular manual on curing illnesses. He did not create any cardinals.

Death. May 20, 1277, of the injuries he sustained when a few days earlier the ceiling of his study collapsed over him in Viterbo. Buried in the cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Viterbo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 1-2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 193 and 209-214; Del Re, Niccolò. "Giovanni XXI." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 542-543; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 126; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 39 and 144; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 200-201; Meirinhos, José Francisco. "Giovanni XXII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 427-437.

Webgraphy. Biography by Johann Peter Kirsch, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English (Britannica); John XXI, the physician who became Pope by Salvino Leone, in English, Internaitional Prize "João XXI", World Federation of the Catholic Medical Associations; biography by Michael Hanst, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his image and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; biography, in Portuguese, Arlindo Correia home page; his image and biography, in Portuguese, from Dicionário Histórico, Corográfico, Heráldico, Biográfico, Bibliográfico, Numismático e Artístico de Portugal, Volume III, pags. 1057-1058; his engraving and biography, in Portuguese, with emphasis on his philosophy, Instituto Camões, Portugal; biography, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp, Spain; Un ophtalmo devenu pape en 1276, Jean XXI, in French, Syndicat National des Ophtalmologistes de France; images and biography, in French, Alexandrina Balasar; his image and arms on a commemorative medal for the 800th anniversary of his birth Euro Collections International; his image on a commeorative Portuguese postal stamp; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; five more engravings (the second one is Pope John XXII although the engraving is identified as Pope John XXI), Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and another engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2009 (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2009), p. 16*, a pope named John XX never existed. The adoption of this name was due to confusion.

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(2) 2. VICEDOMINIS, Vicedomino de (ca. 1210/1215-1276)

Birth. Ca. 1210/1215, Piacenza. Nephew (?) of Pope Gregory X, on his mother's side. He is also listed as Guillelmus Vicedominus de Vicedominis and Guglielmo Visconti (1).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was married and had two children; after his wife died, he entered the ecclesiastical state. In 1241, he was already provost of Barjols. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Clermont in 1241. In 1243, he was, simultaneously, ambassador of the count of Provence in Genoa and in Avignon, which at that time was a free city, not yet a possession of Provence. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Narbonne. Provost of Grase and chantre of Béziers in 1251. In May 1251, he was sent with Gui Foucois as ambassador of the new count of Provence, Carlo d'Anjou, to Arlè and Avignon. Papal chaplain.

Sacred orders. He received the diaconate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Aix, July 22, 1257; he celebrated a provincial council in 1261; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate, but never returned to it. Consecrated (no information found). Legate in Lombardy and Romagna in 1272.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Palestrina in the consistory of June 3, 1273. Subscribed the papal bulls issued from March 7, 1274 to April 1, 1275. Participated in the Second Council of Lyon (1274). Received the title of S. Marcello in commendam on June 7, 1275. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in July 1275. Participated in the first conclave of 1276, which elected Pope Innocent V. Participated in the second conclave of 1276, which elected Pope Adrian V. Participated in the third conclave of 1276; died during the celebration of the conclave (2). Inscribed in the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) so that he could be buried wearing the order's habit.

Death. September 6, 1276, Viterbo. Buried in the church of S. Francesco, Viterbo.

Bibliography. Albanès, Joseph Mathias Hyacinthe ; Chevalier, Ulysse. Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France. 7 vols. 1895-1920, III. Other Title : Gallia Christiana. Responsibility: D'après les documents authentiques recueillis dans les registres du Vatican et les archives locales. Complétée, annotée et publiée par le chanoine Ulysse Chevalier, I, col. 70-73; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 2-3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 193-194; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 126; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 37 and 96.

Webgraphy. Biography, in French, col. 70-73; biography in French, as "Grégoire XI (pape éphémère)".

