The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Gregory XI (1370-1378)
Consistory of December 20, 1375 (II)
Celebrated in Avignon


(13) 1. LA JUGIÉ, O.S.B.Clun., Pierre de (ca. 1319-1376)

Birth. Ca. 1319, village of Jugié, parish of Eyran, diocese of Limoges, France. Son of Jacques de La Jugié and Guillaumette Rogier. Brother of Cardinal Guillaume de la Jugié (1342). Nephew of Pope Clement VI, on his mother's side. Cousin of Pope Gregory XI, also on his mother's side. His last name is also listed as de la Jugie, de la Jugée, Iudicis, de Iudicta, and della Montre. He was called the Cardinal of Narbonne.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) of Cluny. Obtained a doctorate in canon law at the University of Orléans.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of Sainte-Librade, diocese of Agen. Named abbot of the monastery of Saint-jean d'Angély on August 18, 1342 and the monastery of Notre-Dame de la Grasse on February 4, 1343.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Zaragoza, March 2, 1345. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Narbonne, January 10, 1347. Attended the provincial councils of Béziers in 1351 and of Lavaur in 1368; celebrated one in Narbonne in 1374. Legate of King Charles V of France before Pope Urban V in Avignon toward 1369. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Rouen, August 27, 1375; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate; he was never enthroned.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in the consistory of December 20, 1375. He accompanied Pope Gregory XI to Italy; the papal fleet arrived in Livorno on November 7, 1376; the cardinal rested in that city for a week because he had become ill during the trip; he was taken to Pisa, where he died.

Death. November 19 (or 21), 1376, Pisa. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Maria in Pisa; later, his remains were transferred to Narbonne and buried in a marble tomb that he had built in the metropolitan cathedral of that city.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 38-239; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 606-607; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660. Note(s): Signatures: Vol. 1: à4 pi4 A-8Y2 (last leaf blank); Vol. 2: A-4N4 (last leaf pasted to back board)./ Pagination: vol. 1: 722, [10] p.; vol. 2: 632, [12] p./ Volume 2 has title: Preuves de l'histoire de tous les cardinaux [etc.]./ Embossed on spine: Histoire des cardinaux./ Title page of volume 1 in red and black./ Includes indexes at back of each vol: Vol. 1: Table des chapitres; Vol. 2: Table des matières./ Vol. 1: 236 portraits; Vol. 2: not illustrated./ Engraved initials; headpieces. Other Titles: Histoire de tovs les cardinavx françois ...; Histoire des cardinaux; Preuves de l'histoire de tous les cardinaux ... , , I, 635-636; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 160-161; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 41, 153, 356 and 426.

Webgraphy. Arms and biography, in French, p. 635-636; his genealogy, under Guillaumette Rogier; his tomb in the cathedral of Narbonne, France; with a mural; and an explanation.

Cool Archive

(14) 2. BROSSANO, Simone (?-1381)

Birth. 1310, Nice (or Milan). Of a noble Milanese family. Perhaps son of Ambrose Brossano, master, physician, familal, comensal "satis dilectus" of Archbishop Giovanni Visconti of Milan. His last name is also listed as Borsano, Bursano, Brussani and Broussano. He was called the Cardinal of Milan.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the University of Pavia, studying under Angelo Pagliarini; or in Bologna, under Niccolò Spinelli, notable jurist and diplomatic; and the most famous Professor Giovanni Calderini, who pronounced the oration when Simone obtained the doctorate shortly before 1360.

Early life. In 1347, he was given the expectancy of a canonship in the cathedral chapter of Novara by Pope Clement VI. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna. Professor of canon law at the universities of Padua and Bologna; Gilles Bellemère was among his students.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, June 18, 1371; he occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate; he never resided in his see but remained in Nice (1). Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in the consistory of December 20, 1375. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. He was present but did not vote in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII in Fondi; after the conclave, he and Cardinal Orsini sought refuge in Aversa; together, they went to Nice at the end of 1380. In May 1381, Cardinal Jean de la Grange went to see him in Nice to convince him to pass to the obedience of Avignon. He fell seriously ill and finally decided to officially recognize Antipope Clement VII. On August 26, 1381, shortly before his death, he declared in the presence of the Cardinals Pietro Corsini of Florence and Guillaume Noellet of Sant'Angelo in Pescheria; and of his secretary, Antonio Milan Bassanega, that the election of Archbishop Bartolomeo Prignano (Pope Urban VI) had to be considered canonically null because it was obtained "pero impressionem", thus accepting the Clementine thesis. He died on the following day. Francesco Petrarca mentioned him in his letters. Author of appreciated works against the heretics.

