The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Innocent VI (1352-1362)
Consistory of September 17, 1361 (III)
Celebrated in Avignon


(8) 1. VASSAL, O.F.M., Fontanier de (ca. 1295/1300-1361)

Birth. Ca. 1295, Vaillac (or Frayssinet-le-Gourdonnais), diocese of Cahors, Aquitaine, France. Son of Arnaud de Vassal. His first name is also listed as Fortunio, Fortanerio, Fortunerio, Fortuniero and Fortanerius; and his last name as Vasall, Vaselli and Vasalli.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) in Gourdon. Member of the Franciscan province of Aquitaine. Studied theology at the Studium generaleof Lyon. Pope John XII named him magister in theology in 1334.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Professor of theology at the University of Avignon in 1333. Member of the commission established by the pope in 1336 to study the new statutes of the order. Vicar general of the order on December 12, 1342. Elected minister general of his order in the general chapter of Marseille on June 11, 1343; he had been recommended for the post by Pope Clement VI; he celebrated a general chapter in Venice in 1342. In October 1343, he was going to go to Byzantium as papal legate before Emperor Johannes Palelogus, to promote the union of the Eastern and Western Churches; for unknown reasons the mission did not take place.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ravenna, October 24, 1347; the pope entrusted to him the government of the order for another year; he entered the diocese in March 1348. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the patriarchate of Grado, May 20 (or 30), 1351; retained the administration of the see of Ravenna. Named legate in Northern Italy on October 24, 1351, with the mission of promoting the peace treaty between Venice and Genoa, which he accomplished with success. On November 21, 1354, the pope granted him the faculty of crowning King Carlo IV of Lombardy with the Iron Crown, after the refusal of the archbishop of Milan. Named nuncio in Venice on August 10, 1355.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 17, 1361; he died before receiving the red hat and the title. He wrote numerous works; among them, a commentary to the "City of God" of Saint Augustine.

Death. October 16, 1361, of the plague, Pavia, while returning to Avignon to receive the red hat. Buried in the Franciscan church of S. Antonio, Padua. Because of his having made his will in favor of his family without the the necessary authorization of the Holy See, Pope Urban V, by letter of March 2, 1366, gave his possessions to the Apostolic Chamber.

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. 39; Cappelletti, Giuseppe. Le Chiese d'Italia, dalla loro origine sino ai nostri giorni, opera di Giuseppe Cappelletti, prete veneziano. 21 vols. Venezia : nello stabilimento nazionale dell'editore Giuseppe Antonelli, 1844-1870. Vol. 9, "Chiesa patriarcale metropolitana principale di Venezia e sue sufraganee", p. 79; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 198-201; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 37-539; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 563-565; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20, 266 and 415; Orsoni, Alessandro. Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia. Corredata di annotazioni illustranti l'ecclesiastico-civile veneta storia. Venezia : Tip. G.S. Felice, 1828, p. 238; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, 31-32.

Links. His arms and biography, in French, p. 563-565, Histoire des Cardinaux François, Gallica, Bibliothèque Numérique, Bibliothèque Natinale de France; brief biographical entry, in English, Maarten van der Heijden and Bert Roest; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna, Italy; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(9) 2. ITIER, Pierre (?-1367)

Birth. (No date found), château of Beaumont, diocese of Sarlat, France. His last name is also listed as Ithier. Uncle of quasi Pseudocardinal Raimond Ithier. He was called the Cardinal of Dax.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Renowned jurisconsult (doctor legum egregius).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dax, May 10, 1359 (1); occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati in the consistory of September 17, 1361. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, February 4, 1364.

Death. May 20, 1367 (2), Avignon. Buried in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin, which he had built, in the church of the Dominicans in Avignon (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 204; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 542; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 573; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20, 35, 41, 97 and 436.

