The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
Consistory of December 17, 1295 (II)
Celebrated in Rome


(2) 1. TOMASSI-CAETANI, O.F.M., Giacomo (?-1300)

Birth. (No date found), Anagni, Alatri or Guarcino. Son of Gualcano Tomassi. Nephew of Pope Boniface VIII, on his mother's side. Cousin of Cardinal Francesco Caetani (1295). Relative of Cardinal Alibrando Caetani (1216). His last name is also listed as Caetani-Tomassi, Thomasius, Tomasius, Cajetanus and Gaetani.

Education. Entered the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Episcopate. Named administrator or coadjutor of the see of Alatri in 1283; occupied the post until 1290, when he resigned and went to Rome called by Pope Nicholas IV. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in the consistory of December 17, 1295. He restored and decorated his title at great expense; in 1299 he enriched the temple with a tabernacle that is still preserved. He subscribed the papal bulls of June 13, 1296, May 15, 1297 and June 20, 1298. At his request, on July 17, 1296, the pope granted the Franciscan convent in Paris 1000 silver marchi. In 1298, he assigned his chaplain a canonicate in the diocese of Rodez. He was present at the public consistory of June 30, 1298, in the Vatican. Legate to several countries.

Death. January 1, 1300 (1), Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. ; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 49; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 322-323; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12 and 41; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, p. 18.

Links. His genealogy, D3 F2 (it erroneously indicates that he was a brother of Cardinal Benedetto Caetani, iuniore); and his engraving.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II 49, which says that he died in 1304.

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(3) 2. ORSINI, Francesco Napoleone (?-1312)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Napoleone Orsini. Nephew of Pope Nicholas III. Uncle of Cardinal Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327). His family gave the church another two popes and several cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. Studied in Paris.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Lucia in Orthea (Silice) in the consistory of December 17, 1295. Subscribed the papal bull of May 15, 1297 and the ones from October 2, 1300 until February 16, 1312. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica from 1297 until his death. On June 6, 1303, he obtained licence to prepare his will. Participated in the conclave of 1303, which elected Pope Benedict XI. Participated in the conclave of 1304-1305, which elected Pope Clement V. Legate, with Cardinals Niccolò Alberti, O.P., and Arnaud de Falguières, to crown Emperor Henry VII in Rome on June 19, 1311.

Death. After May 24, 1312, Avignon. Buried in the monastery of the Celestines in Avignon (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 49-50; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 323-324; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12 and 50.

Link. His engraving.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 323:

HIC. IACET. R. IN. CHRISTO. PATER ET. DOMINVS.
FRANCISCVS. DE. FILLIS. VRSI. TITULI. S. MARCI.
PRESBYTER. CARDINALIS. FLORENTINVS. VULGARITER.
NVNCVPATVS. FVNDATVR. HVIVS. MONASTERII.
QVI. FELICITER. OBIIT. INTER. MANVS. FRATRVM.
ANNO. DOMINI. MCCCLVI. DIE. IV. MENSIS. SEPTEMBRIS.
CVIVS. ANIMA. REQVIESCAT. IN. PACE.

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(4) 3. CAETANI STEFANESCHI, Giacomo (ca. 1260/1261-1341 or 1343)

Birth. Ca. 1260/1261, rione of Trastevere, Rome. Of a patrician family. Son of Pietro Stefaneschi, signore of Porto, and Perna Orsini (1). Grand-nephew of Pope Nicholas III (1277-1280). Uncle of Cardinal Annibaldo di Ceccano (1327). Relative of Cardinal Francesco Tebaldeschi (1368). He is also listed as Stefaneschi Jacopo Gaetano; his name as Jacopo; and his last name as Gaetani, Cajetanus and Stephanescis.

Education. Studied grammar in Rome; he then went to Paris and studied under Egidio Romano; later, he studied law at the University of Bologna and obtained a doctorate.

Early life. Returned to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Nicholas IV. By 1291, he was a subdeacon. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Rouen, Reims, Sens, Paris, Laon, Amiens, Bayeux and Auxerre. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1294. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro in the consistory of December 17, 1295. Participated in the conclave of 1303, which elected Pope Benedict XI. Participated in the conclave of 1304-1305, which elected Pope Clement V; he had to leave the conclave because of illness. From 1305 until his death, he resided in Avignon. Participated in the conclave of 1314-1316, which elected Pope John XXII. Participated in the conclave of 1334, which elected Pope Benedict XII. He was a protector of arts and letters. He called Giotto to Rome. He also concerned himself with liturgy, the lives of the saints and popes, and, above all, with the pontifical ceremonies; he wrote De centesimo seu iubileo liber, to provide the history, the Scriptural bases, the theological motivation and the papal bulls of the first Jubilar Year of 1300.

