The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Urban VI (1378-1389)
Consistory of September 18, 1378 (I)
Celebrated in Rome


(1) 1. FRIGNANO, O.F.M., Tommaso da (ca. 1305-1381)

Birth. Ca. 1305, probably in Modena. Of a notable family, originally from the region of Monte Frignano and later established in Modena. Son of Cesare di Ottavio. Two of his brothers, Conversino and Bonatto, were physicians; the first one Buda, Hungary, as personal doctor of King Ludovico d'Anjou; and the second one was or a long time a physician in Bologna.His first name is also listed as Thomasinus; and his last name as Farignani. He was called the Cardinal of Grado.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) in Modena at a quite young age. Magister in theology. He became a distinguished orator.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). In 1349, he was among the electors of the provincial minister of Bologna. Custodian of the convent of Ferrara. Lector of theology at the convent of Bologna. Elected provincial of the province of Bologna in 1352; occupied the post until 1360; celebrated a provincial chapter in Imola on October 25, 1359. In 1364, he was one of the founders of the theological faculty of the University of Bologna; successively, he was one of its professors. Elected minister general of his order (over Tommaso Racani, the candidate recommended by Cardinal Nicolas de Besse, protector of the order) in the general chapter celebrated in Assisi on June 6, 1367; shortly after, he was deposed because of false accusations by his adversaries against the purity of his faith; found to be innocent by a commission named by Pope Urban V, he was restored to his post at the beginning of 1370 in a solemn ceremony celebrated in the old basilica of Saint Peter in Rome; on June 2, 1379, in the chapter held in Naples, he received again the post of general.

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of Grado, July 19, 1372. Consecrated (no information found). Pope Gregory XI entrusted him and embassy to Genoa to conclude a peace treaty between Cyprus and Genoa; the mission failed. On October 8, 1372, he was sent, as legate, to Genoa to placate the conflict between the doge and the nobility; his mission was successful. He went as legate, before King Lajos I of Hungary, before the dukes of Austria, and before the republic of Venice to form the basis for a peace between Venice and Francesco da Carrara of Padua. In 1373, his diplomatic activity was devoted to the formation of an Italian league against Barnabò Visconti, signore of Milan.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo in the consistory of September 18, 1378; retained the administration of his see until his death. When Fr. Leonardo Rossi da Giffoni, minister general of his order, joined the obedience of Antipope Clement VII, he governed the order as vicar general until the election of a new minister general. In 1378, Pope Urban VI named him apostolic visitor of the Order Camaldolese; in 1374, Pope Gregory XI had authorized him to visit its convents in his patriarchate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati at the end of 1378 or on May 30, 1380 (1); probably retained the administration of his title. He may have become dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in December 1378. He was a member of the inquisition. He was one of the cardinals charged by Pope Urban VI in 1379 with starting the process of canonization of St. Brigitte of Sweden; she was canonized by Pope Boniface IX. He was celebrated in a letter of Francesco Petrarch, his friend, to the pope.

Death. November 19, 1381, in odor of sanctity, Franciscan convent of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome. Buried in front of the altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome; today, the funeral monument has disappeared, but in the 18th century, some of its inscriptions could still be read.

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. 43-44; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 252-254; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 635; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 39, 45 and 266; Orsoni, Alessandro. Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia. Corredata di annotazioni illustranti l'ecclesiastico-civile veneta storia. Venezia : Tip. G.S. Felice, 1828, p. 240; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, I, 36-39.

Links. Biography by Hélène Angiolini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 50 (1998), Treccani; biographical entry, in English, Bibliography of Franciscan Authors, a co-production of Maarten van der Heijden and Bert Roest; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The first date is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 128; the second one is given by Ritzler, "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, I, 37.

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(2) 2. PRATA, Pietro Pileo di (ca. 1320/1330-1400/1401)

Birth. Ca. 1330, Concordia Veneta, Friuli (or in Padua). Of the counts of Prata. Son of Biaquino di Prata, count of Porcia and Brugnera, and signore of Ragogna, and Enselgarda da Carrara. He was called the Cardinal of Ravenna. His first name also listed as Francesco di ser Puccio di Vico pisano.

Education. "Ammaestrato nelle scienze ecclesiastiche, e canoniche..." (1).

Early life. Archpriest of the cathedral chapter of Padua.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Treviso, June 1, 1358; never took possession of the see. Transferred to the see of Padua, June 12, 1359. Consecration (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ravenna, January 23, 1370; the promotion was in compensation for not having been promoted to the patriarchate of Aquileia, which was refused by Pope Urban V in spite of the instances of the Florentines. On January 3, 1371, he was in Bologna with the pope, who named him legate. Nuncio in Brugge in 1375. On January 4, 1378, Pope Gregory XI offered to transfer him to the see of Tournai, with the privilege of a pallium and the promise of a patriarchate when one became vacant; it seems that he declined the offer.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prassede in the consistory of September 18, 1378; retained the administration of his see. Named legate in Germany before Count Louis de Flanders; on September 29, 1378, he received faculties from the pope to also go to Denmark, Sweden and Norway; he wrote the king of France, Charles V, in 1378; he was in Mainz in 1380 with King Wenceslas of the Romans and the king of Bohemia. Cardinal protoprete in May 1381. Legate in England. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati before November 10, 1385, after of his return to Rome from his legation. He went to Naples to reconcile King Carlo and Pope Urban VI, his prisoner. At the end of 1385, together with four more cardinals, he signed a letter, addressed to the Roman clergy, about the violent acts of Urban VI. The pope imprisoned him but he escaped, burned his red hat in the square of Pavia in 1386, and allied himself with Antipope Clement VII, who accepted him and sent him another hat to Pavia at the end of the year with Nuncio Pierre Girard, future cardinal. Named by the antipope administrator of the see of Viviers on January 29, 1387; occupied the post until September 1390. Arrived in Avignon on June 13, 1387 and shortly after, received the title of S. Prisca. On October 7, 1387, Pope Urban VI excommunicated and deprived him of the cardinalate and the archbishopric of Ravenna; the pope also revoked his post as administrator of Viviers on December 23, 1388. Sent by Antipope Clement VII as legate, at the head of an army, to Northern Italy on February 9, 1388. At the death of Pope Urban VI, he returned to the obedience of the pope of Rome, Pope Boniface IX, who renamed him cardinal in 1389, sent him another red hat; and later, in the secret and public consistories of February 13, 1391, made him bishop of Frascati. He is also known as Tricapella (de tribus capellis se pileis) for the three red hats that he received. In 1392, he was charged with the reorganization of the University of Perugia. Legate in Umbria in 1393. He founded Collegio Pratense in Padua in 1394; he left all his wealth to the institution for the formation and support of twenty students of canon law. Returned to Rome on January 9, 1397. Named vicar general of the pope in Rome; he pontificated in Christmas 1398 in the presence of seven cardinals.