(1) According to his first biography in French, linked above, no document has been found that referred to him as Guglielmo Visconti and all of them call him Vicedominus. In effect, the Latinized form of Visconti is "Vicecomes" or "Vicecomitibus" and its translation into English would be "Viscount"; whereas, "Vicedominus", which does not have English or Italian equivalent, would be "Vidame" in French, a lay-ecclesiastical post, which appears to have become a last name, at least in Italy; while in France it became a hereditary title in some cathedrals, as it may be seen in this page. The attribution of the last name Visconti is due in part to his relation to Pope Gregory X (Teobaldo Visconti).
(2) Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, IX, "Cardinali", indicates that he was elected Pope Gregory XI in Viterbo on September 5, 1276, but having died the following day, his election is not recorded; Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, II, col. 194; and his second biography in French, linked above, concur; Dr. Frank Burkle-Young, in the notes for that conclave, says that within hours of his election, he was dead; and that he is not numbered among the popes, because his name was never proclaimed. The name Gregory XI was taken by Cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort when he was elected pope in 1370.

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(3) 3. BONAVENTURA, O.F.M. (ca. 1217/1222-1274)

Birth. Ca. 1217/1222, Bagnoregio (or Bagnorea), Tuscany. Son of Giovanni di Fidanza, a physician, and Maria di Ritello. His baptismal name was Giovanni. When Giovanni was four years old, he became gravely ill and the doctors thought he would not live; his mother brought him to Francesco d'Assisi, future saint, who placed the child near his heart; Francesco, with the child in his arms exclaimed: "Bona ventura!" (Success!) and little Giovanni got cured soon afterward; for this reason, he later was called Bonaventura. He is also listed as Giovanni di Fidanza, Johannes Fidanza, Bonaventura di Fidanza and Bonaventura da Bagnoregio.

Education. Received his initial education and instruction in the Franciscan convent of Bagnoregio. He went to Paris in 1236; studied at the university and obtained the diploma in baccalaureus in artibus. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans), Paris, in 1243; he was assigned to the Roman province of the order; completed the novitiate in Paris, 1243-1244; continued his studies at the Studium generale from 1243 to 1248, under the guidance of Alessandro di Hales, from 1243 to 1245; and other professors of the order. In 1253, he obtained the license and the doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Taught as baccalaureus biblicus, from 1248 until 1250; and as baccalaureus sententiarum, from 1250 to 1252. In 1253, started teaching at the Studium generale of Paris. On August 12, 1257, after the intervention of Pope Alexander IV, he was recognized by the maîtres of the university as Magister cathedraticus, the faculty of theology, title to which he had the right to expect after the completion of his studies. In the general chapter celebrated in Rome on February 2, 1257, he was elected 7th minister general of the order, which by then had 20,000 members. He governed the order from Paris but for reasons inherent to the post and by charges given to him by the pope, he traveled numerous times to France and Italy; he also went to Germany in the spring of 1259 and in the winter of 1270-1271; on April 8, 1263, he was present at the translation of the body of S. Antonio di Padova from the chiesetta di S. Maria Mater Domini to the new basilica; on December 7, 1270, he was in Cologne; and on January 6, 1271 in Southern Germany; in the spring of 1270 and in October of 1272, he went to Spain; and in 1258 and 1265, to England. On November 24, 1265, Pope Clement IV offered him the metropolitan see of York but he declined.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Albano in the consistory of June 3, 1273. Leaving Paris, at the request of the pontiff, he met Pope Gregory X in July 1273 in Mugello, near Florence, and accompanied him to the general council. Received the episcopal consecration from Pope Gregory X on November 11 (or 12), 1273. He immediately dedicated himself entirely to the preparation of the assembly, of which he was one of the most important figures. Participated in the Second Council of Lyon (1274); he defended the mendicant orders, especially the Franciscans, against the attacks of the secular clergy; and actively contributed to the success of the conciliar work, particularly the union of the Greek Church. On May 20, 1274, in the general chapter of the order, he resigned the post of minister general. He was the first Franciscan cardinal.

