The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Nicholas IV (1288-1292)
Consistory of May 16, 1288 (I)
Celebrated in Rome


(1) 1. BERARDI, Bernardo de' (?-1291)

Birth. (No date found), Cagli. He is also listed as Bernardus Caliensis and Bernardo Callensis; and his first name as Berardo.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Osimo.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cagli in 1276 by the Ghibellini; the Guelfi elected another candidate; the dispute was referred to Rome; Pope Martin IV named him bishop of Osimo in 1282; he was consecrated in that same year; confirmed on January 17, 1283; took possession on March 27, 1283.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Palestrina in the consistory of May 16, 1288. Subscribed the papal bulls issued from September 3, 1288 until July 18, 1289. Named legate in Sicily on June 22, 1289. Died during his legation.

Death. August 5, 1291, Pontevico (or Casteldifonte), diocese of Spoleto. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 30-31; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 266-267; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11, 37 and 120.

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(2) 2. AYCELIN DE BILLOM, O.P., Hugues (ca. 1230-1297)

Birth. Ca. 1230, Billom, fiefdom of his family, diocese of Clermont, France. Son of Pierre Aycelin, seigneur of Bressolie (1). He is also listed as Ugo Billomo, Hughes Séguin, Ugo Seguin de Billon, Hughes Aycelin de Montaigut and Hugues Séguin de Billon; and his last name as also listed as Billo and Billay. Great-grand uncle of Cardinal Gilles Aycelin de Montaigu (1361) and of Pseudo Cardinal Pierre Aycelin de Montaigut, O.S.B. (1383).

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Lector of theology and professor in Paris, Orléans, Angers, Rouen and Auxerre; and later, in Viterbo and in Rome. Master of the Sacred Palace ca. 1286.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sabina in the consistory of May 16, 1288. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 3, 1288 and August 23, 1291. Participated in the conclave of 1292-1294, which elected Pope Celestine V.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, between August 10 and 29, 1294. Consecrated by Giovanni Castrocoeli, O.S.B.Cas., archbishop of Benevento and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Received in commendam, from Pope Celestine V, the titles of S. Sabina and S. Prassede; Pope Boniface VIII ratified them on August 3, 1295. Participated in the conclave of 1294, which elected Pope Boniface VIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1295-1297. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between June 21, 1295 and March 13, 1296. He authored numerous works in theology and commentaries on the Proverbs and the Lamentations of Jeremiah. He prepared his will on August 24, 1297; he added a codicil, dated December 28, 1298 (3) to the original document.

Death. December 30, 1298 (4), Rome. Buried in front of the main altar of the basilica of S. Sabina (2), Rome (5).

Bibliography. Anselme de Sainte-Marie ; Dufourny, Honoré Caille ; Ange de Sainte-Rosalie ; Simplicien. Histoire g én éalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la couronne & de la maison du roy: & des anciens barons du royaume: avec les qualitez, l'origine, le progres & les armes de leurs familles; ensemble des statuts & le catalogue des chevaliers, cammandeurs, & officiers de l'ordre du S. Esprit. Le tout dresse sur titres originaux, sur les registres des des chartes du roy, du parlement, de la chambre des comptes & du chatelet des Paris ... & d'autres cabinets curieux. 9 vols. Paris : La Compagnie des libraires, 3. éd., rev., corrigée & augmentée par les soins du P. Ange & du P. Simplicien, 1726-1733, VI, 302; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 31-32; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 267; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 306-318; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 131-132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11, 35 and 46; Féret, Pierre. La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus célèbres : moyen-age. 4 v. Paris : Picard, 1894-1897. Note: Added t.p.: La Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres. Other title: Faculté de théologie de Paris au moyen-age et ses docteurs les plus célèbres, II, 540-545; Mann, Horace. The lives of the popes. London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. ; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co., 1931, XVII, 288.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 306-318; biography, in French, p. 540-545; his genealogy, I, 4; another genealogy, in French; his funeral monument in the chapelle de la Visitation (former Dominican convent) in Clermont (the photo indicates that it is the tomb of his entrails); codicile to his testament, at the bottom of the page; and his engraving.

