The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Clement VI (1342-1352)
Consistory of December 17, 1350 (IV)
Celebrated in Avignon


(16) 1. ÁLVAREZ DE ALBORNOZ, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Gil (ca. 1295/1310-1367)

Birth. Ca. 1295/1310, Cuenca. Son of García de Albornoz and Teresa de Luna. He was a descendant of the kings of León and Aragón. Cousin of Antipope Benedict XIII. He is also listed as Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz. His first name is also listed as Egidio and Ægidio. He was called the Spanish Cardinal.

Education. Started his studies in Zaragoza, where his uncle, Jimeno, was the archbishop; his preceptor was Perito Egidio, who would later become dean of Cuenca and administrator of the wealth of the cardinal; around 1316 or 1317, he went to the University of Toulouse, where he stayed for over ten years; he studied law and obtained a doctorate in decrees before 1325; during his years at the university, he probably met Étienne Aubert, future Pope Innocent VI, who taught canon law there during those years.

Early life. On his return to Castilla, he entered the court of King Alfonso XI. He was first a soldier. He was archdeacon of Calatrava, and chaplain and counselor of the king; at the same time, he had several benefices in Cuenca. With Martín Fernández Portocarrero, and the notary mayor of the kingdom, Fernán Sánchez de Valladolid, he was part of the Castillian embassy before the king of Aragón in 1335. Papal chaplain. He was a canon regular of Saint Augustine of the cathedral of Zaragoza.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Toledo by its cathedral chapter; confirmed by Pope Benedict XII on May 13, 1338; he went to the papal curia in Avignon to take the of loyalty to the pope occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found). Named chancellor of Castilla by King Alfonso XI. He participated frequently in the Castillian cortes, notably in the one of Alcalá in 1348, which approved the Ordenamiento that he had prepared. As friend and advisor of the king in peace and war, he participated in the monarch's military campaigns; named commissary of the Crusade, he had an additional reason to take part in the battle of El Salado on October 30, 1340; in the siege and occupation of Algeciras, 1342 to 1344; and in the siege of Gibraltar, lifted on March 26, 1350, because the death of King Alfonso. He celebrated the provincial council of Toledo on May 19, 1339; the synod and council of Alcalá on April 11 and 22, 1345; and the council of Alcalá on April 24, 1347; in all those assemblies, he promoted the reform of the clergy and of the ecclesiastical institutions. The cruel and arbitrary conduct of the new king, Pedro el Cruel of Castilla, made him seek refuge in Avignon in 1350.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in the consistory of December 17, 1350. On May 31, 1352, the pope charged him with the conquest and organization of the territories of the patrimony of Saint Peter; and on the following June 30, he was named legate and papal vicar in Italy; he left Avignon on August 13, 1353; while he was successfully accomplishing his mission, the pope replaced him, naming Cardinal Androin de la Roche new legate on February 27, 1357; before leaving Italy, he convoked the parliament in Fano from April 29 to May 1, 1357; the assembly approved the "Constitutions of Gil de Albornoz", the legal instrument that remained in force in the Papal States until 1816; Cardinal Albornoz reentered Avignon on October 24 of that year. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. Named penitentiary major in December 1352. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina in December 1356. Penitentiary major again from November 18, 1357 until October 1358. The failure of Cardinal La Roche's mission prompted the pope to name Cardinal Albornoz again his legate in Italy on September 18, 1358; he left Avignon on October 6 of that year; in 1359, the legate successfully concluded his mission. In May 1360, the cardinal headed a papal embassy to before the king of Hungary to solve the problems of the Holy see with Bemabó Visconti; the mission was not successful. during the first months of 1362, the cardinal worked in the formation of a coalition with Ferrara, Verona and Padua, which was signed on April 16, 1362. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Cardinal Albornoz continued working in the southern papal territories; he achieved the reconciliation between Florence and Pisa; intervened in the discords between Rome and Velletri; and formulated the dispositions for the government of Rome, which later became the city's statutes of 1364. He prepared his will on September 29, 1364. He went as papal legate in Naples in August 1365; partially successful in his mission, the cardinal returned to Avignon; On September 19, 1366, he formed a defensive pact of the Papal States with Naples, Pisa, Florence and other cities, to oppose the bands of thieves that afflicted several Italian regions. The cardinal was able to receive Pope Urban V on June 4, 1367, when the pontiff disembarked in Corneto; on June 9, the pope entered Viterbo; the cardinal died there, two and a half months later.

