The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
[Antipope] Clement VII (1378-1394)
Consistory of December 23, 1383 (IV)


(9) 1. CROS, O.S.B., Pierre de (?-1388)

Birth. (No date found), La Chaul, parish of Saint-Exupéry, Corrèze, diocese of Limoges, France. Son of Aymar Murat de Cros and Marie de Montclar. Brother of Cardinal Jean de Cros (1371). Relative of Pope Gregory XI. Relative of Cardinal Pierre de Cros (1350). He was called the Cardinal of Arles.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) in Saint-Martial, Limoges. Obtained a doctorate in decrees (canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Provost of Roussac, diocese of Limoges, July 6, 1342. Cellerier of the see of Tulle, February 5, 1343. Prior of La Voulte, diocese of Saint-Flour. Abbot of Tournus, diocese of Châlons-sur-Saône, February 20, 1348.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint Papoul in 1361; confirmed, July 27, 1362. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bourges, June 8, 1370. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, June 20, 1371. Transferred to the see of Arles, August 2, 1374. Governor of Comtat Venaissin from 1374 to 1376. He went to Rome with Pope Gregory XI when the pontiff returned to that city in 1376. In charge of taking care of the conclave of April 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI; he took refuge in Castel Sant'Angelo when his palace was sacked by the Romans. He turned the goods of the Church to Pope Urban VI on Palm Sunday 1378. He followed the cardinals who left for Anagni escaping from the pope; he was excommunicated and deposed by the pope; he called Bernard de la Salle with is troops to protect the Sacred College of Cardinals against the pope; he countersigned the declaration of the cardinals against Pope Urban VI on August 2, 1378; he also sent a letter in the same sense to the collectors of the Holy See. He joined the obedience of Antipope Clement VII after his election on September 20, 1378; the antipope confirmed him as camerlengo and took him to Avignon. Proposed as archbishop of Toulouse on January 23, 1379.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo in the consistory of December 23, 1383; by a bull of December 24, 1383, he retained the administration of the see of Arles, occupying the post until January 1388. He founded in Avignon the collège and hospital of Saint-Martial. He was one of the testamentary executors of Cardinals Guillaume de Chanac, O.S.B., and Hugues Roger, O.S.B. On April 21, 1385, he went to Villeneuve-lès-Avignon to greet Queen Maria of Naples. By a bull of Antipope Clement VII, dated June 23, 1388, he was named prior of Saint-Jean de Château-Gontier, diocese of Angers. He made his will on February 27 and November 15, 1388.

Death. November 16, 1388, Avignon. Buried to the right of the main altar in the church of Collège Saint-Martial, Avignon, in a magnificent marble mausoleum (1).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 678-679; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 146-147; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 45, 103, 139 and 390.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French; chronology of his career, pp. 709-730, in French and his epitaph.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 678-679:

D.     O.     M.
Hic iacet bonæ memoriæ Reverendissimus in Christo Pater
Dominus PETRVS DE CROSSO, oriundus de Calimoforti
Lemovicensis Dioecesis, Decretorum Doctor, qui primo
fuit monachus S. Martialis Lemovicensis ordinis S. Benedicti :
& inde Præpositus de Rossaco dictorum ordinis, & Dioecesis :
Postmodum Cellelarius Ecclesiæ Tutellensis : & post
Prior de Volta ordinis Cluniacensis Santi Flori Dioecesis : &
deinde Abbas Monasterii Trenorchiensis Cabilon. Dioec : &
post Episcopus S. Pauli : postmodum Archiepiscopus Bituricensis
& existente Archiepiscopo fuit factus Camerarius Domini
Nostri Papæ per sanctæ memoriæ Dominum Gregorium Papam XI :
& deinde Archiepiscopus Arelatensis : & de Ecclesia Arelatnesis, & Camerarius fuit assumptus
in tituli Sanctorum Nerei, & Achillei Presbyterum Cardinalem,
Qui sanitate fungens hic suam elegit sepulturam.
Orate Deum pro eo.

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(10) 2. AIGREFEUILLE, O.S.B., Faydit d' (?-1391)

Birth. (No date found), Limousin, France. He is also listed as Faydetto D'Agrifoglio and as Faiditus de Agripolio. His last name is also listed as Aigrefueille. Brother of Cardinal Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, seniore (1350). Nephew of Pope Clement VI. Uncle of Cardinal Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, iuniore, O.S.B. (1367). He was called the Cardinal of Avignon.

Education. Licentiate in letters.

Early life. Archpriest of Rochemaure, diocese of Montauban. Canon prebendary of the cathedral chapter of Saintes. Secular prior of Promilhanes, diocese of Cahors, August 13, 1346. Chancellor and dean of the archdiocese of Bourges toward 1350, while he was a subdeacon.

Priesthood, Ordained by Pope Innocent Vi shortly after February 18, 1358. Archdeacon of Millau, diocese of Rodez. Prior secular of Saint-Félix de Piquecos, diocese of Cahors, 1360. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Orléans; resigned in 1361. Protonotary apostolic. Familiar of Pope Innocent VI.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rodez, August 2, 1361; enthroned on July 22, 1365. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Avignon, July 28, 1371; succeeded his brother Pierre. In November 1378, he replaced his brother Cardinal Guillaume as camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, while the latter was legate in Germany.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in the consistory of December 23, 1383; he was named administrator of his see before January 6, 1386. He was one of the testamentary executors of Cardinal Angelic de Grimoard, C.R.S.A., April 11 to 14, 1388.