Link. His arms and biography, in French, p. 573.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 155, which adds that Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 436, erroneously says that he was elected bishop of Sarlat on January 9, 1346, confusing the cardinal with Pierre de Mayrolles Porquery, his compatriot.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 155; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 20 and 35; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 542, says, in the cardinal's biographical entry, that he died anno 1367. XIIJ. Kalend. Iunii and in the text of the epitaph, transcribed in note 3, below, that he died SVB DIE MENSIS MAII DECIMO NONO ANNO DOMINI MCCCLXVII.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 542:

IN PRASENTI CAPELLA IACET REVERENDISSIMVS IN CHRISTO
PATER DOMINVS PETRVS ITERII EPISCOPVS ALBANENSIS
CARDINALIS AQVENSIS DOCTOR LEGVM EGREGIVS QVI OBIIT SVB
DIE MENSIS MAII DECIMO NONO ANNO DOMINI MCCCLXVII.
POST RECESSVM DOMINI VRBAN V.

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(10) 3. BLAUZAC, Jean de (?-1379)

Birth. (No date found), Blauzac, near Uzés, France. He was named by his birth place. His last name is also listed as Blandiac and Blandiaco. He was called the Cardinal of Nîmes.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Aix. Papal chaplain.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nîmes, September 17, 1348; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the provincial council of convoked by Pierre de la Jugié, O.S.B.,, archbishop of Narbonne, in Béziers in 1351. In January 1352, by order of Pope Innocent VI, he consecrated Bishop Giovanni da Siena, O.F.M.Conv., of Adria. He was charged by the pope with mediating in the dispute between the dukes of Foix and Armagnac.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marco in the consistory of September 17, 1361. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Legate in Paris in 1366. Participated in the conclave of 1370, which elected Pope Gregory XI. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina in September 1372. Vicar of Pope Gregory XI in Avignon in 1376, when the pope returned to Rome. Did not participate in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI; he was in Avignon. Did not participate in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; he was in Avignon; he joined the obedience of the antipope in 1378; later, he returned to the obedience of Pope Urban VI.

Death. July 6, 1379, Avignon. Buried in front of the main altar of the church of Saint-Didier, Avignon, on July 8, 1379, without an epitaph.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 204-206; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 542-543; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 571-572; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p.155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20, 44 and 361.

Link. His arms and biography, in French, p. 571-572.

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(11) 4. AYCELIN DE MONTAIGU, Gilles (?-1378)

Birth. (No date found), Auvergne, France. Son of Gilles Aycelin II, seigneur of Montaigu and of Chastel-Odone, and Mascarone de la Tour. His first name is also listed as Egidio, Aegidius, Guglielmo and Guillaume; and his last name as Ysalini de Monteacuto, Ayzelini, Aysellin, Aycelini, Montagu and Montaigut. Great-grandnephew of Cardinal Hugues Aycelin de Billom, O.P. (1288). Brother of Pseudocardinal Pierre Aycelin de Montaigut, O.S.B. (1383). Cousin or nephew of Pope Clement VI. He was called the Cardinal of Thérouanne.

Education. Studied in Paris; obtained a doctorate in canon law in Lyon.

Early life. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota in 1350.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Thérouanne, March 2, 1356; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found). He was present at the battle of Poitiers; he followed King Jean le Bon of France to Bordeaux, where the monarch was a prisoner. Chancellor of France, March 1357 to March 1358, while the king was imprisoned.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in the consistory of September 17, 1361. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati shortly after July 26, 1368. Participated in the conclave of 1370, which elected Pope Gregory XI. Did not participate in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI; he was in Avignon. Legate of the new pope in Umbria and in the Papal States. Did not participate in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; he was in Avignon. Author of juridical works, notably on the decisions of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Death. December 5, 1378, of paralysis, Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Anselme de Sainte-Marie ; Dufourny, Honoré Caille ; Ange de Sainte-Rosalie ; Simplicien. Histoire g én éalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la couronne & de la maison du roy: & des anciens barons du royaume: avec les qualitez, l'origine, le progres & les armes de leurs familles; ensemble des statuts & le catalogue des chevaliers, cammandeurs, & officiers de l'ordre du S. Esprit. Le tout dresse sur titres originaux, sur les registres des des chartes du roy, du parlement, de la chambre des comptes & du chatelet des Paris ... & d'autres cabinets curieux. 9 vols. Paris : La Compagnie des libraires, 3. éd., rev., corrigée & augmentée par les soins du P. Ange & du P. Simplicien, 1726-1733, VI, 303 and 331; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 201-202; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 539-540; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 566-568; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20, 39, 47 and 351.