Death. Toward 1400 or December 1401, Rome. Buried in the cathedral of Padua (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 255-264; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 637-638; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 128-129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 39, 45, 386, 415 and 480.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico Friulano; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait by Giuseppe Buzzi (1736), diocese of Concordia-Pordenone, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); and his tomb attributed to Pierpaolo dalle Masegne and to Pietro di Nicolr Lamberti and Jacobello delle Masegne, 15th century (1402-1404), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 256, "Trained in the ecclesiastical and canonical sciences..."
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 638:

Stirpe Comes PRATAE praeclarus ofigine multos
Dotibus insignis, seclo celeberrimus , Vrbe
Defunctus, statuit sua sic suprema voluntas.
Hac Cardinalis PILEVS tumulatur in urna.

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(3) 3. MORICOTTI PRIGNANI, Francesco (Frst half of the 14th century-1394)

Birth. In the first half of the 14th century, Vico, archdiocese of Pisa. Nephew of Pope Urban VI. He is also listed as Francesco Prignano and as Francesco Moricotti da Vico. His last name is also listed as Pucci. He was called the Cardinal of Pisa.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He is first documented as canon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Pisa on Septembr 3, 1352; and in another one of February 8, 1355; later he was the primicerius of the chapter.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Pisa, May 16, 1362; resigned the see when he was promoted to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1378; received the title of S. Eusebio shortly after November 24, 1378. Named governor of Campagna on April 21, 1380. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, in July 1380. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1381. Named governor of the county of Fondi in 1381. He accompanied the pope in his numerous trips. Regent of the Apostolic Chancery in August 1382; named vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church on October 22, 1385. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX.

Death. February 6, 1394 (1), Assisi. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Pisa (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 255; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 636; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 37, 42 and 400.

Links. Biography by Maria Grazia Blasio, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 76 (2012), Treccani; his tomb, Camposanto, Pisa, Italy, Art and Architecture; detail of the tomb, Art and Architecture; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 129; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 23 and 37; his epitaph, transcribed in note 2, says that he died in 1395.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 636:

SEP. FRANCISCI MORICOTTI PISANI
CARD. S. R. E. VICECANCELLARII
PATRIAE ARCHIEPISCOPI
OBIIT ANNO DOMINI
MCCCXCV.

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(4) 4. RODOLFUCCI DE GENTILI, Luca (?-1389)

Birth. (No date found), Camerino, archdiocese of Camerino. He is also listed as Luca Gentili; and his last name as Gentili Ridolfucci. He was called the Cardinal of Nocera. Another cardinal of the family was Antonio Saverio Gentili (1731).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Early life. He was a very able jurisconsult. Archdeacon of Camerino.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nocera Umbra, July 21, 1363. Consecrated, December 21, 1363, in the Franciscan church of Ancona, by Cardinal Gil Álvarez de Albornoz, bishop of Sabina and papal legate. Vicar of Pope Gregory XI in Rome in1378.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sisto in the consistory of September 18, 1378; retained the administration of his see until his death. Governor of the duchy of Spoleto from 1380 until 1388; returned to the Roman Curia on March 3, 1386, after having reestablished the peace in Todi. In 1385, with four other cardinals, he signed the letter to the Roman clergy against the violence of Pope Urban VI. Cardinal primoprete in November 1385.

Death. January 18, 1389, Perugia. His body was transferred to Camerino and buried in is cathedral, where his epitaph can still be seen (1); his funeral monument was restored by Venanzio Ridolfiucci, prior and archdeacon of Camerino, in 1619.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 278-279; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 646-646; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 47 and 373.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col 646:

D.     O.     M.
LUCAE RODVLPHVCCIO CAMERATI
Tit. S. Syxti S. R. E. Cardinali
Qui huius Basilcæ
Quondam Prior, & Archidiaconus Camerinensis
Tum Episcopus Nucerimus
Romæ Gregorio XI. Pont. Max.
Vic. fuit
Deinde ab Vrbano VI.
Cardinalis creatus
Atque in Pannoniam missus
Postremo Perugiæ cum legatione fungeretur
Obiens
Ossa Camerinum translata
In Templo S. Venatii sepeliri mandavit
Anno Sal. MCCCLXXXIX.
Venantius Rodulphuccius
Eiusdem Basilicæ Prior
Gentili suo
Monumentum antiquitate deformatum
Ornavit, posuitque
Et Lauretanæ Virigni sacellum erexit
Anno salutis MDCXIX.