(1) His first genealogy, linked above, says that his mother, whose first name is not known, was a sister of Pierre Flotte, chancellor of France; the second genealogy linked above, questions it because the chancellor was coetaneous of the cardinal if not younger.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph in the convent of S. Sabina, Rome, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 268:

HVGO vocatus homo fuit, & de BILLONIO,
Per mortem clarum dedit hunc Alvernia carum,
Ordinis hic fratrer, quippe dicat hunc bona mater
Edidit ad studia Doctorem Theologia;
Cui socios Petrum, Paulum dat gratia Christi.

(3) This is according to his second biography, p. 543; the text of the codicil appears in his first biography in French, p. 237-238; this date differs for one year from the one given by other sources.
(4) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 267, who says that he died on III Kal. Ianuarii 1298, which is December 30, 1298; and his first biography in French, p. 313; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 132, says that he died on December 28, 1297; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 11 and 35; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 32, says that he died at the end of 1297;
(5) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 268; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 132; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 318, says that he was buried in the Dominican church of Clermont (now chapelle de la Visitation); and that the entrails and the flesh were buried in front of the mian altar in the church of S. Sabina in Rome; his first biography in French, p. 318, linked above, says that his entrails were buried in the chuch of S. Sabina and his body in the funeral monument in the Dominican church in Clermont. His second biography in French, p. 543, linked above, transcribes his epitaph in the Dominican convent in Clermont:

Hic jacet venerabilis pater Dominus Hugo Aycelini,
ordinis fratrum Praedicatorum,
Ostiensium et Veletrensium episcopus cardinalis,
qui obiit die 29 mensis decembris,
anno Domini 1297.

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(3) 3. ACQUASPARTA, O.F.M., Matteo d' (ca. 1237-1302)

Birth. Ca. 1237, Aquasparta, diocese of Todi. Of the noble Bentivenghi family, signori of Acquasparta. He is also listed as Matteo Bentivegna (or Bentivenga); and his last name as Aquasparta. Brother (?) of Cardinal Bentivenga de' Bentivengis, O.F.M. (1278).

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) in the convent of S. Fortunato, Todi, around 1260; initial studies at a provincial studium; obtained the license and the doctorate in theology at the Studium general of Paris, 1276-1277.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Sent to the Studium general of Paris, where he taught as baccalaureus biblico, 1268-1269 (or 1269-1270); later, as baccalareus sententiarum, 1271-1272; professor at the Studium general of Bologna, 1272-1277; regent of the studium, 1277-1278. Lector in the Sacred Palace, 1279-1287. Elected 12th minister general of his order in the general chapter celebrated in Montpellier in May 1287. He reformed the statutes of the Studium general of Paris and condemned a a writing by the Franciscan provincial of France, Nocila de Ghistele, against the definition of the order's rule "Exiit, qui seminat" given by Pope Nicholas III on August 14, 1279. He was benevolent with the Spirituali and rehabilitated Pietro de Giovanni Olivi and gave the freedom to Giovanni da Parma, who had been relegated to Greccio.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in the consistory of May 16, 1288. He kept the government of the order, by papal decision, until the general chapter of Rieti, May 1289. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 3, 1288 and September 22, 1291. Grand penitentiary in 1289. Received in commendam the Augustinian monastery of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome, on January 15, 1291.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1291. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the conclave of 1292-1294, which elected Pope Celestine V. Participated in the conclave of 1294, which elected Pope Boniface VIII. Signed the papal bulls issued between June 21, 1295 and June 27, 1298. After the rebellion of the Colonna and the Spirituali in 1297, he preached a crusade in the States of the Church to defend the person of Pope Boniface VIII and the legitimacy of his pontificate (1). Legate in Lombardy, Venice and Romagna from December 16, 1297 until April 22, 1298. Legate in Florence, May 23, 1300; recalled on May 21, 1301, after having placed the city under interdict; reentered Rome on October 22, 1301. He actively tried to overcome the divergence between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philippe le Bel of France as well as the one between the Guelfi and the Ghibellini. Protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary. Authored several works in theology and the Sacred Scriptures.

Death. October 28 (or 29), 1302, Rome. Buried in the left transept of the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome. His testamentary executor was Fr. Francesco da Todi, O.F.M.