Death. August 23/24, 1367, castle of Buonriposo, Viterbo. The body was transported to Assisi and buried in the basilica of S. Francesco; in 1372, his remains were transferred to Toledo and buried in the chapel of San Ildefonso in the primatial and metropolitan cathedral of Toledo; Pope Urban VI granted an indulgence of jubilee to all who accompanied the remains of the cardinal. The stretcher in which his body was carried from Italy to Spain has been used ever since to translate the bodies of the archbishops of Toledo to the metropolitan cathedral of San Ildefonso.

Bibliography. Alonso, B. "Álvarez de Albornoz, Gil." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), I, 51-55; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 174-178; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 500-506; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 151; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 18, 38, 41 and 487; Rivera Recio, Juan Francisco. Los arzobispos de Toledo en la baja Edad Media (s. XII-XV). Toledo : Diputación Provincial, 1969. (Publicaciones del Instituto Provincial de Investigaciones y Estudios Toledanos. Serie segunda ; Vestigios del pasado ; v. 3), pp. 85-87.

Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographischen Kirchenlexikons; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in Spanish, arteHistoria, Junta de Castilla y León; his engraving and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his engraving and biography, in Spanish, toward of the end of the page, AugustinianCanons.org; his genealogy, III, 3, AbcGenealogia.com; his portrait, chapter's hall, metropoloitan cathedral of Toledo, Spain; engravings, Araldica Vaticana; another his engraving; one more engraving, De Larmessin Gallery, Art.com Inc.; miniature, 14th century, depicts the cardinal receiving the keys of Italian cities, Dipartimento di Studi storici e geografici, Università degli Studi di Firenze; old image of his sepulchre, metropolitan cathedral of Toledo, Spain; current image of his sepulchre; and detailed image of his sepulchre, Fotógragos Oronoz.

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(17) 2. SARRATS, O.F.M., Pasteur de (?-1356)

Birth. (No date or place found), France. His last name is also listed as d'Aubenas, Serratz, Serrescuderio, Sarestudio, Sarescuderio, Serrascuderio, Serrescudier, Albernaco and Albernac; and his first name as Pastor. He was called Cardinal Pasteur.

Education. Entered the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans); he belonged to the convent of Aubenas, province of Provence. Studied at Studium generale of Paris; obtained a baccalaureate in theology. On January 17, 1333, Pope John XXII charged the chancellor of the diocese of Paris with promoting Fr. Pasteur to magister of theology; obtained the doctorate in theology on June 19, 1333.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Although he had initially declined the election to the post of provincial of Provence, he accepted at the request of Cardinal Bertrand Augier de la Tour, O.F.M. Participated in the general chapter in Paris in 1329. He started teaching at the Studium generale in Paris on March 27, 1333 for a year. Pope John XXII exempted him from the jurisdiction of the minister general of the order on August 1, 1334. Pope Benedict XII, who esteemed him highly, asked him to write the constitutions Benedictus Deus, 1336-1337; and the bull Redemptor noster, of November 28, 1336, which established new statutes for the Franciscan order against the will of the majority of its members. Several other theological treatises of Pope Benedict XII were redacted by Father Pasteur.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Assisi by Pope Benedict XII, October 1, 1337; he had declined four times the election by the cathedral chapter because the election of the bishop was reserved to the pontiff. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Embrun, January 27, 1339; he occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate; he zealously acted against the heresy of the Valdesi. He obtained permission to make his will on June 23, 1343, February 10, 1347, and July 10, 1351. Legate before the king of France, 1347-1349; he was charged with collaborating in the reestablishment of peaceful relations with England.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro in the consistory of December 17, 1350; retained the rents of his see until the appointment of his successor. He obtained several other benefices in France. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. He was a renowned theologian and preacher.

Death. October 11, 1356, Avignon. Buried in the church of S. Francesco, of his order.

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. 37; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 180; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 508; Courtenay, W.J. "Pastor de Serrescuderio (d. 1356) and MS Saint-Omer." Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen-âge, LXIII (1996), 325-356; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 423-524; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 152; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19, 44, 113 and 234; Fornier, Marcellin ; Juvénis, Raymond ; Albert, Antoine ; Guillaume, Paul. Histoire générales des Alpes Maritimes ov Cottiènes, et pertievlière de levr métropolitaine Ambrvn; chronographiqve et meslée de la séevlière avec l'ecclésiastiqve, divisée en cinq parties fort abondantes en diverses belles evriositez. 3 vols. Paris, H. Champion, 1890 1892. Notes: "Publiie par l'abbé Paul Guillaume."/ Vol. 3 has title: Histoire générale des Alpes Maritimes ov Cottiènes ... Continuation par Raymond Juvénis et Antoine Albert, avec appendice et table générale., II, 161-168; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, 28-29.