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(5) 5. BONTEMPI MARTINI, Andrea (?-1390)

Birth. (No date found), Perugia. His last name is also listed as Martini Buontempi. He was called the Cardinal of Perugia.

Education. Studied philosophy and was considered an erudite philosopher.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Perugia. Administrator of the priorate of S. Lucia in Florence.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Perugia in 1353; confirmed on May 2, 1354. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro in the consistory of September 18, 1378; retained the administration of his see until his death; on July 29, 1380, he named Francesco di Marcatello, doctor in law, as his vicar general in Perugia. In 1378, he effected the translation of the head and an arm of S. Ercolano, bishop and martyr, patron of the city. Governor of Marche Anconitana in 1381. Legate of Pope Urban VI and Boniface IX in Picenum. Cardinal primoprete in January 1389. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX; he entered the conclave on October 27, coming from Marche Anconiata.

Death. July 16, 1390, Recanati. Buried in the cathedral of that city.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 266-267; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 639-640; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 44 and 396.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(6) 6. BADOARO DE PERAGA, O.E.S.A., Bonaventura (1332-1381 or 1389)

Birth. June 22, 1332, Padua. Of a noble family. The Venetian form of his last name is Badoer. His last name is also listed as Badoario; as Baduarius; as Baduario; and as Baduaro. He was called the Cardinal of Padua.

Education. Entered the Order of the Eremites of Saint Augustine, when he was very young. Magister in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Professor at the University of Paris. Pope Innocent VI entrusted him the foundation of a collegio at the University of Bologna. Elected prior general of his order in Verona on May 17, 1377. Nuncio of Pope Gregory XI before King Louis of Hungary.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in the consistory of September 18, 1378. He was the first Augustinian cardinal. On June 1, 1381, he subscribed a bull of Pope Urban VI. He was the author of numerous works, Scriptural commentaries, lives of saints, sermons, and the funeral oration of Petrarch in 1369; he corresponded with Caterina da Siena, future saint.

Death. Either on July 10, 1381 (or 1389) (1), assassinated, hit by an arrow, by order of the tyrant of Padua, Francesco Carrara, while crossing the bridge of Castello Sant'Angelo to enter the Vatican. Buried in the church of S. Trifone; later, his remains were transferred to the chapel of S. Nicola de Tolentino in the church of S. Agostino (2). He is considered by many a martyr for the freedom of the Church.

Beatification. The Augustinian martyrology venerates him as a blessed.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 299-302; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 59-660; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23 and 40; Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert. 2 vol. Bearbeitet von Tassilo Blittersdorff ... [et al.], unter Mitarbeit von Hanns Jäger-Sunstenau und Walter Koch ; redigiert von Jörg Garms, Roswitha Juffinger und Bryan Ward-Perkins. Rom : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981-1994. (Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstituts in Rom. 2. Abteilung, Quellen ; 5. Reihe; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstituts in Rom.; 2. Abteilung, Quellen ; 5. Reihe). Contents: 1. Bd. Die Grabplatten und Tafeln -- 2. Bd. Die Monumentalgrdber, I, 314.

Links. His biography by David Perini, O.S.A., 1912, in Italian, the portrait represent S. Bonaventura da Bagnoregio; his biography, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait and brief biographical data, in Italian, Associazione storico-culturale Sant'Agostino; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms; and the Peraga family, in Italian; at the end, there is a biographical entry of the cardinal, Wikipedia.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 129, indicates that some sources say that he was killed in 1379, which is impossible because the cardinal signed a bull two years later, in 1381; "Essai" adds that he died on June 10, 1381 or 1389.
(2) This is the inscription in his tomb, taken from Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert, I, 314:

HIC BONAUENTURA E(ST) QVI DOCT(US) DOG/MATE SACRO
AUGUSTINE TUIS HEREMIS IA(M)
P(RAE)FUIT ORBIS PADUA
P(OST) UECTUS AD SOLIUM CAR-D(IN)IS
INDE AN(N)I MILLENI DECIES SEPTEMQ(VE)
TRICENI [ACDI]TIS HIIS NOUE(M) CHR(IST)I REQVIEUIT I(N) URBE
CELI CIUES A(N)I(M)AM TU POSSIDES OSSA SEP[ULCHRUM]

The tomb's slab with the inscription is presently in Museo di Palazzo Venezia, Rome

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(7) 7. CARACCIOLO MOSCHINO, O.P., Niccoló (First half of the 14th century-1389)

Birth. First half of the 14th century, Naples. Of a noble and illustrious family. Relative of Cardinal Corrado Caraccioli (1405). He is also listed as Caracciolo, Nicola Moschino (Misquinus, Moscinus). His second last name is also listed as Misquin. He was called the Cardinal of S. Ciriaco.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). In 1363, the general chapter of his Order, gathered in Magdeburg, nominated him lector of theology in the convent of Florence. Later, he taught theology at the convent of S. Domenico in Naples. Inquisitor of the kingdom of Sicily, where he maintained very good relations with Queen Giovanna I. The queen sent him to Rome to congratulate new Pope Urban VI for his election to the pontificate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Ciriaco alle Terme in the consistory of September 18, 1378. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from 1378 to 1386, when he resigned the post. Named grand penitentiary in August 1379 or on March 3, 1389.

Episcopate. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Messina from 1380 to 1387. Legate in Perugia in 1387. Later, he was legate in Venice and in Naples. Author of a Summa on the sacrament of penance.