Death. August 27, 1381, Nice. Buried in Nice.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 239-240; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 194-195; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 607; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 161; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 42 and 333; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, II, 100-101, 102 and 120.

Webgraphy. Biography by Ingeborg Walter, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 14 (1972), Treccani; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; catalog of bishops of the see of Milan, melegnano.net; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) Joseph Mathias Hyacinthe Albanès and Ulysse Chevalier, Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France (7 vols. 1895-1920) and Pius Bonfatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), say that he was deposed in 1380; but "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 161, indicates that he had already been replaced in that see by June 7, 1376; the catalog of occupants of the see of Milan, linked above, indicates that he occupied the see until 1380. The chronological series of archbishops of Milan, linked above, says that he was an absentee archbishop at the service of the papacy, created cardinal in 1376, who "resigned" the see of Milan.

Cool Archive

(15) 3. MONTRELAIS, le jeune, Hugues de (ca. 1315-1384)

Birth. Ca. 1315, Montrelais, Bretagne, France. Son of Renaud de Montrelais and Marie d'Ancenis. His first name is also listed as Guy and his last name Montelais, Montrelaix, Montelegum and Montelungo. He was called de Bretagne.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Chantre and archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Nantes; later, its dean. Provost of Saint-Martin du Vertou, Nantes, February 1379. Prior of Marsay in Poitou.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nantes in 1354; he was not confirmed. Shortly after, elected bishop of Tréguier, November 19, 1354. Transferred to the see of Saint-Brieuc, August 21, 1357; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Chancellor of Bretagne from 1366 until 1369. A strong supporter of Charles de Blois, he was disliked by Duke Jean IV of Bretagne; he left his see and went to Avignon with Pope Gregory XI.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati in the consistory of December 20, 1375. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII, and joined his obedience. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina shortly after July 8, 1379. He was deposed by Pope Urban VI on February 25, 1384, a few days before his death (1).

Death. February 29, 1384 (2), Avignon, at a very advanced age and decrepit. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 240; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 607; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660. Note(s): Signatures: Vol. 1: à4 pi4 A-8Y2 (last leaf blank); Vol. 2: A-4N4 (last leaf pasted to back board)./ Pagination: vol. 1: 722, [10] p.; vol. 2: 632, [12] p./ Volume 2 has title: Preuves de l'histoire de tous les cardinaux [etc.]./ Embossed on spine: Histoire des cardinaux./ Title page of volume 1 in red and black./ Includes indexes at back of each vol: Vol. 1: Table des chapitres; Vol. 2: Table des matières./ Vol. 1: 236 portraits; Vol. 2: not illustrated./ Engraved initials; headpieces. Other Titles: Histoire de tovs les cardinavx françois ...; Histoire des cardinaux; Preuves de l'histoire de tous les cardinaux ... , I, 638-638; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p.161; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 38, 41, 146 and 494; Paris-Jallobert, Paul. "Les cardinaux de Bretagne". Revue de Bretagne et de Vendée, n. ser., II (1887), 36.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in French, p. 638-639; and catalog of the bishops of Saint-Brieuc, he is no. 27; his arms are below, in the middle, with the red hat.

(1) Noël Valois, La prolongation du grand schisme d'Occident au XVe sihcle dans le midi de la France (Nogent-le-Rotrou : Imprimerie Daupeley-Gouverneur, 1899), indicates that the deposition took place on February 24, 1385; perhaps the discrepancy among the sources concerning the year of his death (1384 or 1385), is due to the vieux style, which began the year on Easter.
(2) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 607; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 161; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 22 and 38; Paris-Jallobert, "Les cardinaux de Bretagne". Revue de Bretagne et de Vendée, p. 36, says that he died on February 26, 1384; his biography in French, linked above, says that he died ca. 1390.

Cool Archive

(16) 4. BUSSIÈRE, O.Cist., Jean de (?-1376)

Birth. (No date found), Auvergne. Of a noble family. Son of Renaud de Bussières. His last name is also listed as Burssiére, Burssiéres and Buxeria.

Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians. Obtained a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no no further information found). Professor at Collège Saint-Bernard, Paris. Elected 32nd abbot of Clairvaux in 1359; occupied the post for four years. Elected 26th abbot general of Cîteaux at the end of March 1363; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1375; entered the papal curia in Avignon on March 6, 1376; he never received a title.

