The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Clement VI (1342-1352)
Consistory of May 29 (or 28), 1348 (III)
Celebrated in Avignon


(14) 1. ROGER DE BEAUFORT, Pierre (1329/1331-1378)

Birth. 1329/1331, château of Maumont, near Rosiers-d'Egletons, dioceses of Limoges, France. Son of Count Guillaume Roger of Beaufort and Marie Chambon. He had five brothers, five sisters and three stepbrothers. Uncle of Cardinal Guy de Malsec (1375). Nephew of Pope Clement VI; and of Cardinal Hugues Roger, O.S.B. (1342), both on his father's side. Cousin of Cardinal Pierre de la Jugié, O.S.B.Clun. (1375). Relative of Cardinals Jean de Cros (1371); Jean de la Tour, O.S.B.Clun. (1371); and of Pseudocardinal Pierre de Cros, O.S.B. (1383). He is also listed as Pierre-roger De Beaufort and Pierre-Roger de Beaufort-Turenne. He was called the Cardinal of Beaufort.

Education. Started his studies at the University of Angers; later, studied law at the University of Perugia under Pietro Baldo degli Ubaldini.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Rouen, with a prebend, in 1342. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Rodez. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris; later its archdeacon. Notary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria Nuova in the consistory of May 29 (or 28), 1348; he entered the papal curia in Avignon on June 5, 1348. Dean of Bayeux on July 11, 1348. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Sens. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in 1348. Sent by his uncle the pope to study law in Perugia. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Rouen in 1350. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Named promotor in the papal of the affairs of Queen Giovanna I of Naples in November 1365. Testamentary executor of Cardinal Elie de Saint-Irier, O.S.B., in May 1367; and of Cardinal Gil Álvarez de Albornoz in August 1367. He accompanied Pope Urban V in his trip to Italy from May to June 1367. In July 1368, he was charged, in collaboration with Guillaume de la Sudrie, O.P., and Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, seniore, with arranging the peace between Luigi di Taranto and Francesco del Balzo, duke of Andria. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1368; Pope Urban V assigned substantial funds to the restoration of the basilica. In 1368, the pope charged him with the inquiry concerning the resources of the Benedictine priorate of S. Plan di Colonnero, Messina, which wanted to be erected an abbey. In February 1369, he was charged, with Cardinals Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, seniore, and Guillaume de la Sudrie, O.P., with the examination of the project of the treaty between Federico di Trinacria and Queen Giovanna I of Naples. When Emperor Charles IV gave Cardinal Guy de Boulogne the title of imperial vicar in Lucca for three years, the monarch granted the pope, in June 1369, the faculty of choosing between Cardinals Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, seniore, and Pierre Roger de Beaufort as successor of Cardinal Guy in case he died before completing his term. Testamentary executor of Cardinal Nicolas de Besse in November 1369. Cardinal protodeacon in 1369. Participated in the conclave of 1370 and was elected pope unanimously.

Papacy. Elected pope on December 30, 1370, in spite of his resistance. Took the name Gregory XI.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 2, 1371.

Episcopate. Consecrated bishop of Rome on January 3, 1371 (1), cathedral of Notre-Dame des Doms, Avignon, by Cardinal Guy de Boulogne, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Crowned on January 3, 1371, cathedral of Notre-Dame des Doms, Avignon, by Cardinal Rinaldo Orsini, protodeacon of S. Adriano. Testamentary executor of Cardinal Guillaume de la Jugée in April 1374. He left Avignon on September 13, 1376 and reentered Rome, to reside permanently, January 17, 1377. On May 22, 1377, he issued bulls condemning the propositions of John Wycliffe. He created twenty one cardinals in two consistories.

Death. March 27, 1378, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria Nuova e S. Francesca Romana, Rome.