Links. His arms and biography, in French, p. 523-524; brief biographical entry, in French; biography, in French, p. 161-168; and his engraving.

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(18) 3. CANILHAC, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Raymond de (?-1373)

Birth. (No date found), Roche Canilhac, at the Gévaudan, diocese of Mende, France. Son of Guillaume de Canilhac and N. de Déaulx. Nephew of Pope Clement VI. Nephew of Cardinal Bertrand de Déaulx (1338), on his mother's side. His last name is also listed as Canillac, Canhiliaco and Canilliaco.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Provost of the cathedral chapter of Maguelone in 1333. Abbot (commendatario?) of Conques. On November 25, 1339, he presided over the provincial chapter of the canons regular celebrated in Narbonne for the promulgation of the canonical statutes, which had been approved by Pope Benedict XII. In 1340, he obtained from King Philippe le Long of France the confirmation of the privileges of the chapter of Maguelone. In 1342, with Cardinal Guillaume d'Aure, O.S.B., and Jean de Baussan, archbishop of Arles, he was chosen to arbitrate in the process of Guillaume de Laudun, vestiary of Miguelone, and the cloistered canons of that chapter, concerning the vestments that Laudun should supply them.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Toulouse, March 28, 1345; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in the consistory of December 17, 1350. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, November 4, 1361. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Participated in the conclave of 1370, which elected Pope Gregory XI. He was the author of several works, among them Recollectorum liber.

Death. June 20, 1373, Avignon. Buried in the church of the Franciscans in Avignon (1). A monument in his memory was erected in the chapel of Canilhac in Maguelone.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 179-180; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 507-508; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 515-516; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 152; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19, 37, 41 and 488; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, I, 334.

Links. His arms and biography, in French, p. 515-16; biography, in French, p. 334; biographical data, in French, toward the end of the page; the Cathédrale de Maguelone, in French; the Canilhac Chapel is at the end of the page.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 152; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 507; and his first biography in French, linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 180; and his second biography in French, also linked above, say that he was transferred to Maguelone and buried on July 4, 1373 in the chapel of Saint Sépulcre (also known as the Canilhac Chapel), which he had built while he was provost of that church..

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(19) 4. AIGREFEUILLE, seniore, O.S.B., Guillaume d' (1326-1369)

Birth. 1326, Lafont (or Fontaines), near the parish of Saint-Exupery, diocese of Limoges, France. Of a noble family. Brother of Pseudocardinal Faydit d'Aigrefeuille, O.S.B. (1383). Uncle of Cardinal Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, iuniore, O.S.B. (1367). Cousin of Pope Clement VI. His last name is also listed as Agrifoglio and Aigrefueille. He was called the Cardinal of Zaragoza.

Education. Entered the order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) in Beaulieu.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Chamberlain of the monastery of La Grasse, diocese of Carcassonne. Prior of Saint-Pierre d'Abbeville. Papal chamberlain. Protonotary apostolic. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Zaragoza, January 19, 1347; resigned the see when promoted to the cardinalate without having been consecrated.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere in the consistory of December 17, 1350. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. Legate in Sicily in 1355 to administer that kingdom after the death of King Lodovico. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1363 until his death. Cardinal protoprete in October 1363. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, September 17, 1367. He followed Pope Urban V to Viterbo and to Rome in 1367. In that same year, the pope named him judge of the controversy between the bishop of Urgel and the count of Foix over Andorra. Consecrated by Pope Urban V on October 31, 1368. Legate in Naples.

Death. October 4, 1369, of the plague, Viterbo. Buried in the Augustinian church of the Most Holy Trinity in Viterbo; later, his remains were transferred to the church of Saint-Martial in Limoges and buried on the left side of the main altar (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 178-179; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 506-507; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 521-522; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 152; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19, 38, 44 and 153.

Links. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 521-522; brief biographical data, in French; Note sur la famille d'IGREFEUILLE, in French, toward the end of the page; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 179; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 152; the site of the site containg the photograph of the head of his statue on his tomb, linked above, says that it originally was in the church of Saint-Martial in Avignon.

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(20) 5. CAPOCCI, Nicola (?-1368)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a noble family. Grand nephew of Pope Honorius IV. His first name is also listed as Nicolò and Niccolò; and his last name as Capocii. He was called the Cardinal of Urgel.