Death. September 4, 1376, Avignon. Buried in a magnificent monument in Clairvaux (1), between the tombs of Saint-Bernard and the Holy Martyrs Eutropio, Zozino and Bonosa. During the French Revolution, his remains were buried in the cemetery of Ville-sous-la-Ferté and the monuments were destroyed. The building is now a prison.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 240-241; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 608; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660. Note(s): Signatures: Vol. 1: à4 pi4 A-8Y2 (last leaf blank); Vol. 2: A-4N4 (last leaf pasted to back board)./ Pagination: vol. 1: 722, [10] p.; vol. 2: 632, [12] p./ Volume 2 has title: Preuves de l'histoire de tous les cardinaux [etc.]./ Embossed on spine: Histoire des cardinaux./ Title page of volume 1 in red and black./ Includes indexes at back of each vol: Vol. 1: Table des chapitres; Vol. 2: Table des matières./ Vol. 1: 236 portraits; Vol. 2: not illustrated./ Engraved initials; headpieces. Other Titles: Histoire de tovs les cardinavx françois ...; Histoire des cardinaux; Preuves de l'histoire de tous les cardinaux ... , , I, 639-640; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 161; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in French, p. 639-640; and catalog of the abbots of Cîteaux.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 608:

HIC IACET DOMINVS IOANNES DE BVXERIIS ABBAS
CLARAVALLIS QVI POSTERA FACTVS ES ABBAS CISTERCII
AC DEMVM EFFECTVS CARDINALIS S. R. ECCLESIA.
OBIIT MCCCLXXVI.

Cool Archive

(17) 5. MALSEC, Guy de (?-1411)

Birth. (No date found), Tulle, France. He was baptized in the church of Saint-Privat in Tulle; in his will, he left a bequest to that church. Of a noble family from Limousin. Nephew of Pope Clement VI. Nephew of Pope Gregory XI, on his mother's side. His last name is also listed as Malesset, Malessico, Malosicco, Malasiette, Maillesec and Malesec. He was called the Cardinal of Poitiers or of Palestrina.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the University of Toulouse.

Early life. Professor of law at the University of Toulouse; Guillaume Noellet, future cardinal, was among his students. Papal chaplain and acolyte. Archdeacon of Corbaria, archdiocese of Narbonne.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lodève, May 12, 1370. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Poitiers, April 9, 1371; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in the consistory of December 20, 1375. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; he joined the obedience of the antipope. Legate of the antipope in England and Flanders; on the way to his legation, he stopped in Paris in April-May 1379; there, together with the other legate, Cardinal Jean de Cros, and Cardinal Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, iuniore, he appeared before King Charles VII and convinced the monarch to join the obedience of Antipope Clement VII; he could not enter England for lack of a safe conduct, because the king of England was loyal to Pope Urban VI; and in Flanders, in June 1379, he could not go further than Cambrai; he remained there until February 1382. Named administrator of Béziers on August 17, 1383; occupied the post for a few days. On October 1, 1383, he presided over a council in Cambrai and delivered a sermon on the extinction of the schism. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina shortly after November 21, 1383. In 1387, he participated in the process that condemned Aragonese Dominican Joan de Montson, professor at the convent of Paris, for publicly declaring that the Blessed Virgin had not been exempted from the original sin. Participated in the conclave of 1394, which elected Antipope Benedict XIII. He joined the party of the dissident pseudocardinals; he was delegated by them, together with Pseudocardinals Pierre de Thury and Amedeo di Saluzzo to negotiate with the pseudocardinals loyal to the antipope in October 1398; he returned to Avignon in June 1402 and negotiated, together with Pseudocardinal Amedeo di Saluzzo, the restitution of the obedience to Antipope Benedict XIII, which he finally obtained in May 1403. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in August 1405. Antipope Benedict XIII charged him with the reform of the diocese of Palestrina on November 6, 1405. He prepared his will on September 12, 1407. He accompanied Antipope Benedict XIII in his second trip to Italy in November 1407; he was sent as one of the delegates of the antipope to meet with the dissident cardinals of Pope Gregory XII in Livorno in May 1408; there he broke with the Avignon obedience and, together with those dissident cardinals, went to Pisa and participated in the council; he presided over the assembly until the arrival of Cardinal Cramaud; he did not vote for the abandonment of the obedience of the pope and the antipope by the council on May 10, 1409; he asked for delaying the decision. Participated in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V; joined the obedience of this antipope. Named administrator of the see of Agden for three years, June 8, 1409; occupied the post until June 8, 1411 when Antipope John XXIII revoked his appointment. Did not participate in the conclave of 1410, which elected Antipope John XXIII. Named legate in France by Antipope John XXIII.