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. 26-27; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 28-30; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 265-266; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11, 36 and 42; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, 15-17.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography and bibliography by R. E. Houser, in English; biographical entry and bibliography, in English; biography, in Italian; another biography in Italian; biography, in German; his tomb, church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome; another view of his tomb; detail of the upper section of his tomb; and his engraving.

(1) He defended the doctrine of the plenitudo potestatis of the pope in spiritual and temporal matters; he significantly preached on this subject on August 11, 1297, in Orvieto, on the occasion of the canonization of King Louis IX of France; and on January 16, 1300, at the opening of the first Jubilee Year. Also as significant was his response to the envoys of the French king in the public consistory of June 24, 1302 in Anagni.

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(4) 4. PEREGROSSO, Pietro (ca. 1225-1295)

Birth. Ca. 1225, Milan. He is also listed as Pietro da Milano. He was called il Milanese. His last name is also listed as Peregrossi.

Education. Studied at the Universiy of Bologna under Odofredo Denari da Bologna (ca. 1250-1265); and at the University of Orléans; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. He became master at the study of Orléans; went to Paris, probably with Pierre de Tarantaise, future cardinal and Pope Innocent V. Received the minor orders. On June 20, 1273, he became canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris. He resided in Lyon during the celebration of the Second Council celebrated in that city in 1274. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, 1276-1288; as such, he countersigned the papal bulls of March 6, 1277; August 2, 1278 to June 28, 1279; May 5, 1284; and September 17, 1285 to June 11, 1286. In spring 1279, he was named assistant to future Cardinal Glusiano di Casate in the commission formed to revise the rule of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans); the work of the commission resulted in the promulgation of the famous decree Exiit qui seminat.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro of in the consistory of May 16, 1288. Protector of the Order of the Humilati; in July 1288, in Rieti, he issued a sententia lata by which the direct subjection of the order to the Holy See was reestablished.

Priesthood. Ordained a priest (no further information found). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1288?-1295. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marco in 1289. May have obtained the commendam of the title of S. Clemente in 1289. In February/March 1289, with Cardinals Latino Malabranca and Benedetto Caetani, he was charged with the solution of the long controversy between the excommunicated King Dionisio of Portugal and the local bishops; on March 7, they issued the peace instrument Ad certitudinem presentium et memoriam futurorum, which successfully and lastingly ended the controversy. Subscribed the papal bulls issued from July 18, 1289 until August 23, 1291; and the one of June 21, 1295, through his chaplain Pietro de Ronnegens. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1292-1294, which elected Pope Celestine V. Participated in the conclave of 1294, which elected Pope Boniface VIII. Cardinal primoprete in 1294. In spring 1295, he went to Milan to try to have his nephew Obizzone da Busnate, archdeacon of that archdiocese, elected as archbishop and successor to Ottone Visconti.

Death. Between July 23 and August 1, 1295, Rome (or Anagni). Buried in the church of S. Maria in Araceoli, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 32-33; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 267; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11, 44 and 50; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. "Le biblioteche dei cardinali Pietro Peregrosso (+1295) e Pietro Colonna (+ 1326)". Revue d'Histoire Ecclèsiastique Suisse, 1970, 133; Tartari, Claudio M. ; Peregrosso, Pietro. Il cardinale Pietro Peregrosso e la fondazione francescana di Pozzuolo Martesana (1295-1995). Presentazione di Agostino Paravicini Bagliani ; testi di Maria Pia Alberzoni ... [et al.]. Pozzuolo Martesana (Milan): Comune di Pozzuolo Martesana, 1996. Notes: Latin text and Italian translation of Cardinal P. Peregrosso's testament; Papers presented at the meeting held in Pozzuolo Martesana, 1995.

Webgraphy. Biography, in German; biographical entry, in Polish; Associazione Cardinale Perogrosso, in Italian; sculptural group, parish church of Pozuolo Martesana, which possibly includes the cardinal on the right side.

