The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Martin IV (1281-1285)
Consistory of April 12, 1281 (I)
Celebrated in Orvieto


(1) 1. LANGUISSEL, Bernard de (?-1291)

Birth. (No date found), Nîmes, archdiocese of Toulouse, France. Of an illustrious family.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Notary apostolic. Papal chaplain. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota ca. 1267.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Arles in 1273; he celebrated a provincial council in 1275. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in the consistory of April 12, 1281. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 17, 1285 and June 11, 1286; and September 3, 1288 and July 23, 1291. Did not participate in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. On November 5, 1286, he received the administration of the church of S. Prassede. Participated in the conclave of 1287-1288, which elected Pope Nicholas IV. Constituted protector of the Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine on June 30, 1288. Legate in Lombardy and in Tuscany.

Death. September 19, 1291 (1), Orvieto. Buried in the Franciscan church in that city (2).

Bibliography. Albanès, Joseph Mathias Hyacinthe ; Chevalier, Ulysse. Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France. 7 vols. 1895-1920, III. 869-875. Other Title : Gallia Christiana. Responsibility: D'après les documents authentiques recueillis dans les registres du Vatican et les archives locales. Complétée, annotée et publiée par le chanoine Ulysse Chevalier, III, 503-506; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 21-22; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 238-239; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 289-290; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10, 36 and 103.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 289-290; biographical information, in French, col. 503-506; and two engravings.

(1) This is according to his second biography in French, linked above; Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 130; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 10 and 36; his first biography in French, linked above, Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 21; and the text of his epitaph trasncribed from Chacón in note 2, say that he died on September 19, 1290.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 238

ANNO D. MCCXC. VIDELICET XIII, KAL. MENSIS
OCTOBRIS OBIIT B. M. DOM. BERNARDVS
EPISCOPVS PORTVENSIS
Hunc Rex æternæ Patriæ sociare superna
Pro qua mundana reputavit gaudia vana
Et mens sollicita fuit ..... sua vita
Culpis purgata, ut prorsus fieret tibi gratia.

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(2) 2. EVESHAM, Hugh of (?-1287)

Birth. (No date found), Evesham, diocese of Worcester, England. He is also called as Atratus, which means the Black; Lenoir; and il Nero; and is also listed as Hugo Atratus de Evesham and Ugone Atrato; the appellative may have originated because of the color of his clothes or because of his support of the Dominicans (Blackfriars) when he was in Oxford. Later, he was called Phœnix because of the bird in his coat of arms.

Education. Educated at Oxford and Cambridge Universities; he studied medicine and mathematics; pursued studies in France and Italy too; it was said that he was Theologicam disciplinam doctum (1).

Early life. He acted as a peacemaker in several disputes at Oxford University between 1267 and 1274 (2). Archdeacon of Worcester in 1275. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of York. He obtained the parish of Bugthorpe, which he kept until his death. He was a renowned physician. In 1279, he was a candidate for the metropolitan see of York; his friend William Wickware was elected. Clerk of King Edward I of England for a long period. Called to Rome ca. 1280, either Pope Nicholas III or Martin IV commissioned him to try to find a cure for the perennial problem of malaria fever in Rome; shortly after, he became the private physician of the pope. He also was proctor of the archbishop of York at the court of Rome in the latter's disputes with the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of Durham in 1282. He seems to have taken the holy orders.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in the consistory of April 12, 1281. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. He subscribed the papal bull issued on May 5, 1285; and the ones issued between September 4, 1285 and June 11, 1286. Legate before the king of Aragón. He wrote several works in medicine (3). He died during the vacant see of Pope Honorius IV.

Death. July 27, 1287 (4), of the plague (or perhaps poisoned), Rome. Buried near the sacristy of his title in an elegant marble tomb.

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 21; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 15-16; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 22-23; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 239; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10 and 43; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, p. 33-34; Isaacson, Charles S. The story of the English cardinals. London : Elliot Stock, 1907, pp. 50-51; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 36-37; Williams, Robert Folkestone. Lives of the English cardinals, including historical notices of the papal court, from Nicholas Breakspear (Pope Adrian IV) to Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal Legate. 2 vols. Westmead, England : Gregg International, 1969. Responsibility: London, Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1868, I, 367.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; and his engraving.