Death. July 29, 1389, Rome, with fame of holiness. Buried in the Dominican church of S. Maria sopra Minerva.

Beatification. He died in odor of sanctity and is venerated as a blessed.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 269-270; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 641; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23 and 41.

Links. Biography by Giulia Barone, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(8) 8. CARAFA, Filippo (ca. 1340-1389)

Birth. Ca. 1340, Naples. Of a noble family. His last name is also listed as Caraffa. He was called the Cardinal of Bologna. Other cardinals of the family were: Oliviero Carafa (1467); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Gian Pietro Carafa (1536), future Pope Paul IV; Carlo Carafa (1555); Diomede Carafa (1555); Alfonso Carafa (1557); Antonio Carafa (1568); Decio Carafa (1611); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844). His last name is also listed as Carafa della Serra.

Education. Studied law at the University of Bologna under Giovanni da Legnano, later papal vicar general of Bologna; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. As a young man, he went to Rome. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna by 1373. Lector of law in Bologna in the 1370s.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in the consistory of September 18, 1378; the pope sent him the red hat to Bologna with Giovanni da Legnano; the new cardinal received it at the church of S. Domenico, together with Cardinal Bartolomeo Mezzavacca.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bologna, September 28, 1378; named administrator of spiritual and temporal affairs of the see of Bologna, February 14, 1381 (1); occupied the post until his death. Attended the funeral of Giovanni da Legnano at the church of S. Domenico on February 16, 1383.

Death. May 22 or 23, 1389, between 5 and 6 a.m., of the plague, Bologna. Buried in the cathedral of Bologna; later, in 1397, his remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb, in the sacristy of that cathedral (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 281-283; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 647-648; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 129-130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 47 and 141; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 227-231.

Links. Biography by Alfred A. Strnad, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Treccani; brief biographical entry, in English, under "Filippo Carafa", Pennington, Catholic University of America; his portrait, 19th century (1800-1899), archdiocese of Bologna; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Meluzzi, Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 229. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 130; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 141, indicate that he was named administrator on September 29, 1378.
(2) This is the text of his brief epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 648:

HIC EST CORPVS REVERENDI IN CHRISTO PATRIS
ET DOMINI D. PHILIPPI DE CARAFIS DE NEAPOLI
CARDINALIS BONONIENSIS.

A slightly different text is offered by Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 230:

Hic corpus est Reverendi in Christo Patris et Domino
D. Philippi de Carafis de Neapoli quondam Episcopi
et Cardinalis Bononiensis.

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(9) 9. TARLATI DE PETRAMALA, Galeotto (ca. 1335/1340 -1397/1400)

Birth. Ca. 1335/1340, Arezzo. Of the signori of Arezzo. Son of Maso Tarlati, signore of Pietramala. His first name is also listed as Galeazzo. He was called the Cardinal of Petramala.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Agata in Suburra in the consistory of September 18, 1378. Legate of Pope Urban VI; he reentered the Roman Curia on December 16, 1385. Deposed as cardinal by Pope Urban VI, who accused him of trying to free the six cardinals he had imprisoned. Passed to the obedience of Antipope Clement VII in 1387; on May 5, 1388, he was received by the antipope and given the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro; the antipope sent him the red hat to Padua with Nuncio Pierre Girard, future cardinal. Participated in the conclave of 1394, which elected Antipope Benedict XIII; shortly after, he wrote to the Romans in favor of the antipope.

Death. Between 1397 and 1400, Vienne, Dauphiné. Buried in a chapel he had built in the Franciscan church of Monte Alvernia.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 285-286; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 650; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 48 and 50.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(10) 10. AMELIA, Giovanni d' (1309-1385/1386)

Birth. 1309, Amelia, near Terni. Son oif Matteuccio. He is also listed as ohannes Matutii; and his last name as Da Amelia; and as Amadeo.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. He was a theologian and orator. Papal chaplain. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Prior of the church of Todi. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Patras.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Corfu, February 15, 1376. Consecrated (no information found). He was called to Rome and named administrator of his see; occupied the post until October 2, 1378.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sabina in the consistory of September 18, 1378. Conspired against Pope Urban VI together with Cardinals Gentile di Sangro, Adam Easton, O.S.B., Ludovico Donato, O.F.M., Bartolomeo de Coturno, O.F.M., and Marino Giudice. They were arrested and imprisoned in the Castle of Nocera Umbria by order of the pope on January 11, 1385; subjected to torture, they admitted their guilt on the following January 21; five of them (excluding Cardinal Amelia), wrote a letter to the Roman clergy denouncing the pope's violence; all the accused, except Cardinal Easton, were executed in Genoa in December 1385 or on January 11, 1386. Cardinal Easton was freed. The rents of his canonicate in Patras were claimed by the Apostolic Chamber on July 24, 1387 for the pope.

Death. Executed in December 1385 or on January 11, 1386. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 264-265; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 638-639; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 46 and 209.

Links. Biography by Salvatore Fodale, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 55 (2001), Treccani; biography, in Italian, under "Amadeo Giovanni", Araldica Vaticana;his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(11) 11. RUFFINI, O.P., Filippo (?-1380 or 1384)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. His last name is also listed as Ruffini Gezza. He was called the Cardinal of Tivoli.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) toward 1330.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Penitentiary at the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Isernia in December 1362. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Tivoli, November 8, 1367; celebrated a synod in 1369.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Susanna in the consistory of September 18, 1378. He authored a commentary of the physics of Aristotle.

Death. 1380 or 1384, Rome. Buried at the convent of S. Sabina, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 275-276; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 644; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 48, 287 and 485.