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia.

Early life. Provost of Saint-Omer, diocese of Thérouanne, 1336. Papal chaplain in Avignon.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Utrecht, January 10, 1341; resigned the see on November 20, 1342. Consecrated (no information found). Named bishop of Urgel, June 13, 1348; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Chancellor of King Jean II, le Bon, of France in 1350.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Vitale in the consistory of December 17, 1350; entered the papal curia in Avignon on February 3, 1351. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica possible after 1350. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. Together with Cardinal Élie de Tayllerand, he was named legate before the kings of France and England in 1356. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati in 1361. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. He accompanied the new pope to Rome. Founded in Perugia Collegio della Sapienza Vecchia. Founded several monasteries and another collège in Paris. He also founded a collegio of twelve priests affiliated to the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica for the recitation of the divine office in choir. His life was written by Luigi Antonio Muratori.

Death. July 26, 1368, Montefiascone. Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 182-185; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 509-510; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 152; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19, 39, 48, 491 and 510.

Links. Biography, in Italian; brief biographical entry, in English.

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(21) 6. MONTESQUIEU, Pectin de (?-1355)

Birth. (No date found), diocese of Auch, France. Third son of Raimond-Aymeric IV, baron of Montesquieu, and Longue de Montault, his second wife. His first name is also listed as Pittaino, Pictavin and Poitevin; and his last name as Montesquiou and Montesquino. He was called the Cardinal of Albi.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the beginning of June 1325.

Early life. Cleric and canon of the cathedral chapter of Bazas.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bazas, June 19, 1325. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Maguelone, September 12, 1334. Transferred to the see of Lodève (1). Named legate in Germany in 1337 to inquire about the dispositions of Emperor Ludwig IV concerning the church. Transferred to the see of Albi, January 27, 1339; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate; he founded six chapels.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. XII Apostoli in the consistory of December 17, 1350; he entered the papal curia in Avignon on February 3, 1351. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI.

Death. February 1, 1355 (2), probably in Avignon. Buried in Maguelone.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 182; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 509; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 523; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 152-153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19, 40, 81, 320 and 516; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, II, 148-150.

Links. Biography, in French, p. 523; biography, in French, p. 148-150; his arms, ninth on the page; his engraving; and Les Montesquiou, in French.

(1) This is according to his first biography in French, none of the other sources consulted mention that he occupied that see.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 153, which adds that it was not in 1356; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 509, says that he died in 1356 but indicates that Contelorio says that he died on February 1, 1355; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 182, says that he died in 1355 and adds or, as Chacón says, in 1356; his two biographies in French, linked above, say that he died in 1356.

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(22) 7. VILLEMUR, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Arnaud de (?-1355)

Birth. (No date found), Villemur, archdiocese of Toulouse, France. His first name is also listed as Ponce, Pons and Ponzio; and his last name as Villamuro and Villemuro. He was called the Cardinal of Pamiers.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine. Obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of Sos, diocese of Pamiers. He was a renowned canonist.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Périgueux, October 15, 1347. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Pamiers, February 13, 1348; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sisto in the consistory of December 17, 1350; entered the papal curia in Avignon on February 3, 1351. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI.

Death. October 28, 1355, suddenly, in Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 185; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 516; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 524; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19, 47, 91 and 398.

Link. Biography, in French, p. 524.

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(23) 8. CROS, Pierre de (?-1361)

Birth. (No date found), Calimafort (1), diocese of Limoges, France. Nephew or cousin of Pope Clement VI. Relative of Pope Gregory XI. Relative of Cardinal Jean de Cros (1371); and Pseudocardinal Pierre de Cros, O.S.B. (1383). His last name is also listed as Crosso, Croso, Corson de Calimafort and Cros de Calimafort. He was called the Cardinal of Auxerre.

Education. Studied in Paris and obtained a magister in theology.

Early life. Professor of theology at La Sorbonne University, Paris; later, its provisor. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Paris in 1342.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Senlis, August 31, 1344. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Auxerre, December 1, 1349; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in the consistory of December 17, 1350; he entered the papal curia in Avignon on April 5, 1351. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. Together with two other cardinals, the pope charged him with examining some propositions advanced by Archbishop Richard Fitz-Ralph of Armagh against the mendicant friars.

