The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Ncholas III (1277-1280)
Consistory of March 12, 1278 (I)
Celebrated in Rome

(1) 1. MALABRANCA ORSINI, O.P., Latino (?-1294)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Roman Senator Angelo Malabranca and Mabilia Orsini, sister of Pope Nicholas III. Nephew of Cardinal Giordano Orsini (1278). Cousin of Cardinal Matteo Orsini (1262). He is also listed as Latino Frangipani Malabranca and Latino Malebranca. His family gave the church another two popes and several cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans). Obtained a doctorate in law at the University of Paris toward 1263. Maestro in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of the convent of S. Sabina, Rome. Definitor of the provincial chapter of Orvieto. Inquisitor general in the pontificate of Pope Urban IV.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Ostia e Velletri in the consistory of March 12, 1278. Consecrated (no information found). Legate in Romagna in 1278. Vicar of the pope and governor of Rome during the absence of the pope from July to November 1279. Legate in Florence in 1279; and later, in Bologna. Subscribed the papal bulls issued from September 17, 1285 until June 11, 1286; from September 3, 1288 until September 22, 1291. He placed the first stone of the Franciscan church of S. Maria Nuova in Florence. Endowed the convent of S. Sabina with a rich library. Participated in the conclave of 1280-1281, which elected Pope Martin IV. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. Participated in the conclave of 1287-1288, which elected Pope Nicholas IV. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1289. Administrator of the see of Siponto ca. 1290. Participated in the conclave of 1292-1294, which elected Pope Celestine V at Cardinal Malabranca Orsini's instance.

Death. August 10 (or July 19), 1294, Perugia. Buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Beatification. His virtues made him be considered as a blessed by the Dominican authors.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 10-11; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 221-222; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp., 9 and 35; Féret, Pierre. La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus célèbres : moyen-age. 4 v. Paris : Picard, 1894-1897. Note: Added t.p.: La Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres. Other title: Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres, II, 558-561.

Webgraphy. Biography, in French, p. 558-561; biographical entry, in Italian; brief biographical entry, in Italian; Dall'bbandono di Siponto a Manfredonia by Matteo di Turo, in Italian; his image, top row, with the red hat, "The Dominican Blessed", by Fra Angelico, about 1423-1424, National Gallery, London; his image, fresco, former Dominican convent, Treviso; his tomb, which he shares with Cardinal Matteo Orsini (statue), church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, by Angelo di Ventura da Siena and Paolo da Siena; and another view of his tomb.

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(2) 2. LESSINES, Erhard de (ca. 1230-1278)

Birth. Ca. 1230, diocese of Langres, France. Son of Guillaume I, seigneur de Lessines, and Marguerite de Mello. His first name is also listed as Erardo and Erardus; and his last name as Lésinnes, Lesigny, Lessignes, Lesingiis and Lisignes.

Education. Licentiate in civil and canon law.

Early life. Named by his uncle, Bishop Gui de Mello, canon of the cathedral chapter of Auxerre in 1250; later its dean in 1268. He was an excellent preacher.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Auxerre; enthroned in January 1271; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found). Went to Rome to defend the rights of his diocese.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Palestrina in the consistory of March 12, 1278 (1).

Death. July 18, 1278 (2), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Stefano; later, according to his will, his remains were translated to Auxerre and buried in the tomb of his uncle the bishop.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 9-10; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 220; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 276-282; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 37 and 119; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, XIX, 321-324.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 276-282; biography, in French, p. 321-324; same biography in a different format; his genealogy, Deuxième branche, V; and his engraving.

(1) Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 9; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 220; say that he was created cardinal by Pope John XXI; his genealogy in French, linked above, says that he was created cardinal by Pope Adrian V.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 128; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 9 and 37; his second biography in French, linked above, says that he died on March 18, 1279. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929 says that he may have been confused with Gerardo Cupalates, bishop of Palestrina (?). at the end of 1278.