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(5) 5. ORSINI, Napoleone (ca. 1263-1342)

Birth. Ca. 1263, Rome. Son of Rinaldo Orsini. His last name is also listed as Orsini Frangipani. Nephew of Pope Nicholas III, on his father's side. First cousin of Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316). His family gave the church another two popes and several cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. Studied in Paris from 1280.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Paris and Reims. Apostolic subdeacon. Papal chaplain. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Adriano in the consistory of May 16, 1288. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 3, 1288 until September 22, 1291; from June 21, 1295 until February 16, 1302; and the one of March 14, 1304. Participated in the conclave of 1292-1294, which elected Pope Celestine V. Participated in the conclave of 1294, which elected Pope Boniface VIII. On May 27, 1300, he was named legate in Marca Anconitana, the duchy of Spoleto and the city of Perugia; returned to Rome May 28, 1301. Governor of Sabina, July 6, 1301. Participated in the conclave of 1303, which elected Pope Benedict XI. Participated in the conclave of 1304-1305, which elected Pope Clement V. He left the papal court in Avignon on March 8, 1306, to go to pacify Italy; returned on June 12, 1309. Named archpriest of the Vatican basilica in 1306. Participated in the conclave of 1316, which elected Pope John XXII. Cardinal protodeacon in 1318. Participated in the conclave of 1334, which elected Pope Benedict XII; as cardinal protodeacon, he crowned the new pope on January 8, 1335. He wrote "Vita di S. Chiara di Montefalco".

Death. March 23, 1342, Avignon. Buried in the Franciscan church in that city

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 33-37; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 268; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11 and 48.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; The Orsini cardinals, in English; and his engraving.

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(6) 6. COLONNA, Pietro (ca. 1260-1326)

Birth. Ca. 1260, Rome. Son of Giovanni Colona; his mother, whose name is not known, was of the counts of Anguillara. Nephew of Cardinal Giacomo Colonna (1278). Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Colonna (1327). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405), future Pope Martin V; Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Marco Antonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili.

Education. He probably studied law at the University of Padua.

Early life. He was married but before consummating the marriage, she entered a monastery and he joined the ecclesiastical state (1). Canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua ca. 1287. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Verona.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in the consistory of May 16, 1288. Received in commendam the deaconry of Ss. Sergio e Bacco on June 18, 1288; retained it until August 1290. He received in commendam the chapel of the basilica of S. Lorenzo (Sancta Sanctorum); the church of S. Maria della Rotonda; the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta in 1288; the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli in 1288, which was replaced by the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, 1288-1294. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between September 3, 1288 and September 22, 1291; and the one of June 21, 1295. Legate a latere in France. Participated in the conclave of 1292-1294, which elected Pope Celestine V. Participated in the conclave of 1294, which elected Pope Boniface VIII. He was deposed by Pope Boniface VIII on May 10, 1297, together with his uncle Cardinal Giacomo Colonna, for corresponding secretly with Federico, usurper of Sicily, and with King Philippe le Bel of France; and for refusing to surrender to the pope the fortresses that they possessed. Did not participate in the conclave of 1303, which elected Pope Benedict XI, because he had been deposed and did not enjoy electoral rights. He was rehabilitated by Pope Benedict XI. Did not participate in the conclave of 1304-1305, which elected Pope Clement V, because he did not enjoy electoral rights. Reinstated as a cardinal by Pope Clement V on December 17, 1305; the pope assigned him the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria on February 6, 1306. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica around 1306. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica on August 16, 1318. In his will, he funded the new Hospital of S. Giacomo degli Incurabili in Rome.

Death. 1326, Avignon. His body was transferred to Rome and buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, next to the tomb of Pope Nicholas IV (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 37-39; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 268-269; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11 and 49.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; The Colonna family, in English; his genealogy, A1 B1 C2 D2; Cardinal Colonna during the construction of the Hospital of S. Giacomo degli Incurabili, 18th century painting, Palazzo Barberini, Rome (the painting is anachronic because the cardinal established the foundation of the hospital in his will but it was not built until years after his death); and his engraving.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 37, which also indicates that other sources say that he was still married when Pope Nicholas IV decided to elevate him to the cardinalate, that the pontiff dispensed him, and that his wife entered a monastery.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 269:

D.     O.     M.
Petra PETRVM tegit hac marmor, fouet Petra Christum;
Sic saluum retinet otroque Petra PETRVM.
CARDINALIS fuit PetrVs, iacet hic tumulatus,
Translatus Romam, decessit Avenione,
Annis millenis tercentis, bisque decenis
Senis adiunctis, cum suspirijs quoque multis
Et lacrymis ossa sunt hac condista fossa,
Stirpe CLVMNIGENA fuit hic sibi vita serena
Lætitijs plena sit cum sanctis & amœna. Amen.