Links. Biography, in Italian; his engraving and biography, in French, p. 566-568; biography, in French, p. 331; his genealogy, in French; another genealogy, also in French, p. 303; and another his engraving.

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(12) 5. LA ROCHE, O.S.B., Androin de (1300/1310-1369)

Birth. 1300/1310, Châtillon, Bourgogne, France. Second child of Jean, count de la Roche and seigneur of Châtillon, and Marguerite de Neufchâtel-Bourgogne; the other siblings were Achillande, Richard and Eudes. He is also listed as Andoino della Rocca, Adriano de' Conti della Rocca, Androino de la Roche and Androinvs de Rocha. His first name is also listed as André.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines). Magister in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of Saint-Seine, diocese of Langres in 1340. Abbot of the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Cluny in 1351. Legate of Pope Innocent VI in Italy in 1357; his mission was unsuccessful. Legate of the same pope in England in 1360 to negotiate the peace with France and end the War of the Hundred Years.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of September 17, 1361. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Named legate in Normandy; he left Avignon on December 15, 1363; returned to Rome on April 13, 1368. His diplomatic negotiation with Bernabò Visconti turned out to be prejudicial for the pope. Protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary (Servites); he donated his titular church and its adjacent place to the order.

Death. October 29, 1369, Viterbo, of the plague. Buried in the church of the Servites in Viterbo; later, his remains were taken to Cluny.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 202-204; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 540-542; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20 and 43.

Links. His arms and biography, in French, p. 569-570; his genealogy, in French; biographical entry, in French.

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(13) 6. AUBERT, iuniore, Étienne (?-1369)

Birth. (No date found), diocese of Limoges, France. His last name is also listed as Alberti. Grand-nephew of Pope Innocent VI. Nephew of Cardinal Andouin Aubert (1353). Cousin of Cardinal Pierre de Monteruc (1353). His first name is also listed as Estienne. He was called the Cardinal of Carcassone.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Familiar of the pope. Abbot (commendatario ?) of Saint-Idile, Clermont; and of Saint-Victor, Marseille. He had received only the minor orders when promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Carcassonne, March 10, 1361; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. He did not receive the episcopal consecration.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro in the consistory of September 17, 1361. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. He accompanied the pope in his trip to Rome in 1367. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina on September 22, 1368.

Priesthood. He was ordained by the pope in 1368.

Death. September 29, 1369, Viterbo. Buried in the cathedral of Viterbo.

Bibliography. Anselme de Sainte-Marie ; Dufourny, Honoré Caille ; Ange de Sainte-Rosalie ; Simplicien. Histoire g én éalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la couronne & de la maison du roy: & des anciens barons du royaume: avec les qualitez, l'origine, le progres & les armes de leurs familles; ensemble des statuts & le catalogue des chevaliers, cammandeurs, & officiers de l'ordre du S. Esprit. Le tout dresse sur titres originaux, sur les registres des des chartes du roy, du parlement, de la chambre des comptes & du chatelet des Paris ... & d'autres cabinets curieux. 9 vols. Paris : La Compagnie des libraires, 3. éd., rev., corrigée & augmentée par les soins du P. Ange & du P. Simplicien, 1726-1733, II, 399; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 206-207; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 543; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 574-575; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 155 Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20, 43, 50 and 166.