Bibliography. Anselme de Sainte-Marie ; Dufourny, Honoré Caille ; Ange de Sainte-Rosalie ; Simplicien. Histoire g én éalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la couronne & de la maison du roy: & des anciens barons du royaume: avec les qualitez, l'origine, le progres & les armes de leurs familles; ensemble des statuts & le catalogue des chevaliers, cammandeurs, & officiers de l'ordre du S. Esprit. Le tout dresse sur titres originaux, sur les registres des des chartes du roy, du parlement, de la chambre des comptes & du chatelet des Paris ... & d'autres cabinets curieux. 9 vols. Paris : La Compagnie des libraires, 3. éd., rev., corrigée & augmentée par les soins du P. Ange & du P. Simplicien, 1726-1733, VI, 316; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 173; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 500 and 573-614; Di Sivo, Michele, "Gregorio XI." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, pp. 578-580; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 614-618; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 151; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 18, 21-22 and 51; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, XVII, 163-165; Hayez, Michel, "Gregorio XI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 550-561; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 225-227; Pélissier, Antoine. Grégoire XI: ramhne la Papauti ` Rome; troisième pape limousin, (1370-1378). Dordogne, Impr. de Clairvivre, 1962. (Collection "Les Papes limousins"); Ronzy, Pierre. Le voyage de Grégoire XI ramenant la Papauté d'Avignon à Rome (1376-1377). Florence : Institut français, 1952. Responsibility: suivi du texte latin et de la trad. française de l'Itinerarium Gregorii XI de Pierre Ameilh; Thibault, Paul R. Pope Gregory XI : the failure of tradition. Lanham, MD : University Press of America, 1986.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography, in French, Wikipedia; his engraving and biography, in French, p. 614-618; biography, in French, p. 163-165; his engraving and biography, in French, at the end of the page; his genealogy, in French, p. 316; biography and portrait by Henri Ségur, Palais des papes, Avignon, France; his coronation, ilustration of a manuscript of the "Chroniques de Froissart"; Pope Gregory XI receiving S. Caterina da Siena by Giovanni di Paolo, 15th century, Museo Thyssen. Madrid, Spain; his engraving by Cavallieri; his arms, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.his tomb, church of S. Maria Nuova e S. Francesca Romana, Rome.

(1) This is according to Annuario pontificio per l'anno 2007. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 2007, p. *17; and Hayez, "Gregorio XI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 551. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 151; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 21, say that he was consecrated and crowned on January 5, 1371.

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(15) 2. SERRA, O. de M., Dominic (ca. 1286-1348)

Birth. Ca. 1286, Montpellier (1), France. He is also listed as Domingo Serrano and Dominique Serane.

Education. Entered the Order of Our Lady of Mercy (Mercedarians) in the convent of Montpellier; obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Early life. Public professor of canon law at La Sorbonne University, Paris, or at the University of Toulouse.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). In 1333, he was sent in an embassy to Avignon to confirm to the pope the disposition of the king of France to participate in the projected crusade to take place in three years. Pope Clement VI named him master general of the order on April 17, 1345 (or June 23, 1345). He visited the Mercedarian monasteries promoting observance of the order's rule, the redemption of captives and culture. He was a renowned jurisconsult.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere in the consistory of May 29 (or 28), 1348.

Death. July 9, 1348, of the plague, Montpellier. Buried in Montpellier (no further information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 189; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 519; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 151.

Links. Brief biographical entry, in English, third on the page.

(1) Montpellier belonged to Aragón; and later, to the kingdom of Mallorca until 1349, therefore, the probabilty that he was Aragonese or Catalonian is high. Serrano is a Castillian or Aragonese last name, while Serra is Catalonian, and in an ample sense, it could be Mallorquin or Valencian.

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MONTHOLON, Guillaume (?-1354)

Birth. (No date), Authomois, France. Of a noble family.

Education. (No information found)

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio in the consistory of May 29 (or 28), 1348 (1). On March 1, 1351, he funded the celebration of two masses, on Tuesday and Saturday, in the altar of Saint Benedict, in the chapel in the abbey of Aisnay in Lyon, for the repose of the souls of his parents and his own.

Death. November 1354 (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 519-520.

Links. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 519-520.

(1) This is according to Du Chesne, Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois, I, 519-520; no other source mentions him at all.

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