The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Gregory XI (1370-1378)
Consistory of May 30, 1371 (I)


(1) 1. GÓMEZ BARROSO, el joven, Pedro (ca. 1320/1330-1374)

Birth. Ca. 1320/1330, Toledo. Son of Fernán Pérez Barroso, señor of Parla, and Mayor Pérez de Acebedo. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Pedro Gómez Barroso, el viejo (1327). His last name is also listed as Gómez-Álvarez de Albornoz Barroso and as Gómez de Albornoz .

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Toledo; later, its dean. Received the subdiaconate. He had a great fame for his legal expertise.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sigüenza, August 14, 1348. Consecrated (no information found). He was imprisoned in Aguilar de Campo, Palencia, in May or June 1355, by King Pedro el Cruel of Castilla, whom he had reproached for his crimes and abandonment of his legitimate wife, Blanca, for Maria Padilla; he was freed in December of the same year, possibly at the instance of Cardinal Guillaume de la Jugié , O.S.B.Clun., papal legate; and went to Portugal. Transferred to the see of Coimbra, August 25, 1358. Transferred to the see of Lisbon, July 23, 1364. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Seville, June 4, 1369; enthroned on the following October 20.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prassede in the consistory of May 30, 1371; retained the administration of his see. Legate, with Cardinal Pietro Corsini, before the knights of Saint John of Rhodes, of Spanish and Italian languages; the legates were charged with putting an end to the quarrels among the knights. Archdeacon of York or of the West Riding from January 1373 until his death.

Death. June 2 (or July 3), 1374, probably of the plague, Avignon. Buried in the church of the Dominican monastery of Sainte-Praxéde, near Avignon, which his uncle the cardinal had built in 1341 (1); for this reason, it was called the Spanish church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 227-228; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 600; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 21, 45, 196, 278, 444 and 507; Orive, A. "Gómez-Álvarez de Albornoz Barroso, Pedro." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), II, 1026.

Link. Family and biographical information, in Spanish.

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(2) 2. CROS, Jean de (?-1383)

Birth. (No date found), château of Calimafort, diocese of Limoges, France. Relative of Pope Gregory XI (1). Brother of Pseudocardinal Pierre de Cros, O.S.B. (1383). Relative of Cardinal Pierre de Cros (1350). His last name is also listed as Crosso. He was called the Cardinal of Limoges.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Secular prior of the church of Vastin (or Vatan), archdiocese of Bourges.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Limoges and confirmed on May 14, 1347; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo in the consistory of May 30, 1371. Grand penitentiary in 1373. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 28, 1376. accompanied Pope Gregory XI in his return trip to Rome from Avignon. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI; later, he protested against that election. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; he joined his obedience. Named legate before King Charles V of France on December 30, 1378; his argumentation concerning the invalidity of the election of Pope Urban VI, supported by the expositions of Cardinals Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, iuniore, and Guy de Malesset, convinced the king of France to support Antipope Clement VII in April 1379.

Death. November 21, 1383 (2), Avignon. Buried in the cathedral of Avignon, with an epitaph inscribed in a metal plate (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 228-229; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 601; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 619-620; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 21, 37, 45 and 301.

Links. Biography, in French, p. 757; his engraving and biography, in French, p. 619-620; and his epitaph, p. 451.

(1) Some sources say that he was a nephew of the pope; others, cousin; and still others, cousin in the third degree.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 159; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 21 and 37; his epitaph, linked above, says that he died on November 22, 1383.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 601:

HIC IACET REVERENDISSIMVS IN CHRISTO PATER
DOMINVS IOANNES DE CROSSO DE CALIMAFORTI
LEMOVICENSIS DIOECESIS DEINDE ASSVMPTVS FVIT
IN ECCELSIAE ROMANAE PRESBYTERVM CARDINALEM
ET SVBSEQVENTER FVIT ELECTVS EPISCOPVS
PRAENESTINENSIS ET SVMMVS POENITENTIARIVS
QVI OBIIT A NATIVIT. DOM. MCCCLXXXIII.
PRO CVIVS ANIMAE SALVTE DEVM HVMILITER
DEPRECAMVR VT IN PACE CVM ANGELIS
REQUIESCAT. AMEN.


There are differences bewteen this text of the epitaph transcribed by Chacón and the one linked above.