(1) Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 239, citing Paulus Cortesius.
(2) According to Bellenger, Princes of the church, p. 16, he mediated between the Irish and the northern scholars in 1267; and one of the five arbitrators appointed in 1274 to obtain the peace between the northern and southern scholars; in 1269, he supported the Dominicans of Oxford in their dispute with the Franciscans concerning the observance of evangelical poverty; in spite of that, he remained in good terms with the Franciscans.
(3) Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 239, lists titles of his works: Scripsit Medicinales Canones; Problemata quædam; Super opere Febrium Isaac; Distinctiones Prædicabiles; and Postillas super Biblia, & alia quædam.
(4) This is according to Schofield, The English cardinals, p. 37; and Bellenger, Princes of the church, p. 16; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 130; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 43, say that he died on September 4, 1287.

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(3) 3. CHOLET, Jean (?-1293)

Birth. (No date found), château of Nointel, Beauvais, France. Of a humble family originally from Abbeville, Picardy. Eldest son of Oudard Cholet Chevalier. He is also listed as Jean de Nointel, called Cholet; and his last name is also listed as Chauleti, Cioletti, Collet and Cholle.

Education. Studied canon as well as civil law at the University of Paris.

Early life. Valet at the monastery of Saint-Lucien, Beauvais. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Beauvais.Archdeacon of the metropolitan chatehdral chapter of Rouen. He was a friend of Simon de Brion, future Pope Martin IV; and of Kings Philippe le Hardy and Philippe le Bel of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in the consistory of April 12, 1281. Legate a latere in England in 1283 to induce King Edward I to mediate between Kings Carlo d'Anjou of Naples and Pedro de Aragón, who were threatening each other because of the violent occupation of Sicily by the latter. In that same year, he was also legate in France and Poland to preach a crusade againts Pedro de Aragón. In 1284, he presided the council of Paris, in which the king of France, Philippe III le Hardy, decided to take up the arms to defend his uncle, King Carlo d'Anjou. Did not participate in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. Cardinal primoprete in 1286. Participate in the conclave of 1287-1288, which elected Pope Nicholas IV. On July 13, 1289, he sealed in Lyon the peace between Kings Philippe IV le Bel of France and Sancho II of Castilla, which the pope had charged the cardinal to negociate. Pope Nicholas IV gave him license on February 6, 1290 to make his will; he sealed the document in the abbey of Moustier-la-Sielle, near Torye; his executors were his brother Evrard, canon of Saint-Julien de Beauvais, and Jean, canon of the chapter of Thérouenne; and his witness was Barthélemy de Nointel. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between April 7 and September 22, 1291. Founded in Paris the famous Collège de Beauvais, which was finished in 1295. Legate in France and in Spain. He died during the vacant see of Pope Nicholas IV.

Death. August 2, 1293 (1), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, Rome; later, following his will, his remains were transferred to the monastery of Saint-Lucien, Beauvais, where his brother Odon was abbot (2); and buried in a superb tomb surmounted by a statue of the cardinal made of solid silver and adorned with precious stones; when the church was burned by the English, the abbot had to sell the statue to pay for the reconstruction of the building; he replaced it with a statue of gilded copper with an epitaph (3).

Bibliography. Brainne, Charles. Les hommes illustres du département de l'Oise : Bibliothèque du Beauvaisis : notices biographiques, critiques, analyses littéraires, citations d'uvrages, documents particuliers, etc.. Paris : Augustine Autrey, editor ; Beauvais : Paul Tremblay, editor, 1858-1864, II, 214-215 and 446-449; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 23-24; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 239-241; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 291-301; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10 and 40.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 291-301; biography, in English; biography, in French, p. 446-449, under "Nointel (Jean Cholet de); biography, in French, p. 214-215, under "Jean Cholet, cardinal"; his image, on the left, scarcely visible, in a mural in the cathedral of Beauvais; and two engravings.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 130; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 24; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 241, say that he died in 1293; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 10, says that he died in 1292; and on p. 40, on August 2, 1293; his first biography in French, linked above, says that he died on August 2, 1292; is biography in English, linked above, says that he died in 1292; the second biography in French, linked above, says that he died ion August 2, 1292; the third biography in French, also linked above, says that he died on August 2, 1291.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 241:

Ista legens siste, pensa quantus fuit iste,
Cuis tam pulchrum cernis fulgere sepulchrum.
Est rosa sub Petra, quam primum subdita a metra
Et tanti floris via se diffundit odoris.
Ecce sub hoc tumulo venerabilis ossa Ioannis
Cæciliæ titulo decorati pluribus annis:
Postea Legatus fuit inclytus, atque probatus,
Vir magni cordis, cuis mens nescia sordis,
Glorida Francorum, docus Orbis, formaque morum.
Fautor iustorum, constans ultor visitorum,
Canonis, & legum Professor erat generalis.
Francorum Regum Consul bonus, & specialis.
Provocet ad stetum pietas recolendo Choletum,
Tanquam deletum fontem bonitate repletum
Mors quid fecisti vitæ resecans iter isti?
Multa gregi Christi Charismata subripuisti:
Dapfilis, & mundus, verax fuit atque fidelis.
Floreat in Cœlis, quia nunc sibi nemo secundus.
Anno depromens octo de mille trescentos
Augusti Nonas quarto lux est morientis.

(3) This is the text of the epitaph, taken from his second biography in French, p. 449, linked above:

Belgarum me primus ager nutrivit, honorat
Roma, seni curæ fœdera pacis erant.
elligio, pietas, studiorum insignia, crescunt
Me duce : qui fuerim comprobat ista domus.

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(4) 4. JEANCOLET DE CLINCHAMP, Gervais (?-1287)

Birth. (No date found), diocese of Le Mans, France. Son of Odon, seigneur of Groestel. He is also listed as Gervasius de Glincamp; and his last name is also listed as Giacoletti, Giancolet and Gancelot. He was called the Cardinal of Le Mans.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Le Mans. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Paris. He was a good friend of future Pope Martin IV.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in the consistory of April 12, 1281. Subscribed the papal bulls issued on May 5, 1284; and from August 17 to 24, 1285. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. Legate in France before King Philippe le Hardy. He died during the vacant see of Pope Honorius IV.

Death. September 15, 1287, of the plague, Rome. Buried in his title (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 24-25; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 241-242; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II 302-303; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10 and 46; "Nécrologe-obituaire de la cathédrale du Mans", Archives historiques du Maine. Sociét des Archives Historiques du Maine, VII (1906), 246-247.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 302-303; biographical information, in French, p. 246-247; and his engravings.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 242:

HIC. IACET. DOMINVS. GERVASIVS. CARDINALIS.
CŒNOMANEN. ..... AMARE.
STA. LXIX. CONSTANS. ET. MENT. ..... XL.
QVAE MISCE. ..... O. SINE. FINIS.

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(5) 5. CASATE, Conte (?-1287)

Birth. (No date found), Milan. Son of Giordano Casate. Of the counts of Casate. His first name is also listed as Comes, Anguisoni, Glusiano and Glusianus; and his last name as Casati.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon archdeacon of the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, 1270. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota in the pontificate of Pope Nicholas III.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro in the consistory of April 12, 1281. Signed the papal bulls issued on May 5, 1283; and from September 17, 1285 to June 11, 1286. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. Charged with the revision of the rules of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). He restored his title. He died during the vacant see of Pope Honorius IV.

Death. April 8, 1287 (1), Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Lateran basilica (2), where Cardinal Giacomo Colonna erected him a mausoleum (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 25; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 242-243; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10 and 44.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A2 B2 E1 F3; his tomb in the patriarchal Lateran basilica; and another view of his tomb.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, p. 10, n. 9, says that he is still mentioned in a letter of Pope Nicholas IV dated April 9, 1288.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 243:

ANNO DOM. MCCLXXXVII. MENSIS
APRILIS DIE VIII.
De Mediolano Comes hoc requiescit in antro
Presbyter & Cardo, veniat tibi splendor ab alto.
Lombardis charus, ipsorunt gente creatus
De patria clarus, de magno sanguine natus
Tu sapiens pectus iuris vexilla ferebas,
Pauperibus largus, ad prava per omnia tardus
Consilio magnus, mitis, devotus, ut agnus,
Muneris acceptor rarus, iustus obisti
Nominis illector, cur sic sito morte ruisti?
Hinc Mediolanum, Romanaque Curia ploret,
Ne fleat in vanum, pro te roge quilibet oret.

Besides some contradictions and omissions between the text from Chacón and the one in the photographs of his tomb, linked above, the date of death that the former gives does not appear in the latter.
(3) This is the inscription placed in his mausoleum, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 243:

D.    O.    M.
DOMINVS IACOBVS DE COLVMPNA
CARDINALIS S. MARIAE IN VIA LATA
PRO ANIMA
DOMINI COMITIS CARDINALIS FECIT FIERI
HANC CAPELLAM CVM ALTARI ET OMNIBVS.