Link. His engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(12) 12. ORSINI, Poncello (?-1395)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of an ancient family. Son of Andrea Orsini and Mabilia Orsini. His first name is also listed as Ponce. He was called the Cardinal of Aversa or de Ursinus. The family gave the church several popes and cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Nicholas III (1277-1280); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Archdeacon of Virtuen, archdiocese of Genoa. Papal chaplain. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1365. Received the diaconate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aversa, June 19, 1370. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in the consistory of September 18, 1378. Legate in Marche. Vicar general in Sabina. Accompanied Pope Urban VI to Nocera in 1385; dismayed by the severity of the pope, he wrote, with Cardinal Pietro Pileo di Prata, a letter to the Roman clergy against the pope's violence. he escaped secretly and remained in hiding until the death of the pope. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Vicar of the pope in Rome. Cardinal primoprete in July 1390. He was the last commendatario of the hospice of S. Tommaso in Formia al Monte Celio, Rome, for the ransom of the captives, which had been established by Pope Innocent III.

Death. February 2 (or 11), 1395, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 278; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 645; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 41 and 123.

Link. Biography by Gaetano Moroni, in Italian, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; The Orsini Family by Johann Peter Kirsch, The Catholic Encyclopedia, the cardinal is number six.

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(13) 13. MEZZAVACCA, Bartolomeo (Shortly before 1350-1396)

Birth. Shortly before 1350, probably in Bologna, where the family had a house in the parish of S. Martino de Aposa, near the gate della Paglia, denominated also tower dei Mezzavacca. The paternal family, which had transferred from Parma in the previous century had obtained the Bolognese citizenship and changed the original last name Tagliaferri to Mezzavacca. Son of Guglielmo Mezzavacca and Tramontana (or Zana) de Garisendi. His last name is also listed as de Mezavacchis; and as Mezavachis. He was called the Cardinal of Rieti.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in the Studio of Bologna, on October 15, 1369.

Early life. On December 20, 1363, he was emancipated by his father. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ostuni, June 16, 1374. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Rieti, after April 1378; resigned the see in 1380.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of September 18, 1378; the pope sent him the red hat to Bologna with Giovanni da Legnano; the new cardinal received it at the church of S. Domenico, together with Cardinal Filippo Carafa della Serra. Legate before King Carlo III of Naples. He went into hiding and was deprived of the cardinalate by Pope Urban VI on October 15, 1383. In 1385, he signed the letter denouncing the violence of Pope Urban VI; and went to Avignon with Antipope Clement VII. On December 18, 1389, Pope Boniface IX restored his cardinalate with the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino. Legate in Genoa and Viterbo. Cardinal primoprete in February 1395.

Death. July (or June) 20 or 29, 1396, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, in front of the image of the Blessed Virign Mary attributed to Saint Luke (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 270-273; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 641-642; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 130-131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 44, 47, 381 and 416.

Links. Biography by Salvatore Fodale, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 74 (2010), Treccani; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 642:

HIC REQVIESCIT CORPVS BONAE MEMORIAE REVERENDISSIMI
IN CHRISTO PATRIS DOMINI D. BATHOLOMAEI DE
BONONIA TIT. S. MARTINI IN MONTIBVS PRESB. CARD.
QVI OBIIT ANNO. DOM. MCCCXCVI. DIE XX. MENSIS IVNII.

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(14) 14. MONTERUC, Renoul de (1351?-1382)

Birth. 1351?, Sadroc, Limousine, France. Grand-nephew of Pope Innocent VI. Nephew of Cardinal Pierre de Monteruc (1356), on his mother's side. His first name is also listed as Rainulfo, Rainolfo, Rainulfe, Raynulphe and Renou; and his last name as de Salvete Monteruc, de Selve de Montyrac, Selve de Montruc, Monteruco, de Gorza, de Gorse and de la Gorse. He was called the Cardinal of Sisteron.

Education. Studied at the University of Montpellier and obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Tournai.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sisteron, January 16, 1370. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana in the consistory of September 18, 1378. Regent of the Apostolic Chancery in 1378; the chancellor was his uncle, Cardinal Pierre, who had joined the obedience of Avignon. He brought the monks to his titular church. He prepared his will ten days before his death.

Death. August 15, 1382, Rome. Buried next to the door of the church of S. Pudenziana, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 279-280; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 646; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 46 and 454.

Links.His engraving and biography, in French; and another biography, in French.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 646:

HIC IACET REVEREN. PATER DOMINVS RAINVLPHVS TIT.
S. PVDENTIANAE PRESB. CARD. NATIONE LEMOVICEN. DE GENERE
D. INNOCEN. PP. VI. QVI IN HOC TIT. SVO MONACHOS CONSTITVIT. .....
AN. MCCCLXXXII. DIE XV. MENS. AVGVSTI.

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(15) 15. SANGRO, Gentile di (?-1385/1386)

Birth. (No date found), Naples. Of an ancient and noble family of Abruzzese origin. Fourth child of Matteo di Sangro, signore di Bugnara, and Candola di Barbarano, called Candinella. The other siblings were Giovanni, Rinaldo IV, Nicolò (signore of Rotella, Torremaggiore and Bugnara), Ugone, Rita (nun in the monastery of Santa Chiara in Sulmona) and another girl (who was married and later became a nun in the monastery of Santa Chiara in Sulmona in 1355). His first name is also listed as Gentilis.