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(3) 3. BENTIVENGIS, O.F.M., Bentivenga de (ca. 1230-1289)

Birth. Ca. 1230, Aquasparta, diocese of Todi. Brother (?) of Cardinal Matteo d' Acquasparta, O.F.M. (1288). His last name is also listed as dei Bentivenghi and as de' Bentivighi.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). Maestro in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). In 1259, he appears as director of the Hospital della Carità of Todi, entrusted to the Franciscans. Guardian of the province of Umbria. In 1264, he was chaplain of Cardinal Stephan Vancs, and after the cardinal's death in 1269, he became chaplain and confessor of Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, future Pope Nicholas III. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. He was one of the premier theologians of his time.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Todi, December 18, 1276; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Albano in the consistory of March 12, 1278. Subscribed the papal bulls issued from February 3 to June 29, 1279; from September 17, 1285 to June 11, 1286; and from September 3, 1288 to February 1, 1289. Together with Pope Nicholas III and Cardinal Girolamo Masci, O.F.M., future Pope Nicholas IV, collaborated in the composition of the decree Exiit, qui seminat, dated August 14, 1279, concerning the Franciscan rule. Penitentiary major, September 26, 1279; occupied the post until his death. From 1279 until 1286, he was called to the papal curia to control the appointment of bishops. Participated in the conclave of 1280-1281, which elected Pope Martin IV. On August 5, 1281, he was authorized by the pope to prepare his will; he wrote the document in June 1286; and modified it on November 7, 1286, March 3, 1288 and March 25, 1289. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1285. Legate in Pistoia in 1285. He was sent in several other legations. Participated in the conclave of 1287-1288, which elected Pope Nicholas IV. Commendatario of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, May 4, 1288.

Death. March 25, 1289 (1), Todi. Buried in the Franciscan church of S. Fortunato, Todi, according to his will; he left his library and writings to that convent.

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. 23; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 12-13; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 223; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 35 and 501; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, 12-13.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; biographical data, in Italian; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to Betti, I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori, p. 23; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 128; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 9 and 35; Ritzler, "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, p. 13; his biography in Italian, linked above, indicates that he died in 1290, perhaps due to the vieux style.

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(4) 4. Second Council of Lyon in 1274. On August 19, 1274, he crowned King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine in the recently rebuilt Westminster Abbey. He promoted the canonization of Richard of Chichester and on June 26, 1276, he was present at the translation of the future saint's relics in the cathedral of Chichester. Later that year, he made a visition at Oxford University; he ordered regulations to safeguard the true doctirne; condemned several erroneous opinions; and suspended masters who had taught them. He excommunicated Prince Llewelyn of Wales for refusing his feudal duties to King Edward I.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in the consistory of March 12, 1278; he left England for Viterbo on July 25, 1278; enthroned on April 4, 1279; he continued to wear his Dominican habit as a cardinal. Subscribed the papal bulls of February 3 and June 28, 1279. Author of numerous works in theology, philosophy and the Sacred Scriptures; among them a treatise on the Passion of Christ and another on the Sacrament of the Altar. The pope asked him to write a letter to the king of the Tartars with a view to his conversion.

Death. September 12, 1279 (1), perhaps poisoned, Viterbo. Buried in the Dominican convent in that city.

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 18-20; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 16-18; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 13-15; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col.224-225; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 36 and 163; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, pp. 36-39; Isaacson, Charles S. The story of the English cardinals. London : Elliot Stock, 1907, pp. 45-49; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, pp. 21-22; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, pp. 33-35; Williams, Robert Folkestone. Lives of the English cardinals, including historical notices of the papal court, from Nicholas Breakspear (Pope Adrian IV) to Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal Legate. 2 vols. Westmead, England : Gregg International, 1969. Responsibility: London, Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1868, I, 345-357.

Webgraphy. His image and biography, in English; his image , bibliography and biography, in Portuguese; biography and bibliography, in English; his image, fresco, former Dominican convent, Treviso; his arms, stained glass window, Library, Dominican priory (Blackfriars), Oxford; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 128; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 9 and 36. Bellenger, Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals, p. 18; and Quinaln, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 22, say that he died on September 10, 1279. Schofield, The English cardinals, p. 35, says tha he died on September 11, 1279. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 224, says that he died on September 11, 1278, but this is unlikely since both "Essai" and Eubel indicate that he signed the papal bulls of February 3 and June 28, 1279.

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(5) 5. ÁLVAREZ, Ordoño (ca. 1230-1285)

Birth. Ca. 1230, Spain. Son of Pedro Maurique, baron of Castilla. His first name is also listed as Ordonho, Ordeone, Ordeano, Ordonio, Ordonius, Ordèon, Oddon and Oddone; and his last name as Alurz and Arlutz.