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(6) 6. BAR, Geoffroy de (?-1287)

Birth. (No date found), Bar-sur-Seine, Bourgogne, France. His first name is also listed as Gaufrido and Goffredo; and his last as de Barro and de Barbeau.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in theology.

Early life. Dean of the collegiate church of Saint-Quentin. Canon and archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Paris before 1267; elected dean of the chapter in 1274; took the oath on April 20 of that year.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Susanna in the consistory of April 12, 1281. Signed the papal bulls issued on May 5, 1283; and from September 17, 1285 to June 11, 1286. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. He died during the vacant see of Pope Honorius IV.

Death. August 21, 1287, of the plague, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Prassede, Rome; only a brief inscription was engraved over his tomb (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 25; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 243; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II 304-305; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 130-131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10 and 48; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, II, 22-23; Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert. 2 vol. Bearbeitet von Tassilo Blittersdorff ... [et al.], unter Mitarbeit von Hanns Jäger-Sunstenau und Walter Koch ; redigiert von Jörg Garms, Roswitha Juffinger und Bryan Ward-Perkins. Rom : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981-1994. (Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstituts in Rom. 2. Abteilung, Quellen ; 5. Reihe; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstituts in Rom.; 2. Abteilung, Quellen ; 5. Reihe). Contents: 1. Bd. Die Grabplatten und Tafeln -- 2. Bd. Die Monumentalgrdber, I, 263.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 304-305; biography, in French, p. 22-23; biography, in French; and his engravings (the one on the right is Cardinal Pierre de Bar).

(1) This is the text of the inscription, taken from his second biography in French, p. 23, linked above:

Moi, Geoffroy de Bar, cardinal-prête du titre de Sainte Suzanne, je crois que mon Rédempteur est vivant et qu'au dernier jour je me léverai de terre.

Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert, I, 263, gives the text in Latin:

EGO GAUFRIDUS DE
BARRO QUONDAM · CC ´ S(AN)C(T)E SUSANNAE (PRES)B(ITE)R CARDINAL(IS) · CREDO Q(UO)D REDEMPTOR MEUS
UIUIT ET IN NOUISSIMO DIE DE
TERRA SURRECTURUS SUM · ET IN CARNE MEA UIDEBO DEUM SALUA/TOREM MEUM ·

Cool Archive

(7) 7. CAETANI, seniore, Benedetto (ca. 1230/1240-1303)

Birth. Ca. 1230/1240, Anagni. Son of Lofredo (or Roffredo) Caetani and Emilia Patrasso di Guarcino. Of a Catalonian family. His last name is also listed as Gaetano. Relative of Cardinals Aldobrandino Gaetani (1216); Benedetto Caetani, iuniore (1295); and Leonardo Patrasso (1300); and of quasi-Cardinal Andrea Conti. Uncle of Cardinals Giacomo Tomassi-Caetani, O.F.M. (1295); and Franceco Caetani (1295).