Death. July 15, 1274, two days before the conclusion of the council, Lyon. Cardinal Pierre de Tarantaise, O.P., future Pope Innocent V, delivered the sermon in his funeral which was attended by all the conciliar fathers; buried in the sacristy of the church of Saint-François, Lyon; around 1450, his remains were taken to the new Franciscan church; in about 1494, they were deposited in a chapel that King Charles VIII of France had built and dedicated to him; in May 1562, the remains were publicly burned in the Place des Cordeliers, in front of the church, by the Huguenots; his head was saved but was later destroyed (or disappeared) during the French Revolution; nevertheless, in March 1490, his compatriots from Bagnoregio had been able to bring as a relic one of his arms, which is still preserved in the local cathedral.

Canonization. Canonized by Pope Sixtus IV on April 14, 1482; declared Doctor Seraphicus by Pope Sixtus V on March 14, 1587. His feast is celebrated on 14 July.

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. 21-22; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 3-6; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 194-201; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 126-127; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9 and 35; Féret, Pierre. La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus célèbres : moyen-age. 4 v. Paris : Picard, 1894-1897. Note: Added t.p.: La Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres. Other title: Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres, II, 273-328; Little, A. G. "Was St. Bonaventura a student in Oxford? His visit to England in 1259." Archivum Franciscanum Historicum, XIX (1926), 2, 289-291; Ratzinger, Joseph (Benedikt XVI). Offenbarungsverständnis und Geschichtstheologie Bonaventuras. Edited by Gerhard Ludwig Müller and Marianne Schlosser. Freiburg : Herder, 2009- (Gesammelte Schriften ; Bd. 11). Corp. author: Institut Papst Benedikt XVI (Regensburg); Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, 10-12.

Webgraphy. Biography by Paschal Robinson, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his image and biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica (the fresco is by Benozzo Gozzoli, church of S. Francesco, Montefalco, Italy); his portrait and biography, in English (the portrait is by Francisco de Zubrarán), Wikipedia; biography, in English, with emphasis on his academic career; bibliograohy and biography, in English; biography, in Italian; illustrations and biography, in Italian; portraits and biography, in German; biography, in Spanish; 24 images and biography, in Italian; biography, in French, p. 273-328; Bonaventura by Diego Fusaro, in Italian; his portrait by Alessandro de Lorenzo, 15th century, Petit Palais, Avignon; his portrait by Peter Paul Rubens, Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille, France; Pinacotheca Philosophica, works of art on St. Bonaventure on the web, under "Bonaventure, Saint "; his portrait by Giovanni Antonio Pordenone, National Gallery, London; his statue, church of S. Bonaventura, Rome; his statue in terracotta, by Antonio Begarelli, 16th century, Galleria Estense, Modena; his statue, colonnade of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; his statue, Bagnoregio; his image (no. 14), fresco, by Tiberio d'Assisi, 16th century, convent of S. Francesco in Stroncone, Terni; his engraving, 16th century, Franciscan Institute Library, St. Bonaventure University, St. Bonaventure, New York, United States of America; hos portrait, scuola lombarda, 17th century, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan; his portrait by Bernardino Zenale, 15th century, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan; his portrait, by Bronzino, Polo Museale Fiorentino, it originally in the church of S. Croce in Florence and has disappeared; his portrait by Carlo Crivelli, 15th century, Staatliche Museum, Berlin; another engraving; five more engravings; and Sanctuaire Saint Bonaventure, Lyon, in French; San Buenaventura by Isabel Orellana Vilches, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, Madrid, 15 de julio de 2014.

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(4) 4. TARENTAISE, O.P., Pierre de (ca. 1224/1225-1276)

Birth. Ca. 1224/1225, Champagny, small town near Tarentaise (now Moûtiers), (then in Bourgogne, now French Savoy), France (1). He is also listed as Petrus a Tarentasia and Pietro di Tarantasia.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in Lyon ca. 1240. Studied at the University of Paris; maître in theology in June 1259.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Held the "chair of the French" at the University of Paris, 1259-1264. In 1259, he collaborated with Albertus Magnus and Tommaso d'Aquino, future saints, in the preparation of a rule of studies for Dominicans. Twice he was elected provincial of his order in France, 1264-1267 and 1269-1272. He preached a crusade during the pontificate of Pope Clement VI.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Lyon, June 6, 1272; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Ostia e Velletri in the consistory of June 3, 1273. He helped prepare and took an important part in the Second Council of Lyon (1274). Grand penitentiary. In 1274, in Lyon, he delivered the sermon at the funeral of Cardinal Bonaventura, future saint. He accompanied Pope Gregory X in his journey to Italy in 1275-1276. Participated in the first conclave of 1276 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope in Arezzo on January 21, 1276. Took the name Innocent V. Crowned, February 22, 1276, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano. He was the first Dominican pope. He did not create any cardinals.