Education. (No information found)

Early life. Abbot of Husillos, Palencia, before 1272. Attended the Second Council of Lyon in 1274.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Braga, May 23, 1275 (1); the cathedral chapter had already elected another candidate; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate; he never resided in his see. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Frascati in the consistory of March 12, 1278. Dean of the College of Cardinals in 1278. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between February 3 and June 28, 1279; from September 17 to 24, 1285. Participated in the conclave of 1280-1281, which elected Pope Martin IV. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. He assisted the crusaders in the Holy Land. Contributed to the condemnation of the heresy of the sect of the "Flagellanti", which maintained that baptism had to be of blood, not of water, hitting their naked backs to bleed.

Death. December 21, 1285, Rome. Buried in the church of SS. Quattro Coronati, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 15; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 225; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10, 39 and 144; Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert. 2 vol. Bearbeitet von Tassilo Blittersdorff ... [et al.], unter Mitarbeit von Hanns Jäger-Sunstenau und Walter Koch ; redigiert von Jörg Garms, Roswitha Juffinger und Bryan Ward-Perkins. Rom : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981-1994. (Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstituts in Rom. 2. Abteilung, Quellen ; 5. Reihe; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstituts in Rom.; 2. Abteilung, Quellen ; 5. Reihe). Contents: 1. Bd. Die Grabplatten und Tafeln -- 2. Bd. Die Monumentalgrdber, I, 271; Torres Sevilla, Margarita ; Linehan, Peter A. "A misattributed tomb and its implications: cardinal Ordoño Álvarez and his friends and relations." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, LVII, 1 (2003), 53-63.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; brief biographcial entry, in English; brief biographical entry, in Italian, under "ALURZ Ordeone"; brief biographical entry, in Portuguese, under "D. ORDONHO ALVAREZ"; and his engraving.

(1) His biographical entry in Portuguese, linked above, indicates that he was named bishop of Salamanca in 1272 (the nomination is mentioned by his biographcial entry in English, also linked above, citing the Portuguese source); none of the other sources consulted mention this appointment; nor do any of the episcopal catalogs consulted.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert, I, 271:

[     /     ]ONI · ORDONII · ARCHIEP(ISCOPI) BRACAREN(SIS) · ET · FILI(VS) · NOBILIS · VI/RI · D(OMI)NI · PETRI · MAURIQVE
BARONIS · DE ·CASTELLA · CVI(VS) A(N)I(M)A · REQUIES[SCAT · IN · PACE · AME[N]

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(6) 6. BIANCHI, Gerardo (ca. 1220/1225-1302)

Birth. Ca. 1220/1225, Gainage, diocese of Parma. Son of Alberto Bianchi, a plowman, and his wife, Agnese. His first name is also listed as Gerardus and Gherardo; and his last as name as Blancus.

Education. Studied at the University of Parma.

Early life. By 1245 he was already a papal chplain. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Parma. Protonotary apostolic or auditor of apostolic letters. The good relations between his family and Bishop Obizzo Fiechi, uncle of Pope Innocent IV, favored his early career. Named auditor litterarum contradictarum, in 1276.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. XII Apostoli in the consistory of March 12, 1278. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in 1278. Legate in France in 1278 to try to negotiate the peace with Castilla; he was in Toulouse and Bordeaux. Participated in the conclave of 1280-1281, which elected Pope Martin IV.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, April 12, 1281. Consecrated (no information found). Legate in Sicily in 1282; together with Count Robert d'Artois, he was regent of the kingdom from the death of King Carlo I in 1285 until the liberation in 1289 of the late king's son, Carlo II, who was imprisoned by the Aragonese; he seems to have played an important role in the redaction of Constitutiones super ordinatione Regni Sicilie, promulgated by Pope Honorius IV in September 1285. Did not participate in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. Participated in the conclave of 1287-1288, which elected Pope Nicholas IV. Subscribed the papal bulls issued on September 3, 1288; and from July 1, 1289 until August 23, 1291; and from June 21, 1293 to June 27, 1298. On March 23, 1290, he was named legate, with Cardinal Benedetto Caetani, seniore, before the kings of Sicily and Aragón. Participated in the conclave of 1292-1294, which elected Pope Celestine V. Participated in the conclave of 1294, which elected Pope Boniface VIII. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1297. Legate in Sicily again from 1299-1301, to vainly try to expel King Federico II from the island. Founder of the abbey of Valserena (1).

Death. March 1, 1302, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 16-17; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 225-227; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 128-129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10, 38 and 39.