Education. Studied in Todi, where his uncle was bishop, ca. 1250; later, continued his studies in Perugia and Bologna.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Anagni, ca. 1250. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Todi, where his paternal uncle, Pietro Caetani, was bishop, ca. 1260. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Lyon. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Consistorial advocate. In 1264, he accompanied as secretary Cardinal Simon de Brion (future Pope Martin IV) to Paris; and Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi (future Pope Adrian V) to England in 1265-1267. Protonotary apostolic from 1276. He intervened in the negotiations of Cardinal Matteo Orsini with Rudolf von Hapsburg and Carlo d'Anjou in 1280.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere in the consistory of April 12, 1281. Subscribed the papal bulls issued on May 5, 1281; the ones from September 17 to 22, 1283; and September 3, 1288 to September 22, 1291. Legate before the king of Sicily. Participated in the conclave of 1285, which elected Pope Honorius IV. Received the administration of the church of Ss. IV Coronati on April 1, 1285; and the one of S. Susanna on March 8, 1288. Participated in the conclave of 1287-1288, which elected Pope Nicholas IV. On July 1, 1288, he was named protector of the Order of S. Guglielmo di Monte Vergine. Legate in Portugal, March 2, 1289. On March 2, 1290, he received the faculty of keeping a certain number of ecclesiastical benefices, such as archdiaconates, canonicates and prebends, in the dioceses of Langres, Chartres, Lyon, Paris, Anagni, Todi and Thérouanne; and also the commendam of the deaconries of S. Agata, S. Agnes, and S. Nicola in Carcere, after he opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti on September 22, 1291. On March 23, 1290, he was named legate, with Cardinal Gerardo Bianchi, before the kings of Sicily and Aragón; also, legate in France, on that same date, to reestablish the peace with England. He was invested with the episcopal dignity. Participated in the conclave of 1292-1294, which elected Pope Celestine V. Cardinal primoprete in 1293. Participated in the conclave of 1294 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on December 24, 1294, in Naples. Took the name Boniface VIII. On January 23, 1295, he was consecrated bishop of Rome in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Hughes Aycelin de Billom, O.P., bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; and crowned in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, by Cardinal Matteo Orsini Rosso, protodeacon of S. Maria in Portico. In 1300, he instituted the celebration of the periodic Jubilar Years. In 1303, he established the 'Studium Urbis,' which later would become "La Sapienza" University. His long conflict with King Philippe IV le Bel of France culminated with the excommunication of the monarch and the attempt to capture the pope in Anagni to bring him to trial in France; the citizens revolted against the French and freed the pontiff, who returned to Rome and died shortly after. He inserted the constitution of Pope Gregory X, Ubi periculum, in the Corpus juris canonici, Sexti Decretal, 1. I, tit. VI, De electione, c. 3. From that moment on, the seclusion of the conclave would never again be abrogated. Also, he allowed the cardinals to wear the red cassock and issued the most serious pains to those who offended them by word or deed. He created fifteen cardinals in five consistories.

Death. October 11, 1303, Vatican. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; his tomb was opened in 1605 and his body was found intact.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 46; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 244 and 295-338; Dupré Theseider, Eugenio. "Bonifacio VIII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 472-493; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10, 12-13, 47 and 52; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 208-210; Ilari, Annibale "Benedetto VIII." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 153-156; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Bonifacio VIII. Torino : G. Einaudi, 2003. (Biblioteca di cultura storica); Tosti, Luigi. History of Pope Boniface VIII and his times, with notes and documentary evidence in six books. Translated from the Italian by Rt. Rev. Msgr. Eugene J. Donnelly. New York : Christian Press Association Pub. Co. 1911.

Webgraphy. Biography by Thomas Oestereich, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his image and biography, in English (Britannica); biography by A. Hauck, in English, New New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; his image and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his image and biographical data, in French, MEMO Voyagez à travers l'Histoire; images and historical information centering on his pontificate, in Italian, Bonifacio VIII version on line, BananaBlu; his statue and biography, in Italian, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence, Associazione Culturale Italia Medievale; his chronology, in Italian, Nuovi Panorami; biography by A. Prieto Prieto, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp: Humanidades y Ciencia; his genealogy, A1 B1 C1 D1 E2, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his image, fresco, by Giotto, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, Associazione Nationale Insegnanti Stira dell'Arte (ANISA), Bolletino, Anno XX, n. 3/ottobre 2001, N. 17; Une relation inédite de l'attentat d'Anagni by Kervyn de Lettenhove, Revue des questions historiques, Janv. 1872, Année 6, T. 11, pp. 511-520, Gallica, Bibliothèque Nationale de France; Boniface VIII et Ferrand Martines, miniature of the pope receiving the archdeacon of Toledo, in Rome to accompany the body of Cardinal Gudiel to Spain, from the manuscript of the Castillian novel "El caballero Zifar", Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Division occidentale; Mort de Boniface VIII, miniature from the same source of the previous one; Boniface VIII decrees the Jubilar Year, 16th century, Palazzo Caetani, Rome; his statue, Palazzo Caetani, Anagni; his bust by Manno Bandini di Siena, Musei Civici, Bologna: his bust by Arnolfo di Cambio, Reverenda Fabrica di San Pietro, Vatican City; his image, stained glass window, church of S. Croce, Florence; his image, miniature in an illuminated manuscript of the Decretals, 14th century, The University of Sydney; Unam Sanctam Promulgated November 18, 1302, romancatholicism.org; his statue in front of the cathedral of Anagni, Chi era costui; his bust, Palazzo Bonifacio VIII, Anagni, Chi era costui; plaque, Palazzo Bonifacio VIII, Anagni, Chi era costui; his effigy on a medal, numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy on another medal of the same collection; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving as a cardinal, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving as pope, Araldica Vaticana; another engraving by Cavallieri, AllPosters.com; and his tomb, grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Wikimedia.

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