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(3) 3. COSNAC, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Bertrand de (ca.1300/1310 -1374)

Birth. Ca.1300/1310, Brive, Limousin, France. Son of Guillaume de Cosnac and Almodie de Malemort. His last name is also listed as Cosnaco. He was called the Cardinal of Comminges.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine. Obtained a licentiate in canon law at the University of Toulouse.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Prior of the convent of his order in Brive, now in the diocese of Rodez, in 1337. Papal chaplain. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Papal treasurer, 1347-1352.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lombez, September 17, 1348. Consecrated (no information found). Legate in Spain, together with Agapito, bishop of Brescia, in 1356 and 1370; they were charged with the reconciliation of the kings of Portugal, Castilla and Aragón; the monarchs accepted the arbitration of the pope. Transferred to the see of Saint-Bertrand de Commminges, October 17, 1352; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. He took part in the council of the three provinces celebrated in Lavaur in 1368. He also participated in the council of the Gallia Narbonense.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 30, 1371; the pope sent him the red hat, against the custom of the time, with Arnaldo d'Andrea, subdeacon of the cathedral of Bordeaux; received the title of S. Marcello in March 1372. Legate in Spain again under Pope Gregory XI; he solved the grave discord between King Pedro of Aragón and the Catalonian clergy concerning the ecclesiastical immunity, which the archbishop of Tarragona and other prelates of the kingdom accused the monarch of having violated; died on his return to Avignon from Spain. He may have had the title of S. Pudenziana in commendam.

Death. June 17, 1374 (1), Avignon. Buried in the church of the Dominicans in Avignon.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 130-131; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 602; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 625; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 21, 43, 207 and 310.

Links. His engraving and brief biographical information, in French, p. 625; his genealogy; and his arms.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 159; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 21 and 43; his biographical information in French, linked above; and his genealogy, also linked above, say that he died on June 18, 1374.

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(4) 4. LAGIER, O.F.M., Bertrand (ca. 1320-1392)

Birth. Ca. 1320, Figeac,diocese of Cahors, France Of a modest family (1). Son of Paul Lagier. His last name is also listed as Atgier, Atger, Lagery and Latgerio. He was called the Cardinal of Glandèves.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) in Figeac when he was quite young. He studied at the Studium generale in Paris or in Toulouse.

Early life. Taught theology in several convents of his order until 1350. Professor at the University of Montpellier. While he was teaching at the convent of Assisi, Pope Clement VI conferred on him, on December 5, 1351, the title of magister in theology after having passed the prescribed examination.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Assisi, December 18, 1357 (2). Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Glandèves, January 24, 1368; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate; he remained in the papal curia; at this time, he wrote the treatise Contra errores et ritus graecorum.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prisca in the consistory of May 30, 1371. In 1372-1373, he exercised as vicar general of his order. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia in 1375. Legate before King Juan I of Castilla (3). In 1376, he accompanied Pope Gregory XI on his trip to Rome from Avignon. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri in April 1378, keeping in commendam the title of S. Cecilia. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII, and joined the obedience of Avignon; went to that city with the antipope. He crowned and consecrated Louis I of Sicily and duke of Anjou. In spite of the pressure exercised by Pedro de Aragón, he remained in the Avignon obedience until his death. He enjoyed numerous prebends in France. As a writer, he is noted for the treatise De schismate et contra haereses sui temporis.

Death. November 8 (or 18), 1392, Avignon. Buried in the Franciscan (Cordelier) church of S. Francesco in Avignon.

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. 42; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 229-230; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 602-603; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 621-622; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 21, 36, 40, 46, 113 and 264; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, I, 2, 309-312; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, I, 34-36.

Links. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 21-622; biography, in French, p. 309-312; and his arms.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, I, 34; his two biographies in French, linked above, indicate that he was of a noble family.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 113; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 159, wonders if this is the same person as Bertrand Escarpiti, O.F.M., who was elected bishop of Ajaccio on June 20, 1345 and transferred to Assisi on August 14, 1348; his second biography in French, also linked above, also says that he was bishop of Ajaccio.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 159; his two biographies in French, linked above doubt or deny his legation.

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(5) 5. GENÈVE, Robert de (1342-1394)

Birth. 1342, château of Annecy, France. Youngest of the five children of Amédée III, count of Genève and seigneur of Cruseilles, and Marie (Mahaut, Matilde or Mafalda) de Boulogne, cousin of the king of France. Nephew of Cardinal Guy de Boulogne (1342), on his mother's side. He was called the Cardinal of Genève.