Webgraphy. I bianchi di Parma, in Italian; biography, in Italian, under "BIANCHI GERARDO'; his tomb in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome; another view of his tomb; his image kneeling down in front of the Blessed Virgin Mary, next to St. John the Baptist, in the baptistry of the cathedral of Parma; and his engraving.

(1) Stendhal (Marie-Henri Beyle) based his The Charterhouse of Parma on that abbey.

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(7) 7. MASCI, O.F.M., Girolamo (1227-1292)

Birth. September 30, 1227, Lisciano, near Ascoli Piceno. Of a modest family of humble origin. His father was a clerk. He is also listed as Girolamo d'Ascoli; his first name as Giovanni; and his last name as Massi, Massio, Massei, Mascius and Mascio. He was called Tineo.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) at a young age in the province of Marche. Educated in the school of Bonaventura, future minister general, cardinal and saint. Studied in Perugia and obtained a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor of theology in Rome. Named by Bonaventura provincial of the Dalmatian province in June 1272. In October 1272, he was sent by Pope Gregory X, with three other Franciscans, to Constantinople to start the negotiations for the union with the Greek Orthodox Church; having received the order from the pope, dated November 25, 1273, to participate in the Second Council of Lyon, together with the Byzantine representatives, he arrived in that city on June 24, 1274. Prior to his return from Byzantium, he was elected minister general of his order in the general chapter of Lyon on May 20, 1274. Two years later, in May 1276, he was again sent to Byzantium by Pope Innocent V to negotiate a truce and to concretely deal with the realization of the union; the death of the pope on June 22, 1276 impeded the mission to achieve its goals. He was reelected minister general in the general chapter celebrated in Paris in May 1276, in spite of his request to be excused from the charge; by papal disposition of July 8, 1278, he remained as minister general until the general chapter of May 1279 celebrated in Assisi. On October 15, 1276, Pope John XXI named him, together with the master general of the Order of Preachers, Domenico da Vercelli, O.P., papal legate with the charge of promoting the opening of negotiations for peace between Kings Philippe III le Hardy of France and Alfonso X of Castilla; he was confirmed in this mission by Pope Nicholas III in December 1277; after his promotion to the cardinalate, the pope asked him, on April 23, 1278, to continue working toward the achievement of the peace between those two monarchs.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana in the consistory of March 12, 1278. He advised the pope concerning the decree Exiit, qui seminat, dated August 14, 1279. In July 1280, Pope Nicholas III entrusted him with obtaining the peace between Rudolf I Hapsburg and Carlo d'Anjou. Participated in the conclave of 1280-1281, which elected Pope Martin IV.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, April 12, 1281. Consecrated (no information found). On September 7, 1283, Pope Martin IV sent him to Viterbo to prevent usurpers from occupying the territory. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. Participated in the conclave of 1287-1288 and was elected pope on February 15, 1288 but declined; he accepted only after a unanimous election on February 22.

Papacy. Elected pope on February 22, 1288. Took the name Nicholas IV. Crowned, February 25, 1288, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Matteo Orsini, protodeacon of S. Maria in Portico. He sent missionary Giovanni da Montecorvino to China. On July 18, 1289, he ordered that half of the revenues of the Holy See be reserved for the Sacred College of Cardinals. He was the first Franciscan pope. He created six cardinals in one consistory.

Death. April 4, 1292, in the residence that he had built next to the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. Buried in a simple tomb in the choir of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. In 1574, Cardinal Felice Peretti Montalto, O.F.M.Conv., future Pope Sixtus V, erected in that basilica a beautiful monument in his memory, work of Domenico Fontana.

Bibliography. Barone, Giulio. "Niccolò IV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 455-459; Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. 24-25; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 17-18; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 227-229 and 255-270; Del Re, Niccolò. "Niccolò IV". Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 731; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10, 11, 37 and 46; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 205-206; Niccolò IV : un pontificato tra oriente ed occidente : atti del convegno internazionale di studi in occasione del VII centenario del pontificato di Niccolò IV ; Ascoli Piceno (14-17 dicembre 1989). A cura di Enrico Menestò. Spoleto : Centro Italiano di Studi sul''alto Medioevo, 1991. (Biblioteca del "Centro per il collegamento degli studi medievali e umanistica nell'Università di Perugia" ; 4). Other titles: Atti del convegno internazionale di studi in occasione del VII centenario del pontificato Niccolò IV; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, 13-15.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); his engraving and biography, in English; biography, in German; biography, in Italian; portraits, arms and biography, in Italian; engraving, arms and biography, in Italian; his portrait, Carthusian monastery, Villeneuve-lès-Avignon; Ricoldo de Montecroce et Nicolas IV, miniature in an illuminated manuscript; engravings of the first four Franciscan popes, from De origine seraphicae religionis Francescanae by Francesco Gonzaga, 1587; his funeral monument, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome; another view of his funeral monument; detail of his statue by Leonardo Sormani, in his funeral monument; his bust in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome; his image, mosaic in the apse of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome; his image, mosaic in the apse of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome; his effigy on two medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; another engraving, Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; five more engravings; and another engraving.