Education. Studied law.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Adriano in the consistory of September 18, 1378. Named legate before King Carlo III of Naples in 1381; he crowned Queen Margherita di Durazzo in the cathedral of Naples on November 25, 1381. He was rigorous and excessively hard against the sympathizers of Antipope Clement VII; some bishops, archbishops, abbots and ecclesiastics had their assets confiscated; others were imprisoned; and some tortured; he publicly humiliated Pseudocardinals Giacomo d'Itri, patriarch of Constantinople, and Leonardo Rossi da Giffoni, minister general of the Franciscans, making them burn their red hats; they both endured prison from 1381 to 1386; he was recalled on August 15, 1382. He wrote the treatises "Defensorium pro Urbano adversus Clementem"; "Orationem gratulatoriam ad Carolum Regem"; and "Acta Legationis". Participated in a plot against Pope Urban VI; imprisoned on January 11, 1385; he was executed in Genoa, with four other cardinals, Marino del Giudice, Giovanni d'Amelia, Ludovico Donato, O.F.M., and Bartolomeo de Coturno, O.F.M., in December 1385 or on January 11, 1386.

Death. Executed in December 1385 or on January 11, 1386, in Genoa; his body was thrown to the sea. On February 8, 1387, the church of S. Angelo dei Grechi, diocese of Monopoli, of which he was commendatario, was granted to someone else.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 276-277; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 644-645; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23 and 48.

Links. Cardinali giustiziati, in Italian, first entry, Araldica Vaticana; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his genealogy, in Italian, bottom of page 2, .

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(16) 16. ALENÇON DE VALOIS, Philippe d' (1338-1397)

Birth. 1338 (or 1339), diocese of Meaux, France. Of the royal family of France. Son of Charles II de Valois, le Magnanime, count of Alençon, and María de España de la Cerda, countess of Biscaye. His last name is also listed as Alenconio. He was called the Cardinal de Alençon.

Education. "... diede fin da giovinetto saggi d'indole virtuosa, e di sublime ingegno... " ((1).

Early life. Archdeacon of Brie, diocese of Meaux.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Beauvais, June 8, 1356; took possession of the see on March 24, 1357. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reims, June 3, 1359; took possession of the see on May 9, 1362; occupoied the see until August 27, 1375. At the request of the king of France, he was named titular Latin patriarch of Jerusalem on August 27, 1375; at the same time, he was named administrator of the metropolitan see of Auch; occupied the post until 1379.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere in the consistory of September 18, 1378. He may have been named archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1378. Legate in Flanders in 1379. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina on June 4, 1380. Governor of Spoleto from June to August 1380. It is said that at this time he was deposed by Pope Urban VI; and later, restored. Administrator of the patriarchate of Aquileia from 1381 until around 1386. He opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri in 1388; he retained his title in commendam. Legate in Germany in 1389. Did not participate in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Returned to Rome on March 4, 1390. He participated in the process of canonization of Saint Brigitte of Sweden in 1391. He went to Tivoli several times, returning to Rome on June 23, 1392; September 26, 1395; and October 20, 1396. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in February 1394. In 1394 and 1395, he wrote to the University of Paris against the schism.

Death. August 16, 1397, in odor of sanctity, Rome. Buried in a magnificent tomb that he had erected in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 249-252; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 634-635; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 38, 44, 121, 276 and 426.

Links. His engraving and biography, in French; his arms and biography, in French; his genealogy, A2 B2, Genealogy EU; his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, The Australian National University; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1), Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 249: "he proved, since he he was very young, to have a vrituous nature, and sublime talent".

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(17) 17. OČKO Z VLAŠIM, Jan (1292-1380)

Birth. 1292, Wlašim, Bohemia. Of an old Bohemian aristocratic family. Son of Johann von Kamenice.After surgery, he lost his left eye and was called "Očko" (Eye).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was a notary and chaplain of Count Johanns of Luxembourg; after the count's son became King Karl IV of Bohemia, Jan was appointed his secretary. In 1340, he became provost of the church of All Saints, in the castle of Prague. In 1342, he was elected canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Prague. He was also canon of ot he cathedral chapter of Mělnmk and Breslau.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Olomouc, November 17, 1351. Consecrated (no date found), metropolitan cathedral of Prague, by Archbishop Ernst z Pardubiz of Prague. He accompanied the king of Bohemia in his travel to Switzerland in 1353 and to Rome in 1355. He established a chapel in the cathedral of Prague as well as a hospital for the poor and for noble women who had become impoverished under the Wyschehrad of Prague. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Prague, July 12, 1364; confirmed, August 23, 1364. With papal authorization, he took over the administration of the archdiocese immediately; the pallium was brought by the bishop of Speyer, Lamprecht von Brunn in 1364. On the occasion of a visit of King Karl IV to Avignon, Pope Urban V granted the archbishop and his successors, on May 28, 1365, the perpetual papal legateship for the sees of Prague, Olomouc, Loitomischl, Meissen, Bamberg and Regensburg, which all were visited by Archbishop Johann shortly after his appointment. Diplomatic and financial advisor of the king of Bohemia and emperor of Germany, Karl VI, his friend from his youth; he administered the kingdom during the monarch's absences; also, he was the educator of future King Wenzels IV. He had a great interest in the religious life of his archdiocese; celebrated eight diocesan synods; published fifty two documents concerning the matter, as well as Acta Iudiciaria (1373); Johannes von Nepomuk (Johann von Pomuk), future saint, was a domesticus commensalis and notary of the archdiocese; the intensity of the religious life came out of the interest of reformers Konrad von Waldhauser and Johann Milič von Kremsier.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. XII Apostoli in the consistory of September 18, 1378; retained the administration of his see until March 6, 1379; the pope sent him the red hat and the cross of papal legate in Bohemia to Prague with Cardinal Legate Pietro Pileo di Prata. Founded hospitals in Vizgrad and in Prague. He was the first Czech cardinal.