Education. Studied at La Sorbonne University, Paris.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris. Chancellor of the diocese of Amiens. Protonotary apostolic in 1359. Familiar of the pope.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Thérouanne, November 3, 1361. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Cambrai, October 11, 1368.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. XII Apostoli in the consistory of May 30, 1371. Legate in Lombardy and Tuscany, together with Cardinal Francesco Tebaldeschi; as head of an army of Breton mercenaries, he was charged with controlling a rebellion in the Papal States; he left the papal curia on May 27, 1376; he was responsible for massacres in the war against Florence, especially in Cesena in February 1377; he returned to Rome on March 13, 1378. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI; on April 14, 1378, he wrote to King Charles V of France notifying him of the election of the new pope. By the end of the following month of May, disgusted with the behavior of the pope, he started plotting a revolt against him; the French cardinals went to Anagni, when they were convinced that the pope was either deranged or incapable; they declared the election of Pope Urban VI invalid due to the violence that was exerted upon them; they deposed the pontiff on August 9; Cardinal de Genève was one of their leaders. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, in which the cardinals met at the cathedral of S. Pietro, Fondi, near Anagni, in the kingdom of Naples, and was elected antipope in the first ballot; the fact that he was not French or Italian may have been a deciding factor in his election (1).

Antipapacy. Elected antipope on September 20, 1378, by the same cardinals who had elected Pope Urban VI, except three Italians (who were present but did not vote); eleven French cardinals and one Spanish cardinal participated in the election. Took the name Clement VII. He was proclaimed on September 21, 1378 by Cardinal deacon Pierre Flandrin. Crowned, October 31, 1378, not by a cardinal but by Count Onorato Caetani. With his election the Great Schism of the West started. He created thirty four pseudocardinals in eleven consistories.

Death. September 16, 1394, between 9 and 10 a.m., of an apoplexy, palace of the popes, Avignon, after having prayed for the intercession of Cardinal Pierre de Luxembourg for the remission of his sins. Buried in the cathedral of Avignon (2) on September 18, 1394. On September 18, 1401, during the siege of the papal palace in Avignon, his remains were transferred, by the dissident cardinals of Antipope Benedict XIII, to his definitive tomb in the church of the Celestines in Avignon (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 232-234; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 603-604 and 668-690; Del Re, Niccolò. Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 283-284; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 651-654; Dykmans, Mark. "Clemete VII, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 593-606; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 21, 27-29, 40, 160 and 351; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 228-230; Logoz, Roger Ch. Clément VII (Robert de Genève) : sa chancellerie et le clergé romand au début du Grand Schisme (1378-1394). Lausanne : Payot, 1974. (Mémoires et documents publiés par la Société d'histoire de la Suisse romande ; 3e sér., t. 10).

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in French; same biography, in Italian; same biography, in German; his engraving and biography, in French, p. 651-654; Histoire d'Annecy en bref, in French; head of his jascent statue on his tomb, Musée du Petit Palais, Avignon, France; explanation of the procedence of the head of his jascent statue, in French; engraving of his mausoleum in the church of the Celestines, Avignon; his portrait, by Henri Ségur, 19th century, Palais des papes, Avignon, France; Antipope Clement VII and Louis I d'Anjou, illumination of a 15th manuscript from the Chronicles of Forissart; Antipope Clement VII and King Charles VI of France, illumination for the same work; another view of his engraving.

(1) The matter of his nationality is debatable. Genève, where it is also said that he was born, is now in Switzerland; and Annecy in France; both cities and the sovereign county of Genè passed, shortly after the death of the antipope, to Savoy, which is today divided between France and Italy. Du Chesne, in his work, includes him among the French cardinals.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 159; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 673; and Del Re, Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 284, say that he was buried in the church of the Celestins in Ponte Sorge, Avignon; the second source adds that later, that church was deconsecrated and the tomb of the antipope destroyed during the French Revolution.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 673:

HIC REQVIESCIT.
DOMINVS CLEMENS PP. VII.
PRIMVS VIVS CENOBII FVNDATOR EX PATRE
AMEDEO COMITE GEBENNENSI MATRE VERO
MATILDA DE BOLONIAGENITVS QVI FVIT
PROTONOTARIVS MORINENSIS ET CAMERACENSIS
EPISCOPVS DEINDE CARDINALIS DEMVM AD
PAPATVM INVITVS ASSVMPTVS ET CVRIA TVNC
INCOLVMI REDVCTA DOMINVM PETRVM
CARDINALEM DE LVTZEMBURGO MIRACVLIS CORVSCANTEM
IN HOC COEMETERIO SEPVLTVM AS
CARDINALATVM ASSVMPSIT ET IN FINE ANNO
XVII. SVI PONTIFICATVS MIGRAVIT AD CHRISTVM
DIE XVI. SEPTEMB. MCCCXLIV. CVIVS ANIMA
REQVIESCAT IN PACE.