Death. Thursday September 23, 1361 (2), of the plague, Avignon. Buried in the cathedral of Avignon.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 187-188; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 517-518; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 554-554; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19, 45, 120 and 452; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, XIV, 29; Nadaud, Joseph. Nobiliaire du diocèse et de la généralité de Limoges . 4 vols. Publié sous les auspices de la société archéologique et historique du Limousin par l'abbé A. Lecler.. Limoges : Vve H. Ducourtieux, 1880-1882, I, 757-758.

Links. His arms and biography, in French, p. 554-555; biography, in French, p. 29; biography, in French; biography, in French, p. 757-758.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 153; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 187, says that he was bron in Chaul, diocese of Limoges; his fourth biography in French, linked above, says that he was born in Crose, in Creuse, diocese of Limoges.
(2) This is according to all the sources consulted except his third biography in French, linked above, which says that he died in 1362.

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(24) 9. RIGAUD, O.S.B., Gilles (?-1353)

Birth. (No date found), Rouffiac (1), France. Of the noble family of Roussy. His first name is also listed as Egidio and his last name as Rigaudi and Rigaud de Noisy. He was called the Cardinal of Saint-Denis.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines). Obtained a baccalaureate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of the monastery of Essonnes in 1337. Prior of Notre-Dames des Champs, near Corbeil (?). Elected abbot of the monastery of Saint-Denis, Paris, on July 27, 1343. Testamentary executor of King Philippe VI of France.In 1350, he arbiter in the differendum between the cathedral chapter of Paris and the university of that city concerning which one of the two parties would be present at the obsequies of King Philippe de Valois of France. On June 13, 1350, he was charged, together with Hugues d'Arcy, bishop of Laon, with the renewal of the peace between the kings of France and England. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Jean II of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prassede in the consistory of December 17, 1350; on Palm Sunday April 10, 1351, he received the red hat and the title from Pierre de la Forêt, bishop of Paris, assisted by Hugues d'Arcy, bishop of Laon, and by Guillaume Lamt, bishop of Chartres (this was done by express delegation, for the first time, and by derogation of the usage in force, for the cardinals to receive the red hat in the papal court); he entered the papal curia in Avignon on June 17, 1351. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI.

Death. September 10, 1353 (2), Paris. Buried in the monastery of Saint-Denis, Paris.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 188; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 542-543; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19 and 45; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, XIV, 246.

Links. His arms and biography, in French, p. 542-543; biography, in French, p. 246.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 188; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 153; his two biographies in French, linked above, say that he was born in Noisy, near Paris.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 19 and 45; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 188; his two biographies in French, linked above, say that he died on December 30, 1351.

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(25) 10. MOULINS, O.P., Jean de (?-1353)

Birth. (No date found), Molineyrie, diocese of Limoges, France. His last name is also listed as Molendini, Molendinus, Monlins, Morlandini and de la Molineyrie.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in the convent of Brive, province of Toulouse. Obtained a doctorate.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Inquisitor of France in Toulouse (or in Languedoc) in 1344. Master of the Sacred Palace in 1345. On May 30, 1349, in Barcelona, he was elected 20th master general of his order.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sabina in the consistory of December 17, 1350; he entered the papal curia in Avignon on February 3, 1351. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. Author of theological works and sermons.

Death. February 23, 1353, Avignon. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Toulouse; his remains were later transferred to the convent of Brive, where he had professed.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 185-186; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 516; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 532-533; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19 and 46.

Links. Biography, in French, p 532-533; brief biographical entry, in Spanish; his image and brief biography, in French; and fresco of his image, former Dominican convent of Treviso, Italy.

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(26) 11. ORSINI, Rinaldo (?-1374)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a noble family, which gave the church several popes and cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Nicholas III (1277-1280); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Poncello Orsini (1378); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Archdeacon of Liège. in 1348. Later, archdeacon of Perugia. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Adriano in the consistory of December 17, 1350. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. Abbot commendatario of Nonatola in 1358. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1366. Charged with three other cardinals with receiving the profession of faith of Oriental Emperor Johannes Paleologus in the church of Spirito Santo in Sassia, Rome, in 1369. Cardinal protodeacon in 1370. Participated in the conclave of 1370, which elected Pope Gregory XI; he crowned the new pope.

Death. June 6, 1374, Avignon. Buried in the church of the Franciscans in Avignon; later, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 186-187; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 517; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19 and 48.

Links. His tomb, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, third picture on the page.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 517:

Mitis, & affatu dulcis, censuraque morum
Iratus vitijs, placidus vistutibus, æqus
Omnibus, Ecclesiæ speculum, lux antea Romæ,
Unica lux latij, sidus radiusque Senatus
Cardinei, dedit hunc titulo Hadrianus honoris
Vna morum spes, ac Vrisnæ gloria gentis
Egregiæ, Raynaldus humo requiescit ista
Corpore, sed cælo meliori parte, sereno.