Death. March 8, 1411 (1), Paris, at an advanced age. Buried in the Dominican church in rue Saint-Jacques, Paris (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 241-242; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 608-609; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660. , I, 641-644; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 161; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 41, 310 and 399; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, I, 484-486.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French, p. 641-644; biography, in French, p. 484-486; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Fisquet, La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), I, 486, which says that he died on March 11, 1412.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 609:

D.     O.     M.
In Aquitania parte Galliæ, nobilissima familia Malesiccerum
vetustate præclara à Malessico nomen habet.
Ea in gente virs Clarissimi, unde erta sunt Auitania
quendam lumina, Viri rerum gestarum magnitudine
florentes, alij, Equites Aurati, sancti Pontifices, alij Præfecti.
Ex ea generis claritate predijt Guido à Malesicco dicti loci
et Castri Lucij Dominus, in doctrinarum, virtutumque genere
propè absolutus, cuius acta permulta Annalibus conscripta,
bis brevibus non capiuntur angustus. Is Vir summa prudentia
amplissimisque meritis creatus fuerat Lodevensis Pontifex
deinde Pictaviensis, postmodum, & cooptatus titulo Prænestini Cardinalis,
in qua dignitate cum octavo, & trigeismo floruisset,
octavo Idus Martij anno autem M. CCCCXI.
cuius corpus hac cella, & hoc faxo sepultum est magno cum omnium luctu,
ac desiderio donec propinquorum sententia ad maiorum sepulchra transferatur.
Dives opum Guido, formæ, bonitatis, & artis
Ditior, hocque magis dives honoris erat.
Plura darent Superi, nisi fatum plura negaret.
Quo maiora darent, euolas ad Superos.

Cool Archive

(18) 6. LA GRANGE, O.S.B., Jean de (?-1402)

Birth. (No date found), Germolles, near Châlons sur Saône, France. Of a noble Beaujolaise family. His last name is also listed as de la Grance and as de Bouchamage. He was called the Cardinal of Amiens.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines). Obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of Guigny. Prior of Fouvans. Prior of Notre-Dame de Elincourt, Beauvais. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris. Archdeacon of Rouen. Abbot of Fècamp, archdiocese of Rouen, in 1357. He accompanied Cardinal Guy de Bolougne in his legation to Spain in 1359. Preceptor of the sons of King Charles V of France. Minister of State of the French king. Superintendent of finances in 1370. Counselor of the parliament of Paris. President of the Cour des Aides. During his political life, he accumulated a great fortune.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Amiens, February 7, 1373; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of December 20, 1375; he resigned his see; entered the papal curia on June 26, 1376. Named legate of Pope Gregory XI in Tuscany to negotiate the peace with Florence; he left for his legation in February 1378. Did not participate in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI; recognized the pope; later, offended by the pope's irascible temperament, abandoned his obedience; the pope deposed him as cardinal and deprived him of all his posts and dignities; Pope Urban VI considered him, together with Cardinals Gérard du Puy, O.S.B.Clun., and Pierre Flandrin, one of the cardinals who had the most responsibility for the schism. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; joined the obedience of the antipope. Named legate before King Charles V of France; he left for Paris July 28, 1379; went to Bourges to meet the duke of Berry in January 1381; went to Nice in May 1381 to meet with Cardinals Pietro Corsini and Simone Brossano to obtain their recognition of the antipope; finally, he went to Lyon on October 18, 1382. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati before September 16, 1394 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1394, which elected Antipope Benedict XIII. While Antipope Clement VII lived, Cardinal La Grange kept the balance between the loyalty to him and to the king of France; when the antipope died, he exclusively served the monarch and detached himself from the new antipope, Benedict XIII; he was one of the promoters of the abandonment of the obedience of Avignon in 1398. In his will, the cardinal stipulated that at his death, his bones should be separated in two parts and that they should be buried in the cathedral of Amiens and at Collège Saint-Martial in Avignon (2).