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(6) 6. CHANAC, O.S.B., Guillaume de (?-1383)

Birth. (No date found), Paris, France. Of a noble family from Limousin. Son of Chevalier Guy de Chanac and Dame Isabelle de Montroux. Brother of Pseudocardinal Bertrand de Chanac (1385). Grand nephew of the patriarch of Alexandria and nephew of Fouques, bishop of Paris. He was called the Cardinal of Mende.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) in the monastery of Saint-Martial de Limoges. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Professor at La Sorbonne University, Paris. Prior of Longpont and of Vézelay. Abbot of Saint-Florent de Saumur, April 30, 1354. Chancellor of the diocese of Anjou in 1360. Abbot of Fontaine de Bése in 1362. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota toward 1367.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chartres, September 22, 1368; took possession on February 4, 1369. Transferred to the see of Mende, January 8, 1371; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Vitale in the consistory of May 30, 1371. Did not participate in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI; he was in Avignon. Did not participate in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; he was in Avignon; he later joined the obedience of the antipope. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, November 21, 1383; he then received the episcopal consecration.

Death. December 30, 1383, Avignon. Buried in the church of the Dominicans in Avignon; his remains were translated to the abbey of Saint-Martial de Limoges in August 1384 (1); the funeral monument had to be destroyed for works in the abbey in 1753 and rebuilt in 1768; and then was destroyed by the French Revolution.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 232-234; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 603-604; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 626-627; and II, 453-454; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 2, 48, 167 and 342.

Links. Biography, in Italian; biography, in French, p. 626-627; his epitaph, p. 453-454; another copy of his epitaph, p. 9-10; and his arms.

(1) His epitaph, linked above, indicates that he died on December 29, 1384 and that in August of the same year, it was translated to be buried according to his will. The apparent contradiction between the dates of death (December 1384) and the date of the translation (August 1384) is due to the use of the papal or Neapolitan calendar, which began on Christmas day; since he died on December 29, 1383, it was already 1384 according to that calendar; and then, the translation occurred eight months later in August 1384 of both the papal and the regular civil calendar.

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(7) 7. LEFÈVRE, Jean (?-1372)

Birth. (No date found), château of Maumont, next to Rosiers-d'Egletons, diocese of Tulle, France. Cousin of Pope Gregory XI. His last name is also listed as Fabriand, Fabre, Fabry, Faure Le Fevre and Le Sevre.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Orléans.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tulle, August 8, 1360 (1); occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of May 30, 1371 (2).

Death. March 6, 1372, Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 234; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 604; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 628; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 43 and 505.

Link. His arms and brief biographical information, in French p. 628, Gallica, Histoire des Cardinaux Francçois, Bibliothèque Numérique, Bibliothèque National de France; catalog of the bishops of Tulle, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 160; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 505. The catalog of bishops of Tulle, linked above, says that he occupied the see from 1369 to 1371.
(2) Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 159, indicates that he may have probably been confused by Gams with Quasicardinal Jean Fabri.

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(8) 8. LA TOUR, O.S.B. Clun., Jean de (ca. 1325/1328-1374)

Birth. Ca. 1325/1328, Auvergne, France. Third son of Bertrand III, seigneur de La Tour, and Isabelle de Levis; three of his brother were bishops. Nephew of Cardinal Bernard de la Tour (1342). Relative of Pope Gregory XI, whose niece was married to the cardinal's brother. His last name is also listed as de la Tour d'Auvergne.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) of Cluny.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior de Brou in Bresse. Abbot of the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, Fleury. Chantre of the cathedral chapter of Lyon, April 1373.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in the consistory of May 30, 1371.

Death. April 15, 1374, Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 235; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 605; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 623; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22 and 43.

Links. Engraving and brief biographical information, in French, p. 623; brief biographical entry, in French, VI, 3; his genealogy, A1 D1 E1 F3; his arms.

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(9) 9. ORSINI, Giacomo (ca. 1340-1379)

Birth. Ca. 1340, Rome. Second son of Roberto Orsini, 2nd count of Nola and palatine of the kingdom of Naples, and Sveva (o Sibilla) del Balzo (Baux). The family gave the church several popes and cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Nicholas III (1277-1280); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini,O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. He accompanied Pope Gregory XI in his return trip from Avignon to Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro in the consistory of May 30, 1371. Legate in Siena in 1376. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI (1); he crowned the new pope in April 1378. He sought refuge in the castle of Vicovaro because of the tumult that occurred in Rome after the election of the new pope. He was present at the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII, but did not vote; he later joined the obedience of Avignon. He retired to Capistrello, locality not far from Tagliacozzo, where it is said he died.