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(27) 12. CARAMAN, Jean de (ca. 1320 -1361)

Birth. Ca. 1320 , Cahors, Aquileia, France. Of the Eude or Euse family. Son of Arnaud Duese and Marguerite de lIsle Jourdain. His grandfather took the title of viscount of Caraman (or Carmaing) and his descendants adopted it as a last name. His last name is also listed as Caramagne d'Euse, Caramagna, Carmin and Carmaing. Grand-nephew of Pope John XXII.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Tours. Provost of Barjols, diocese of Fréjus.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon S. Giorgio in Velabro of in the consistory of December 17, 1350. Participated in the conclave of 1352, which elected Pope Innocent VI. He had a bitter dispute with Francesco Petrarca.

Death. August 1, 1361, of the plague, Saint-Félix, diocese of Lavaur (1). Buried in Avignon.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 187; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 517; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 541; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19 and 50.

Links. His arms and biography, in French, p. 541; brief biographical entry, in Italian; his family and genealogy, in Italian; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 153; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 19; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 187; and Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 517, say that he died in Avignon.

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GASSEN, Matthäus an der (?-1363)

Birth. (No date found), Tyrol, Germany. Son of Heinrich an der Gassen, of the ministerial family of the counts of Tyrol und der Diemut. His last name is also listed as Konzmann and Corozman.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Chaplain of Tyrolese Count Johann von Luxembourg, first husband of the Margarete Maulrasch, in 1336. At the same time, pastor of Imst and canon of the cathedral chapter of Brixen. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. At the request of his brother Johann as well as of the emperor, Karl of Luxembourg, he was promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Brixen, November 23, 1336; he was confirmed by Archbishop Friedrich von Leibnitz of Salzburg; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Because of the second marriage of Margarete Maulrasch with Ludwig of Brandenburg in 1342, the pope imposed an interdict on the couple and on Tyrol; after the declaration of nullity of the first marriage, Margarete's second was recognized and the interdict was lifted in 1359. In the argument between Johann of Luxembourg and Ludwig of Brandenburg, Bishop Mattahus, to protect himself, remained neutral to a large extent; in 1347 he had to make an alliance with Ludwig, which approximated a loss of his immunity. In a conflict with Jakob von Avoscano over the castle of Andraz in 1350; and in1356 with Gericht Garnstein, Bishop Matthaus incurred in a debt of 4000 florins; probably because of delays in the delivery of papal taxes, he had been threatened with censorship.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of December 17, 1350. He declined the promotion to the cardinalate. In 1353 a peace treaty between Ludwig and Brixen was concluded; according to it, the Fuerstentum formally continued as part of the county of Tyrol. When in 1363 Margarete, the ruler of Tyrol, joined the Hapsburg Emperor Rudolf IV, Bishop Matthaus, who until then supported the party of the Wittelsbach, changed to that of the Hapsburgs.

Death. October 27, 1363, Brixen. Buried in the cathedral of Brixen.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 188; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 518; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19 and 148; Gelmi, Josef. "Mathäus an der Gassen." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2001, p. 121.

Cool Archive
LA GARDE, Étienne de (?-1361)

Birth. (No date found), diocese of Limoges, France.

Education. (No information found)

Early life. Archdeacon of Beauvais. Papal chaplain.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lisbon, December 22, 1344. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Saintes, May 17, 1348. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Arles, January 8, 1351; occupied the see until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Martino in Monte Celio in the consistory of December 17, 1350 (1).

Death. May 19, 1361 (or in 1359), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Albanès, Joseph Mathias Hyacinthe ; Chevalier, Ulysse. Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France. 7 vols. 1895-1920, III. 869-875. Other Title : Gallia Christiana. Responsibility: D'après les documents authentiques recueillis dans les registres du Vatican et les archives locales. Complétée, annotée et publiée par le chanoine Ulysse Chevalier, III, col. 671-682; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 188-189; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 518-519; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 499-500; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 19, 103, 506 and 537.

Links. Biographical data, in French, col. 671-682; and his arms and biography, in French, p. 499-500.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 518-519; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 153, says that he is not mentioned as a cardinal by any other source; that he should not be included among the prelates promoted to the cardinalate in this pontificate; and that he is mistaken with Gérard de la Garde, cardinal priest of S. Sabina, created in the consistory of September 20, 1342.

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