Death. April 24 (or 14), 1402, Avignon. Probably, according to his will, part of his body was buried next to the left door of the choir, with an epitaph (3) and his white marble statue, in the cathedral of Notre-Dame, Amiens; and another part in a mausoleum in Collège Saint-Martial in Avignon (4); this mausoleum, which is partially destroyed, is now in parts in the museum of Petit Palais d'Avignon. The monument is formed by a group of statues representing the Annunciation; the jascent statue of the cardinal (gisant); and a realist view of his cadaver (transi).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 242-243; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 609-610; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 645-649; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 161-162; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 39, 43 and 85.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; his engraving and biography, in French, p. 645-649; portrait and biography, in French; his arms in a stained glass window in the prioral church of Saint-Martin de Ambierle; his tomb in the cathedral of Notre-Dame, Amiens (destroyed in 1751 and partially recovered in 1855); Le mausolée du Cardinal de Lagrange à Avignon by Eugène Müntz, in French; his sculpture, called beau pillier, cathedral of Notre-Dame of Amiens; his mausoleum, Collège Saint-Martial, Avignon; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 161; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 22, 39 and 43; his biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was bishop of Frascati from 1379 until 1391; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. XX, says that he occupied the see from 1379 until his death on April 24, 1402.
(2) There is no certainty if this was ever done but the two mausoleums existed.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 609:

HIC IACET REVERENDISSIMVS IN CHRISTO PATER DOMINVS
DOMINVS IOANNES DE GRANGIA ABBAS FISCANENSIS
DEINDE EPISCOPVS AMBIANENSIS POSTREMO VERO
SANCTAE ROMANAE ECCLESIAE CARDINALIS TVSCVLANVS
QUI OBIIT ANNO MCCCCII. DIE XXIV. MENSIS APRILIS.
ORATE DEVM PRO EO VT REQUIESCAT IN PACE IN PARADISO.


(4) Following are the inscriptions below the sculpture of his cadaver; and his epitaph, both taken from Müntz, Le mausolée du Cardinal de Lagrange à Avignon, p. 8, linked above:

Spectaculum facti sumus mundo ut majores et minores in nobis clare videant ad quem statum redigentur, neminem exludendo, cujusvis status sexus vel ætatis. Ergo miser cur superbis, nam cinis es et in cavdaver fetidum, cibum et estam vermium ac cinerem, sic et nos, reverteris.


Hic jacet Reverendissimus in Xpo pater dns Joannes de Grangia abbas Fiscanensis, deinde epcus Ambianensis postremo vero S. R. T. cardinalis Tusculanus, qui obiit Anno Domini 1402, die 24 mensis Aprilis. Orate Deum pro eout requiescat in pace in paradiso.

Cool Archive

(19) 7. SORTENAC, Pierre de (?-1390)

Birth. (No date found), Caraman, archdiocese of Toulouse, France. He is also listed as Pierre de Bernier. His last name is also listed as de Bernia, Sortenaco, Sarunas and Sarcenas. He was called the Cardinal of Viviers.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Dean of Saint-Félix de Caraman, archdiocese of Toulouse, in 1368. Apostolic écrivain in the papal court in Avignon. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viviers in October 1373; confirmed, October 13, 1374; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in the consistory of December 20, 1375. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; he passed to the obedience of the antipope. In November 1380, he participated, with Cardinals Pierre Flandrin and Guillaume Noellet, in a mission before the Italian cardinals who were in Nice. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina in March 1384. He made his last profession of obedience to the antipope in his death bed on August 16, 1390.

Death. August 17 (or 16), 1390 (1), Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1730; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 243-244; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 610; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 162; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 38, 43 and 533.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 162; Berton, Dictionnaire des Cardinaux, col. 1730, indicates that he died in 1394.

Cool Archive

(20) 8. DU PUY, O.S.B.Clun., Gérard (?-1389)

Birth. (No date found), château du Puy, Rosiers-d'Egletous, diocese of Tulle, France. Cousin or nephew of Gregory XI. His last name is also listed as di Luy, de Podio e Puteo and de Poggio.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) of Cluny.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of Saint-Pierre aux Monts, diocese of Tour, in 1350. Abbot of Montmajour (Monmaggiore), archdiocese of Tours, in 1363; succeeded one of his brothers. Vicar general of the pope and governor of Perugia and Campagna e Marittima in 1372; he was besieged in Perugia. Governor of the province of the Patrimony; he had to fight an uprising of the population that turned into an open war.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1375; entered the papal curia on February 3, 1377 and received the title of S. Clemente. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; passed to the obedience of the antipope.