Link. His arms and biography, in French, p. 574-575 and his genealogy and biography, in French, p. 399.

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(14) 7. BRAGOSE, Guillaume (?-1367)

Birth. (No date found), diocese of Mende, France. He was called the Cardinal of Vabres.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Professor at the University of Toulouse. Vicar general of the metropolitan see of Toulouse in 1355. Protonotary apostolic. Papal chaplain. Archdeacon of Mirepoix.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vabres, August 2, 1361; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro in the consistory of September 17, 1361. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, December 6, 1362. Grand penitentiary in August 1367. He accompanied Pope Urban V to Rome and died shortly after. He willed all his possessions to his title.

Death. Before November 8, 1367. Buried in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, his title.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 207; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 543; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 576-577; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20, 43, 50 and 511.

Link. His arms and biography, in French, p. 576-577.

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(15) 8. SAINT-MARTIAL, Hugues de (?-1403)

Birth. (No date found), château of Saint-Martial, diocese of Tulle (1), France. Of a noble family.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Provost of the collegiate church of Douai. Nuncio in Sicily in 1352 to establish the peace between King Lajos I of Hungary and Ludovico and Giovanna I, king and queen of Naples.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae in the consistory of September 17, 1361. Participated in the conclave of 1362, which elected Pope Urban V. Participated in the conclave of 1370, which elected Pope Gregory XI. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica from 1374 until he was deposed by Pope Urban VI in 1378, when he joined the obedience of Avignon. Cardinal protodeacon from 1374 until his death (?). Testamentary executor of Pope Gregory XI. Accompanied the pope in his trip to Italy in 1376. Did not participate in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI; he was in Avignon. Did not participate in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; he was in Avignon; he joined the obedience of the antipope. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica by the antipope in 1378. Participated in the conclave of 1394, which elected Antipope Benedict XIII. Testamentary executor of his brother the archbishop of Toulouse in 1397. Although he was among the Avignonese dissident cardinals, he was very reticent about abandoning the obedience of the antipope and later manifested his support for him; in his act of September 2, 1401, he reiterated his support and recognition of Antipope Benedict XIII.

Death. 1403 (2), Avignon. Buried in the church of the Celestins in Ponte Serge, Avignon.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 207-208; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 543; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 578-579; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20 and 51; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XII, 322-323.

Links. His engraving and biography, in Fench, p. 578-579; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 156; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 543, says that he was born in D.Thomae de Capella a Planis.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 156; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 20 and 51; his biography in French, linked above, says that he died on March 31, 1399.

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THORESBY, John (?-1373)

Birth. (No date found), Thoresby, England. Son of Hugh of Thoresby, lord of the manor of the hamlet of Thoresby.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Lincoln.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint Davids, Menevia, May 23, 1347. Consecrated, September 23, 1347 (no further information found). Transferred to the see of Worcester, Septmber 4, 1349. Chancellor of England from 1349 to 1356. Promoted to the metropolitan see of York in 1352; enthroned, September 8, 1354.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sabina in the consistory of September 17, 1361 (1).

Death. November 6, 1373, Cawood palace, Yorkshire, West Riding. Buried before the altar of the Virgin in the Lady Chapel, the novum opus chori, which he had built.

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 233, 336 and 529.

Links. Biography, in English; biographical data, in English; and another biography, in English.

(1) This is according to Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 201; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, does not include him among the cardinals created by Pope Innocent VI.

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LASSO, O. DE M., Juan (?-1366)

Birth. (No date or place found), Spain. His last name is also listed as Lassi.

Education. Entered the Order of Our Lady of Mercy (Mercedarians).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). He was a famous theologian.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere in the consistory of September 17, 1361 (1).

Death. 1366, Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 208; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 544; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20 and 44.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 544, other sources doubt that he was ever promoted to the cardinalate.

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