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(8) 8. ORSINI, Giordano (?-1287)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Matteo Rosso, "il Grande", Roman noble, and Giovanni di Crescenzio Caetani. He is also listed as Jordan Orsini and Jordan Romanus. Brother of Pope Nicholas III. Uncle of Cardinals Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); and Matteo Orsini (1262). His family gave the church another two popes and several cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. ",,, eminente per sapere... (1).

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of York. Prebendary of Fenton, September 1, 1271.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in the consistory of March 12, 1278. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between February 3 and June 28, 1279; and between September 17, 1285 and June 11, 1286. Participated in the conclave of 1280-1281, which elected Pope Martin IV; together with his nephew Cardinal Matteo Orsini, he was removed by representatives of the people of Viterbo from the area of the episcopal palace where the election was taking place because they were said to be impeding the election of a new pope; they were soon released and participated in the final proceedings of the conclave. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV.

Death. September 8, 1287, Rome, during the vacant see after the death of Pope Honorius IV. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 15; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 225; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10 and 40.

Webgraphy. Biographical data, in English, under "M. Jordan Orsini"; and his genealogy, A3 B2 C4 D4 E1 F2.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 15.

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(9) 9. COLONNA, Giacomo (ca. 1250-1318)

Birth. Ca. 1250, Rome. Son of Giordano, signore of Colonna, and Francesca Conti (1). Uncle of Cardinal Pietro Colonna (1288). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Colonna (1327). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405), future Pope Martin V; Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Marco Antonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Archdeacon of Pisa.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata in the consistory of March 12, 1278. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1278; he had the apse decorated with mosaics. Commendatario of the title of S. Marcello, 1278 to 1294; and of the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, March 1278. Subscribed the papal bulls issued on February 3, 1279; from September 17, 1285 to June 11, 1286; from September 3, 1288 to August 23, 1291; and from June 21, 1295 to March 13, 1296. Vicar of His Holiness, 1280 to 1287. Participated in the conclave of 1280-1281, which elected Pope Martin IV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. Participated in the conclave of 1287-1288, which elected Pope Nicholas IV. Participated in the conclave of 1292-1294, which elected Pope Celestine V. Participated in the conclave of 1294, which elected Pope Boniface VIII. He was deposed by Pope Boniface VIII on May 10, 1297. Did not participate in the conclave of 1303, which elected Pope Benedict XI. He was rehabilitated by Pope Benedict XI. Did not participate in the conclave of 1304-1305, which elected Pope Clement V. Reinstated as a cardinal by Pope Clement V on December 17, 1305; the pope assigned him again the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata on February 2, 1306. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica again after May 24, 1312. Cardinal protodeacon in 1306. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Subiaco. Reentered the papal curia in Avignon on September 8, 1310. Participated in the conclave of 1314-1316, which elected Pope John XXII. First knight of Santiago of Portugal.

Death. August 14, 1318, Avignon. His remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 18-21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 229-230; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10 and 52.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; The Colonna family, in English; his genealogy, A2 B1 C1 D2 E1 F4 (he is listed as Giovanni); biographical entry, in Danish; his engraving; another engraving; and his image, mosaic in the apse of the patriarchal Liberian basilica.

(1) This is according to his genealogy, linked above; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 129; and his biographical entry in Danish, also linked above, say that his father was Oddone Colonna, who according to his genealogy is his older brother.

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CUPALATES, O.F.M., Gerardo (?-1279)

Birth. (No date found), Piacenza. His first name is also listed as Gherardo.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Auxerre (?). Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Palestrina at the end of 1278 (?) (1).

Death. March 18, 1279 or before 1281, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 11; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 223; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 9, n. 6.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 11; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, 1677, II, col. 223; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 9, n. 6, indicates that he is confused with Cardinal Erhard de Lessines (1278).

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