Death. January 14, 1380, probably in Prague, in odor of sanctity. Buried in the chapel of Sankts Attale and Erard in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Prague.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 286-287; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 40, 376 and 408; Hledíková, Zdeńka. "Johann Očko von Vlaim." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2001, p. 589-590.

Links. Biography, in German, Wikipedia; his image in a votive panel, 14th century, by an anonymous artist; detailed view of the same image, World Imageskiosk, California State University; and his tomb, crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, Bennyvision.com.

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(18) 18. SANSEVERINO, Guglielmo (?-1378)

Birth. (No date or place found). Other cardinals of the family were Federico Sanseverino (1489); Antonio Sanseverino, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1527); Lucio Sanseverino (1621); and Stanislao Sanseverino (1816).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Received the subdiaconate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Salerno, January 15, 1364. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Eusebio in the consistory of September 18, 1378 (1).

Death. Before November 24, 1378. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 42 and 430.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Neither Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, vol. II (Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793); nor Alfonso Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max., vol. 2 (Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677), mention him among the cardinals created by Pope Urban VI.

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(19) 19. SABRAN, Eleazario da (ca. 1330-1379/1381)

Birth. Ca. 1330, Ariano. Of the house of Provence. Fourth of the five children of Guillaume de Sabran, count d'Ariano, and Françoise de Celano. The other siblings were Guillaume, Jean, Isoarde and Jeanne. His first name is also listed as Eleazar and his last name as Sabrano. Relative of the king of Naples. He was called the Cardinal of Chieti.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Cleric of Ariano, kingdom of Naples. Received the minor orders.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chieti, September 5, 1373. Consecrated (no information found). In mid 1378, he was chased by Queen Giovanna of Naples for following the obedience of Pope Urban VI.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Balbina in the consistory of September 18, 1378. Named penitentiary major in 1378. In 1378, he was part of the commission of cardinals that introduced the cause of Saint Brigitte of Sweden.

Death. August 25, 1379 or August 8, 1381 (1), Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 280-281; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 647; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 131-132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 40 and 481.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; and his genealogy, Genealogies historiées et blasonnées.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 131; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 24, says that he died on August 25, 1380; and on p. 40, he says that the cardinal died on August 25, 1379; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 281, says that he died in 1394 or at the beginning of 1395; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 647, says that he died in 1389.

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(20) 20. DÖMÖTÖR (?-1387)

Birth. (No date or place found), Hungary. His name is also listed as Demetrius, as Demeter; and as Demeter Vaskúti. Some sources indicate that his last name was Vaskúti.

Education. " ... uomo per integrità di vita e dottrina chiarissimo ..." (1).

Early life. Provost of Eger. Keeper of the royal seal in 1356. Received the subdiaconate. Provost of Bár,, February 24, 1363.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Szerém (Sirmium), July 10, 1364. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Erdély (Transylvania), June 28, 1368. Transferred to the see of Zagreb, January 23, 1376. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Esztergom (Gran) in 1378. Ambassador of the king of Hungary Ludovico I d'Anjou before Pope Urban VI. Chancellor of Hungary, 1376-1387.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati in the consistory of September 18, 1378; retained the administration of his see until his death; this was confirmed on January 11, 1381; he never went to the Roman Curia after his promotion to the cardinalate. In 1384, he accompanied princess Eduvigis, youngest daughter of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary, and future saint, in her trip from Hungary to Poland to marry the Polish king. He crowned Karl II Durazzo, son of King Ludovico of Naples and Sicily, as king of Hungary. He also crowned Sigismund, king of Hungary and later emperor.

Death. February 20, 138, Esztergom (2). Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Esztergom.

Bibliography. Bertényi, Iván, "Demeter" in Esztergomi érsekek 1001-2003. Edited by Margit Beke. Budapest : Szent Istvan Tarsulat, 2003, p. 188-194; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 287-288; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 651; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 131-132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 41, 454, 465, 492 and 537; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 43 and 316.

Links. Biographical entry, in Hungarian, n. 4, Magyar Elektronikus Könyutár; biographical entry, in Hungarian, Magyar Katolikus Lexikon; his seal, Magyar Elektronikus Könyutár; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 287: "a man of integrity of life and clear doctrine".
(2) This is according to his two biographical entries in Hungarian, linked above; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 132, says that he died in 1386 and not in 1387 or 1388; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 288 says that he died in 1386 and that other sources indicate that he died in 1387 or at the beginning of 1388; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 651, says that he died ca. 1386; Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. 152, he died in December 1392

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(21) 21. COLONNA, Agapito (?-1380)

Birth. (No date not found), Rome. Son of Pietro Colonna, called Sciarretta. Brother of Cardinal Stefano Colonna (1378). He was callled the Cardinal Colonna. Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Oddone Colonna (1405), future Pope Martin V; Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili.

Education. Licentiate in law.

Early life. He was a soldier in his youth. Later, he entered the ecclesiastical state and became a papal chaplain. Archdeacon of Bologna. Received the minor orders.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ascoli Piceno, July 21, 1363. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Brescia, October 22, 1369. Legate in Germany before Emperor Karl IV. Legate in Portugal and Castilla; he obtained the signing of the treaty of peace between those two kingdoms in March 1371. Transferred to the see of Lisbon on August 11, 1371. He accompanied Pope Gregory XI from Avignon to Rome. Chased in 1378 for having followed Pope Urban VI.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prisca in the consistory of September 18, 1378. Named legate in Tuscany, Lombardy and Venice to reestablish the peace between Genoa and Venice; he did not succeed in his mission.