Death. February 14, 1389, Avignon. Buried in the church of the Franciscans (Cordeliers) in Avignon.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 244-245; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 610-611; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 650; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 162; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22 and 41.

Webgraphy. His arms and brief biographical entry, in French, p. 650; biography, in French; and text of his epitaph, from Eugène Müntz, "L'antipape Clément VII : essai sur l'histoire des arts à Avignon vers la fin du XIVe siècle", Revue d'Archeologie, (1888), p. 15.

Cool Archive

(21) 9. MARTÍNEZ DE LUNA Y PÉREZ DE GOTOR, Pedro (ca. 1328-1423)

Birth. Ca. 1328 (1), Illueca, Zaragoza, kingdom of Aragón. Of a one of the most illustrious feudal families of the kingdom of Aragón. Son of Juan Martínez de Luna, señor of Luna and of Medina, and Maria Pérez de Gotor, señora of Illueca and of Gotor. Relative of Pseudocardinal Gautier Gómez de Luna (1381). He is also listed as Pedro de Luna. He was called the Cardinal of Luna or of de Aragón.

Education. Studied at the University of Montpellier, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Professor of canon law at the University of Montpelleir. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Cuenca. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Zaragoza. Provost of the cathedral chapter of Valencia.

Sacred orders. He received the subdiaconate in 1352.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin in the consistory of December 20, 1375. Participated in the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI; he was the last cardinal to abandon the pope; he did not join the other cardinals in Anagni until June 24, 1378. Participated in the conclave of September 1378, which elected Antipope Clement VII; joined the obedience of the antipope. Legate in the kingdom of Aragón from December 30, 1378 until December 15, 1390; he obtained the adherence of Aragón, Castile, Navarre, and Portugal to the obedience of Avignon; also, he reformed the University of Salamanca, and presided over several reforming synods. He was a friend of Vicente Ferrer, future saint. In 1393, he was named legate to France and other countries; in Paris, he said that the schism should end by the abdication of both popes, indicating that that he would follow this path if he were pontiff (2). Participated in the conclave of 1394 and was elected antipope.

Antipapacy. Elected antipope on September 28, 1394. Took the name Benedict XIII.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 3, 1394, cathedral of Notre-Dame des Doms, Avignon, by Cardinal Jean de Neufchatel, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Episcopate. Received the episcopal consecration on October 11, 1394, cathedral of Avignon, from Cardinal Jean de Neufchatel, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Crowned, October 11, 1394, cathedral of Avignon, by Cardinal Pierre de Vergne, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Deposed on June 5, 1409, by the Council of Pisa; and on July 26, 1417, by the Council of Constance; he did not accept either deposition. He created nineteen pseudocardinals in seven consistories.

Death. November 29, 1422 or May 23, 1423 (3), Peñíscola, diocese of Valencia. Buried in the parish church of Peñíscola. In 1429 or 1430, his nephew, Rodrigo de Luna, transferred his remains to the castle of Illueca; he transformed the room where Benedict XIII had been born into a chapel and buried the remains there; in 1811, the French troops sacked the residence of the Lunas and the sepulchre of the antipope was destroyed; the remains were scattered and only the skull was saved. In April 2000, the urn containing the antipope's skull was stolen from the chapel of the palace of the counts of Argillo, which was in ruins and without protection, situated in the locality of Sabiñán, Zaragoza. The thieves sent three ransom notes to the town's mayor demanding one million pesetas for the skull's return. After several attempts, the skull was recovered a few months later.