Death. August 13, 1379, in his fiefdom of Vicovaro (Vicum Varonis), diocese of Tivoli or at Tagliacozzo. Buried in Vicovaro or Tagliacozzo. In 1474, his remains were buried in the tempieto of S. Giacomo Maggiore in Vicovaro.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 234; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 604; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22 and 50.

Links. Cardinals of the Orsini family, in English; Cardinal Giacomo is no. 5; the Orsini family, in Italian.

(1) According to Noël Valois, La prolongation du grand schisme d'Occident au XVe sihcle dans le midi de la France. (Nogent-le-Rotrou : Imprimerie Daupeley-Gouverneur, 1899), he was the only cardinal who abstained from voting for Bartolomeo Prignano, archbishop of Bari, who was elected Pope Urban VI, because of the pressure that was being exercised over the conclave.

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(10) 10. FLANDRIN, Pierre (1301-1381)

Birth. 1301, diocese of Viviers, France. Relative of Pseudocardinal Jean Flandrin (1390).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Papal referendary. He was an erudite. Dean of Bayeux on April 3, 1371.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in the consistory of May 30, 1371. In 1375, he was named vicar of Rome, and of many Italian territories dependent on the diocese of Rome. Testamentary executor of Pope Gregory XI in March 1378. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; proclaimed him on September 21, and passed to his obedience. Abbot commendatario of S. Pietro ad Aram in Naples.

Death. January 23, 1381, Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 629-630; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22 and 50; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, XVII, 165.

Links. His arms and biography, in French, P. 629-630; biography, in French, p. 165.

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(11) 11. NOELLET, Guillaume (ca. 1340-1394)

Birth. Ca. 1340 at the latest, Angoumois, diocese of Angoulème, France. His last name is also listed as Novelletti and Noelletti

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law at the University of Toulouse in 1365; Guy de Malsec, future cardinal, was one of his professors; Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, iuniore, his condisciple, future cardinal, conferred on him the doctoral insignias.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Bayeux, ca. 1360. Entered the household of Cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, future Pope Gregory XI. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. He was sent to Constantinople to work for the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches; he left for his mission on August 1, 1366. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Chartres. Named referendary by Pope Gregory XI.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria in the consistory of May 30, 1371. Named legate in Bologna in November 1373; imprisoned and expelled by the Bolognaise in 1375; returned to Avignon in April 1376. In 1374, he was named vicar of Rome, and of many Italian territories dependent on the diocese of Rome, with residence in Bologna; occupied the post from March 1374 until the revolt of the Bolognese in 1376. Archdeacon of Suffolk from 1374. Together with other cardinals, he was charged by the pope with the examination of the errors of Pietro Bonageta and Raimondo Neofito; the two were proscribed and condemned. Accompanied Pope Gregory XI in his return trip to Rome from Avignon in September 1376. Testamentary executor of Pope Gregory XI. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII. Returned to Avignon in May-June 1379, with Antipope Clement VII.

Death. July 4, 1394, Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 236-237; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 605-606; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22 and 49.

Links. His arms and biography, in French, p. 631-632; his engraving and arms; his biography, in French p. 93-96; and his arms.

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(12) 12. VERGNE, Pierre de (?-1403)

Birth. (No date found), diocese of Tulle. His last name is also listed as Verneyo, Vernhio, Veruco, Verrujo, Veroche and Veruche.

Education. Studied canon law at the University of Montpellier; Renoul de Monteruc, future cardinal, was his condisciple.

Early life. Professor of law at the University of Montpellier. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Poitiers. Papal chaplain of Pope Gregory XI. Named by the same pope prebendary and archdeacon in Rouen, February 25 1370 (1). Referendary and auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata in the consistory of May 30, 1371. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII. He passed to the obedience of the antipope. Canon and archdeacon of the metropolitan chapter of Sevilla (or Segovia) in 1381. Prior commendatario of the monastery of Montserrat in November 1384; resigned, without having taken possession, in June 1387. In 1398, when the French cardinals abandoned Antipope Benedict XIII, he joined the obedience of Rome.

Death. October 6, 1403 Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 237; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 606; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 633-634; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22 and 52.

Link. His armas and biography, in French, p. 633-634.

(1) This is according to Du Chesne, Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois, I, 633; the author is probably following the vieux style because Pope Gregory XI was not elected until December 30, 1370; the date must have been February 25, 1371.

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