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ÉSTAMPES, Theobald d' (?-1288 or 1298)

Birth. (No date found), England or Éstampes, France. He is also listed as Teobaldo Stampense and Theobaldus Stampiensis (1).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He traveled in England and Italy. He established himself in Rome and gained the favor of the pope.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1288; his title is not known (2). He authored works in theology and controversies; he wrote a very well reasoned work against a heresy which denied that Christ had given Saint Peter and his successors the power to govern and to cure the Universal Church .

Death. 1288 or 1298, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 39; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 269; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 132-133; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Latin, p. 518; brief biographical data by G. R. Evans, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, in English.

(1) According to G. R. Evans, "Étampes, Theobald d'", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, he was a teacher and theologian, who lived c.1060c.1125; therefore, he could not have been created cardinal in 1288.
(2) Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, II, cols. 269, indicates that he may have been created cardinal by Pope Nicholas IV. He considers his promotion doubtful, as does Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 11. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 39, says that other sources doubt or do not mention his promotion to the cardinalate.

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NARDI, Bonitius (?-1297)

Birth. (No date or place found). His first name is also listed as Bonizon, Benizio and Bonizio; and his last name as Narni.

Education. " ... fornito di scienza, e di straordinaria probità di costumi ... " (1)

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cremona in 1290. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest possibly in December 1291; his title is not known (2).

Death. 1297 (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 39; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 269-270; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 133; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11 and 214.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 39" "endowed with science and rectitude of customs".
(2) Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, II, cols. 269-270, indicates that he may have been created cardinal by Pope Nicholas IV. He considers his promotion doubtful, as does Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 11. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 39, says that other sources do not mention his promotion to the cardinalate.

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BAREILLES, O. de M., Pierre de (?-1289)

Birth. (No date found), Bareilles, Narbonnaise, France. He is also listed as Pietro Barelio

Education. Entered the Order of Our Lady of Mercy (Mercedarians).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). He went to Rome for matters related to his order and because of his knowledge and integrity of life, he gained the favor and protection of Cardinals Girolamo Masci, O.F.M., future Pope Nicholas IV, and Benedetto Caetani, seniore, future Pope Boniface VIII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1288; his title is not known (1). He actively tried to solve the discord that affected his order and, for that purpose, took frequent and long travels.

Death. 1289, Ascoli. Buried in Ascoli.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 40; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 270; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 133; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11.

(1) Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, II, cols. 270, indicates that he may have been created cardinal by Pope Nicholas IV. He considers his promotion doubtful, as does Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 11. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 39, says that other sources do not mention his promotion to the cardinalate.

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MILIANI, Corrado, O.F.M. (1234-1289)

Birth. September 18, 1234, Ascoli Piceno. Of one of the most illustrious families in Ascoli. He is also listed as Corrado (Miliani) di Ascoli. Since his youth, he was a close friend of Girolamo Massi, future Pope Nicholas IV.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans); he completed his novitiate in Assisi; then, studied theology at the studium in Perugia.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). He was the first Catholic missionary in Tripoli (Cirenaica) in 1274. Returned to Italy and accompanied Cardinal Masci, legate before the king of France to try to avoid a war with Spain, in 1278. After his mission, he went to Rome for two years. Then, he went to Paris to teach theology. The honors and important charges that he received did not influence his daily life: he continued, as usual, to sleep on a hard wooden board, to walk barefooted, and to eat only bread and water four days a week. In 1289, his old friend, now Pope Nicholas IV, called him to Rome, presumably to confer on him the cardinal's hat. His bad health prevented him from making the trip.

Cardinalate. He would have been created cardinal in 1289 but died before his promotion.

Death. April 19, 1289, Rome. Since his death prevented him from honoring his friend, Pope Nicholas IV had his remains buried in the church of S. Lorenzo alle Piagge; in 1371, his remains were transferred to the church of S. Francesco, Ascoli.

Beatification. In 1783, Pope Pius VI approved his veneration as a blessed; his feast is celebrated by the Order of Friars Minor on 19 April.

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 133.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; biography, in English; biography, in German; portrait and biography, in Italian, p. 5; and his portrait by Nicola Monti, 1787, sacristy of the Franciscan church, Ascoli Piceno.

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