Bibliography. Bayerri y Bertomeu, Enrique; Eguíluz López de Murga, Ángel. Un gran aragonés; el Papa Pedro de Luna. Barcelona : Porter Libros, 1973; Canellas López, Ángel. Papa Luna . Zaragoza : Diputación General de Aragón, Departamento de Cultura y Educación, 1991. (Colección "Los aragoneses" ; 6); Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 245-246; Casas, Augusto María. El Papa Luna. Barcelona : Luis Miracle, 1944; Catalá Bolinches, J. El castillo de Peñíscola : sede pontificia del Papa Luna. Vinaròs : Castell, 1962; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 611; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 162; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 29-30 and 51; Gascón de Gotor, Anselmo. Pedro de Luna, el pontífice que no cedió. Madrid : Biblioteca Nueva, 1956; Glasfurd, Alexander Lamont. The antipope: Peter de Luna, 1342-1423; a study in obstinacy. New York : Roy publishers, 1966, ©1965; Ilari, Annibale. "Benedetto XIII, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 132-133; Jornadas de Estudio VI Centenario del Papa Luna : Calatayud-Illueca, 1994. Calatayud (Zaragoza) : Centro de Estudios Bilbilitanos, Institución "Fernando el Católico", 1996; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 232-234; Maeso de la Torre, Jesús. El Papa Luna : Benedictus XIII y el Cisma de Occidente. Barcelona : Edhasa, 2002 (Narrativas históricas Edhasa); Morales, Angélica ; Ubé, José Manuel. Benedicto XIII, el Papa Luna : el hombre que fue piedra. Ilustraciones: José Manuel Ubé. Cuarte de Huerva (Zaragoza) : Delsan Libros, 2006. (Personajes / Delsan ; 8); Moxó y Montoliu, Francisco de. El Papa Luna : un imposible empeño : estudio político-económico. 2 vols. Zaragoza : Editorial Libreria General, 1986. (Colección Aragón ; 72-73); Panzán, Luis, ca. 1389; Andrés, Gregorio de. Recordanzas en tiempo del papa Luna (1407-1435). Edición, prólogo y notas por Gregorio de Andrés.Madrid : Fundación Universitaria Española, 1987. (Publicaciones de la Fundación Universitaria Española.; Clasicos olvidados ; 10); Parrilla, José Antonio ; Muñiz, José Antonio ; Caride, Camilo. Benedicto XIII : la vida y el tiempo del Papa Luna. Corp Author: Grup Nono/Art. Introducción y asesoramiento histórico, J. Ángel Sesma Muñoz. Zaragoza : Caja de Ahorros de la Inmaculada Aragón, 1987. (Publicación ; no. 42; Variation: Publicación ... de la Caja de Ahorros de la Inmaculada ; no. 42); Pereira Pagán, Begoña. El Papa Luna : Benedicto XIII. Madrid : Alderabán, 1999. (Coleccisn El legado de la historia ; no. 18); Pérez de Urbel, Justo. Un español universal, el Papa Luna. Castellón : Publicaciones de la Excma. Diputación Provincial, 1972; Puig y Puig, Sebastián. Pedro de Luna, último papa de Aviñón (1387-1430). Barcelona, Editorial políglota, 1920. Note: At head of title: Episcopologio barcinonense; Rico de Estasen, José. Peñíscola y el Papa Luna. Madrid : [s.l.], 1957; Sesma Muñoz, Ángel. Benedicto XIII, el Papa Luna : muestra de documentación histórica aragonesa en conmemoración del sexto centenario de la elección papal de Don Pedro Martínez de Luna (Aviñsn, 28 septiembre 1394) : Sala Corona de Aragón, Edificio Pignatelli, 28 de septiembre--31 de octubre, 1994. Zaragoza : Gobierno de Aragón, 1994. Other title: Benedicto trece; Benedicto décimotercero; Simó Castillo, Joan B. Pedro de Luna : el papa de Peñíscola. Barcelona : Eduard Fabregat, Editor, 1994; Simó Castillo, Juan B. Peñíscola : ciudad histórica y morada del Papa Luna. Ed. corr. y aum. Barcelona : Ediciones Avesta, 1983; Simó Castillo, Juan B. La verdad sobre el "indestronable" Papa Luna. Bilbao : Comunicación Literaria de Autores, 1976; Vaquero Piñeiro, Manuel. "Benedetto XIII, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 606-610; Xavier, Adro. El Papa de Peñíscola : un siglo de Europa. Barcelona : Ediciones Petronio, 1975.

Webgraphy. Biography by Johann Peter.Kirsch, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Enyclopaedia Britannica; biography, in French, Dictionnaire de biographies roussillonnaises de l'abbé Capeille (1914); biography, in Spanish, ArteHistoria; biography, in Spanish, Aragón es así; biography, in Spanish, Biografías y Vidas; biography, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Aragonesa; biography, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp, Canal Social; Peñíscola y el Papa Luna por Francisco Contreras Gil, in Spanish; biography, in Spanish, caiaragon; portrait and biography, in Spanish, Calatayud.org; his coronation in a illuminated manuscript; his arms in the castle of Peñíscola, Lemonpage; mausoleum in the Castle of Illueca (Castle Palace of Pope Luna), where his remains rested until the French Invasion; his portrait by Henri Ségur, 19th century, Palace of the Popes, Avignon (the legend below the portrait erroneously identifies it with the one of Antipope Clement VII); and bust-reliquary of San Valero, given by Antipope Benedict XIII in 1397 to the cathedral of Zaragoza; traditionally, it has been considered his own likeness.