Death. October 3 (or 11), 1380, Rome. Buried under the pavement before the main altar of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, at the feet of his father (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 67-269; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 640; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 36, 111, 147 and 507; Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert. 2 vol. Bearbeitet von Tassilo Blittersdorff ... [et al.], unter Mitarbeit von Hanns Jäger-Sunstenau und Walter Koch ; redigiert von Jörg Garms, Roswitha Juffinger und Bryan Ward-Perkins. Rom : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981-1994. (Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstituts in Rom. 2. Abteilung, Quellen ; 5. Reihe; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstituts in Rom.; 2. Abteilung, Quellen ; 5. Reihe). Contents: 1. Bd. Die Grabplatten und Tafeln -- 2. Bd. Die Monumentalgrdber, I, 170.

Links. His genealogy, A1 D4 F1, Genealogy EU; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert, I, 170:

PRECLARVS TENVI REQVIESCIT AGAPITVS VRN(A) ·
........... EGREGIORVM · DECOR ALTVS AVOR(V)M ·
........... I ETATIS APEX · SPECIEMQ(VE) VERANDUM ·
........... ] CARDINE NATVS HONOREM ·
........... ] PER ADITVS · VARIOSQ(VE) RECV(R)SVS
............ LVSTRAVIT ET EQVORA MILES ·
........... ] ET FLVITA(N)TIS IVRA TEGENTEM
........... NAS RAPVERV(N)T FATA SVB VMBRAS

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(22) 22. CAPUA, Ludovico di (1311/1314-ca. 1380)

Birth. 1311/1314, Capua. Neapolitan patrician. Of the counts of Altavilla. Son of Giovanni di Capua and Giovanna Stendardo. Relative of Cardinal Guglielmo d'Altavilla (1382/1385). His last name is also listed as de Altavilla; as Campano d'Altavilla; as Capuano; as and Capice.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria Nuova in the consistory of September 18, 1378.

Death. ca. 1380, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 275; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24 and 51.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(23) 23. COLONNA, Stefano (?-1378 or 1379)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Pietro Colonna, called Sciarretta. Brother of Cardinal Agapito Colonna (1378). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Oddone Colonna (1405), future Pope Martin V; Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Governor of Marche Anconitana. Legate of Pope Gregory XI to Genoa to reestablish the peace between the doge of that city and the king of Cyprus. Protonotary apostolic. Provost of Saint-Omer, diocese of Thérouanne.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 18, 1378; died shortly after and never received a deaconry.

Death. 1378 or 1379, Rome. Buried in the tomb of his family in the chapel of the Nativity of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 273; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 643-644; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 24.

Links. His genealogy, A1 D4 F3, Genealogy.EU; and engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(24) 24. FIESCHI, Giovanni (First half of the 14th century-before December 1381 (or 1382))

Birth. First half of the 14th century, Genoa. Of the counts of Lavagna. Son of Luchino Fieschi, consignore of Torriglia, and Costanza Orsini. His last name is also listed as Flisco. He was called the Cardinal Fieschi or of Vercelli. The family gave the Church Popes Innocent IV and Adrian V; and Cardinals Guglielmo Fieschi (1244); Luca Fieschi (1300); Ludovico Fieschi (1384); Giorgioi Fieschi (1439); Niccolò Fieschi (1503); Lorenzo Fieschi (1706); and Adriano Fieschi (1834).

Education. Entered the ecclesiastical state.

Priesthood. He was ordained a priest. Papal chaplain in the pontificate of Pope Clement VI. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vercelli in 1348; confirmed by the pope, January 12, 1349; he succeeded his uncle Bishop Emanuele Fieschi in that see. Consecrated (no information found). Imprisoned for having followed Pope Urban VI.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1378; retained the administration of his see; received the title of S. Marco toward 1380.

Death. Before December 1381 (or 1382), Rome. His body was transferred to Genoa and buried in its metropolitan cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 302-303; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 44 and 521.

Links. Biography by Giovanni Nuti, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 47 (1997), Treccani; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, Roman School, 17th century (1600-1649), archdiocese of Genoa, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

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COURTENAY, William (ca. 1342-1396)

Birth. Ca. 1342, parish of St. Martin's, Exeter, England. Son of Hugh Courtenay, earl of Devon, and Margaret Bohun. He was a great-grandson of King Edward I of England. His last name is also listed as Courtney.

Education. Studied at Oxford University and obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Evreux. Elected chancellor of Oxford University in 1367. Prebendary in the cathedrals of Exeter, Wells, and York.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hereford, August 17, 1369. Consecrated, March 17, 1370. Transferred to the see of London, September 12, 1375. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Canterbury, July 30, 1381; confirmed, September 9, 1381; celebrated two synods; condemned the doctrines of John Wycliff in a provincial council celebrated in 1382. Chancellor of England, August 10 to November 18, 1382.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1378. He did not accept the promotion to the cardinalate (1). He founded the College of St. Mary and All Saints in Maidstone.

Death. July 31, 1396, Maidstone. Buried in Maidstone; later, his remains were transferred to Canterbury and buried at the feet of the Black Prince, near the shrine of St. Thomas, in the metropolitan cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 308-309; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 665; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 163, 274 and 311.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); another biography, in English; and his genealogy, 4.

(1) His decision to decline the promotion to the cardinalate appears in a manuscript kept in the archive of the Cistercian monastery of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in Rome, according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 309: and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 665.

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