Death. June 23 (or 22), 1341, Avignon. Buried in Saint Peter's basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 51-53; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 324-325; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12 and 50.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in German; biographical data, in Italian, col. XIX; his genealogy, A3 B2 C4 D4 E1 F3 G2; The Stefaneschi Altarpiece by Giotto; Le cérémonial romain de Jacques Cajétan; les données historiques qu'il renferme by L.-H. Labande, in French; and his engraving.

(1) It is nor clear if Caetani is a name or a last name; it could be that it was both. The great-grand mother of the cardinal was a Caetani, and her son Giovanni (future Pope Nicholas III) is called Giovanni Gaetano Orsini. Gaetano is a proper name but only since St. Cayetano de Thienne (16th century), therefore, the Gaetano of Pope Nicholas III is an addition coming from his mother's last name, although the father's last name, Orsini, is never omitted. The same thing happens with his grand-nephew, Cardinal Jacopo. The appelative Caetani is a second name and a last name from his mother's branch, although in this case the mother was an Orsini.

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(5) 4. CAETANI, Francesco (ca. 1256-1317)

Birth. Ca. 1256, Anagni. Son of Goffredo (or Roffredo) Caetani and Elisabetta Orsini (1). Nephew of Pope Boniface VIII, on his father's side. Cousin of Cardinal Giacomo Tomassi-Caetani, O.F.M. (1295). Other cardinals of the family were Alibrando Caetani (1216); and Benedetto Caetani, iuniore (1295). His last name is also listed as Gaetani and Cajetanus.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Porto. Papal chaplain. Prebendary of 1289-1292; and of Knaresborough, 1292-1317. Named dean of York in 1296, but his appointment was impugnated and he resigned the post in 1300. Archdeacon of Richmond, 1303-1317. Canon of the chapters of Laon, Pars, Lisiéux, Arras and S. Maria di Selvamolle. Prior of S. Giorgio, near Anagni; and of S. Pietro in Seletis. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Treasurer of the Church.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (2) in the consistory of December 17, 1295 (3). Abbot of S. Nicola d'Orsara, February 24, 1303. Participated in the conclave of 1303, which elected Pope Benedict XI. Participated in the conclave of 1304-1305, which elected Pope Clement V. In 1316, he was accused of witchcraft to try to cause the death of the Colonna cardinals and the king of France. Participated in the conclave of 1314-1316, which elected Pope John XXII.

Death. May 16, 1317, Avignon. Buried (no information found). On the left side of the portico of the basilica of S. Maria in Cosmedin, Onorato Gaetani d'Aragona, of the counts of Fondi, placed an inscription in memory of the cardinal in 1786.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 53; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 326; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p.135 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12 and 51.

Links. His genealogy, A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F2; and L'affaire du cardinal Francesco Caetani. (Avril 1316), by Ch.-V. Langlois, in French.

(1) This is according to his genealogy, linked above; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 135, says that his father's name was Pietro.
(2) This is according to all the sources consulted except his genealogy, linked above, which says that he was created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
(2) His genealogy, linked above, says that he married Maria di Supino before 1295 and repudiated her to be able to become a cardinal. None of the other sources consulted mention this.

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(6) 5. DURAGUERRA, Pietro Valeriano (?-1302)

Birth. (No date found), Priverno (1). He is also listed as Petrus Valerianus Duraguerra de Piperno. His first name is also listed as Pier; his second name, Valeriano, may be a last name.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Cambrai. Archdeacon of Brabant. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, 1295-1302; as such, he countersigned a papal bull on June 21, 1295.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria Nuova in the consistory of December 17, 1295. From June 26, 1296 until March 1297, he was legate in Romagna, to dissipate the plot being planned against the Holy See (he named his brother, the count of Duraguerra, prefect of the province); in Tuscany, to maintain the peace between Bologna, Milan, and Modena; in Ravenna; in Marca Anconitana; in Marca Trevigiana; and in the patriarchate of Aquileia; in his missions, he demonstrated great valor and fearlessness in the defense of the rights of the Church. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in 1302.

Death. December 17, 1302. Buried, in a marble tomb supported by two lions, in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (1)

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 53-54; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 326-327; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 135-136; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12 and 51.

Link. His engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Some sources call his place of birth Piperno.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 327:

HIC REQUIESCIT DOMINVS PETRVS
DE PIPERNO QVONDAM
S. MARIAE NOVAE DIACONVS
CARDINALIS.

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