Death. Died on June 22, 1276, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

Beatification. On March 9, 1898, Pope Leo XIII confirmed the immemorial veneration of this pope as a blessed; his feast day is celebrated on June 22.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 6-8; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 201; Del Re, Niccolò. "Innocenzo V." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 613-614; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 273-275; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 127; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 35 and 316 ; Féret, Pierre. La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus célèbres : moyen-age. 4 v. Paris : Picard, 1894-1897. Note: Added t.p.: La Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres. Other title: Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres, 487-494; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, X, 290-295; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 198-199; Laurent, Marie-Hyacinthe ; Giannelli, Ciro ; Gillon, Louis Bertrand. Le bienheureux Innocent V (Pierre de Tarentaise) et son temps. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1947. (Studi e testi, 129); Vian, Paolo. "Innocenzo V, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 423-425.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in German; his engraving and biography, in French, p. 273-275; biography, in French, p. 487-494; biography, in French, p. 290-295; arms, portraits and biography, in Italian; his portrait as a cardinal, fresco, former Dominican convent of Treviso; his portrait as a pope, fresco, former Dominican convent of Treviso; his engraving, Bildarchivs Foto Marburg, Germany; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; two engravings; another eight engravings; and one more engraving.

(1) There are sources which say that he was born in Friburge, a hamlet that administratively belonged to Champagny. Still other sources say that he was born in château des Cours, in La Salle, Valley of Aosta, a place not far from Friburge, which now belongs to Italy; if that is true, then his last name would be des Cours.

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(5) 5. SAINT-MARTIN, O.S.B., Bertrand de (?- 1275 or ca. 1277)

Birth. (No date found), Arles, France. He is also listed as Bertrandus a S. Martino; his first name as Bertrando; and his last name as Sainct Martin.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines); professed at the monastery of Saint-Andrè de Villeneuve, Avignon.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Dean of Saint-André de Villeneuve, Avignon, in 1238. Provost of Arles.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fréjus in 1248. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Avignon, March 5, 1264. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Arles, October 11, 1266; took possession of the see in March 1267; received the pallium in 1269, with the faculty of being preceded by the cross in all the territory of the province; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Sabina of in the consistory of June 3, 1273. Subscribed the papal bulls issued from March 7, 1274 until March 23, 1275. Participated in the initial sessions of the Second Council of Lyon. Participated in the first conclave of 1276, which elected Pope Innocent V. Participated in the second conclave of 1276, which elected Pope Adrian V. Participated in the third conclave of 1276, which elected Pope John XXI.

Death. March 28, 1275; or ca. 1277 (1), shortly before the election of Pope Nicholas III; Lyon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Albanès, Joseph Mathias Hyacinthe ; Chevalier, Ulysse. Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France. 7 vols. 1895-1920. Other Title : Gallia Christiana. Responsibility: D'après les documents authentiques recueillis dans les registres du Vatican et les archives locales. Complétée, annotée et publiée par le chanoine Ulysse Chevalier, I, col. 354-355; and III, col. 488-504; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 8; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 201-202; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 271-272; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 127; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 38, 103 and 252.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in French, p. 271-272; biography, in French, col. 354-355; biography, in French, col. 488-504; and his engravings.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 127. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 9 and 38, says that he died in 1277 and lists him as participant in the conclaves of 1276. His first biography in French, linked above, says that he died in 1274, during the celebration of the Second Council of Lyon. His second biography in French, linked above, says that he died on March 29, 1277.

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