(1) This the most commonly given date of birth but in some sources, the date ranges from this year to ca. 1343.
(2) According to Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 232, "Although apparent readiness to step down helped him to get elected, he was in fact to contribute more than anyone, by his adroitness, obstinacy, and unshakeable belief in his legitimacy, to the tragic prolongation of the schism, in spite of pressure from the French court, hierarchy, and university world."
(3) The discrepancy in the date of his death is attributed to the pseudocardinals of the antipope hiding his death for some time.

Cool Archive

TARTARI, O.S.B., Pietro (?-1395)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a patrician family. His last name is also listed as de Tartaris.

Education. Entered the Congregation of Monte Oliveto; later, he passed to the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines). He was called the Cardinal of Rieti, although he does not appear in the episcopal catalog of that see.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of the monastery of S. Maria Nuova, Rome. Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Roma. Pope Gregory XI named him 82nd abbot of the Benedictine abbey of Monte Cassino in 1374; occupied the post until 1395.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest toward 1375; his title is not known. Grand chancellor of Naples. Deprived of the cardinalate and of the abbatial cross by Pope Urban VI in 1385; he was reinstated by Pope Boniface IX in December 1389. Some sources doubt that he was ever created a cardinal (1).

Death. June 4, 1395, monastery of Montecassino. Buried in that monastery.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 246-248; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 611-613; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 162; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22.

(1) According to Noël Valois, La prolongation du grand schisme d'Occident au XVe sihcle dans le midi de la France. (Nogent-le-Rotrou : Imprimerie Daupeley-Gouverneur, 1899), the cardinals having decided to elect an Italian, who was not a cardinal, in order to pretend or hide their decision to elect Bartolomeo Prignano, archbishop of Bari, they asked seven Italian prelates, more than enough to elect a pope from among them, to attend. The seven prelates were Tommaso degli Ammannati, Agapito Colonna, the bishops of Nocera and Asti, the abbot of Monte Cassino, the patriarch of Constantinople, and the archbishop of Bari (Prignano), who was at the end elected pope Urban VI. This means that Abbot Tartari was among the candidates and, at the same time confirms, doubtlessly, that he was not a cardinal. Perhaps the candidacy, which prolonged itself after the death of Pope Urban VI, may have originated the confusion of believing that he had been created cardinal. With the information from Valois, it seems possible to deny with certitude that Abbot Tartari was ever created cardinal by Pope Gregory XI. If he had been promoted to the cardinalate in 1375, he would have been present in the conclave of April 1378 by his own right. His presence as an invited outsider allows the discarding of his promotion to the cardinalate three years earlier.

Cool Archive

BEGAIGNON, O.P., Yves de (1309-1378)

Birth. 1309, Plestin, now diocese of Saint-Brieuc, France. His first name is also listed as Even and Rumen; and his last name as Begaynon.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in Morlaix in 1326. Obtained a doctorate in Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Rector de Plestin in 1339. Apostolic penitentiary.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tréguier, November 28, 1362; occupied the see until shortly before June 1371, when he was promoted to the cardinalate (1). Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1374 (2). He accompanied Pope Gregory XI in his trip from Avignon to Rome. Some sources indicate that he was named bishop of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina but he does not appear in any of the catalogs of occupants of that see. Grand penitentiary, May 1371.

Death. 1378 (3), Rome. Buried in the Domincian church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 248-249; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 613-614; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 162; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22 and 494.

Webgraphy. Catalog of the bishops of Tréguier; he is no. 35; includes his arms and brief biographical information in French; brief biographical information, in French; and another catalog of bishops of Tréguier, p. 1503.

(1) This is according to Louis Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge (Paris : V. Palmé, 1889), p. 1503; who also indicates that he died in 1378.
(2) This is according to Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 642; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 162, says that he should be eliminated from the list of cardinals created by Pope Gregory XI; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 22, suggests the same; the catalog of bishops of Tréguier says that he was created cardinal and named grand penitentiary in May 1371.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIVè siècle jusqu'au Grand Schisme". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1930, p. 162; this source also says that Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 294, indicates that he died before May 5, 1371; his brief biographical information in French, linked above, also says that he died in 1378; the catalog of bishops of Tréguier, linked above, also indicates that he died in 1371.

Top Consistories Catalogs Home

©1998-2015 Salvador Miranda.