Death. October 2, 1391, Avignon. Buried, behind the main altar of the cathedral of Avignon; later, his remains were transferred to the chapel of the Purification of Our Lady, in the cathedral of Notre-Dame des Doms, Avignon, in front of the tomb of Pope Benedict XII. He had funded a yearly service for the repose of his soul in the cathedral of Rodez.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 679; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 147; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 47, 124 and 427.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French; his engraving; and his epitaph.

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(11) 3. MAGNAC, Aymeric de (?-1385)

Birth. (No date found), Saint-Junien, diocese of Limoges, France. Of a noble family. Son of Isthier de Magnac and Beline de Brosses. He is also listed as Americo Manhaco; his first name as Aimery, Aymery and Aimerico; and his last name as Manaco, Maignaco, Maignac and Manhac. He was called the Cardinal of Paris.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Professor of canon and civil law. Counselor of the Parliament of Paris. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Chartres; later its chancellor; elected its dean by the cathedral chapter in 1360; Pope John XXII imposed his candidate, Philippe de Talaru (borther of future Pseudocardinal Jean de Talaru). Canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris. Curé of Saint-Jacques-la-Boucherie. Master of requests and member of the royal council of Kings Jean le Bon and Charles V of France; he resided at the palace of the Louvre; at his advice, the latter fixed the majority of age of the French kings at fourteen years old.

Episcopate. Elected 93rd bishop of Paris, September 23, 1368; enthroned on the third Sunday of December of that same year; he was taken from the church of Sainte-Geneviève to the cathedral; occupied the see until his promotion. Consecrated (no information found). In 1369, King Charles V sent him to Franfurt for the marriage of Catherine of France with Robert, son of the duke of Bavaria. He presided in the cathedral of Paris in March 1371 the funeral Queen Jeanne, widow of King Charles IV of France. In 1372, he was sent by the French king to Bretagne for some important affairs. He went to Avignon in 1376 and remained there for a year. In 1377, the king sent him before Pope Gregory XI to request the elevation of the see of Paris to the archiepiscopal rank; the mission was not successful but the pope granted him and his successor the use of the pallium. He was present at the arrival of Emperor Charles IV in Paris. The king of France made him one of his testamentary executors. He established the collèges of Beauvais, Maitre-Gervais, and Dainville during his episcopate. He joined the obedience of Avignon after the election of Antipope Clement VII in 1378.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Eusebio in the consistory of December 23, 1383; he was present at the consistory and remained in Avignon until his death. He was the author of a commentary of the Sixth of the Decretales.

Death. March 21, 1385 (1), Avignon. His tomb and statue, with a long inscription (2), were placed in the choir of the cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris; the inscription was found again in 1599 near a column.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 679; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 42 and 391.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French; biography, in French, p. 421; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 148; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 27 and 42; his epitaph, transcribed in note 2, says that he died on March 20, 1385; his second biography in French, linked above, says that he died on March 29, 1385. Some sources indicate that he died in 1384 because they use the vieux style, which counted the years from Easter to Easter, but he died in 1385.
(2) This is the text of the inscription, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 670:

Hic iacet bonæ memoriæ Reverendissimus in Christo Pater
Dominus HAYMERICVS DE MAGNACO, nationis Lemovicensis in
Villa Sancti Iuniani ex nobilibus parentibus creatus
Vtriusque Iuris Professor, quondam Regum Ioaniis, & Caroli V.
Consiliarius, & Magister Requestarum Hospitii : primo fuit
Decanus Ecclesiæ Parisisinsis, deinde ad Pontificalem
assumptus es dignitatem : tandem factus fuit tituli S. Eusebii Presbyter Cardinalis.
Obiit auten Avenione 20. die Martii, anno 1385, cuius corpus integrum intra
Parisios asportatum, sub hac Tumba requiescit;
Anima cuius requiescat in pace. Amen.

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(12) 4. MENTHONAY, Jacques de (?-1391)

Birth. (No date found), fortress of Truchet, Menthonnex-en Bornes (Rhône-Alpes).. Son of Girard de Menthonay. His last name is also listed as Mentonay, Montenay and Mantenay.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, bith canon and civil law.

Early life. Archdeacon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Reims. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Genève in 1374. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris in 1378. Chamberlain of Antipope Clement VII.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro in the consistory of December 23, 1383 (1); he was present at the consistory.Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and chief of the pontifical chancery, 1385-1391. He prepared his will on April 28, 1391.

Death. May 16, 1391, Avignon. Buried in the cathedral of Avignon without an epitaph.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 681; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27 and 44; Logoz, Roger-Charles. "Le cardinal Jacques de Menthonay." Chronique archéologique, CX (2002), 101-106.

Webgraphy. His engraving and brief biography, in French; biography, in Italian; and his engraving.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 148; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 27; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 681; and his brief biography in French, linked above, says that other sources indicate that he received the title of S. Clemente.

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(13) 5. SALUZZO, Amedeo di (ca. 1361-1419)

Birth. Ca. 1361, Savoy. Second of the twelve children of Federico II, marquis of Saluzzo, and Béatrix de Genève. He is also listed as Johannes Amadeus de Saluciis; and his last name as de Saluces and Salutis. Nephew of Antipope Clement VII on his mother's side.

Education. Licentiate in civil law.

Early life. He was signore of Anton and Varey, 1396-1419. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Saint-Jean de Lyon in 1373; later, its archdeacon. Deaon of Sainte-Marie di Bajeux. Abbot of Savigny. He received the diaconate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Valence and Die, November 4, 1383; he was a deacon and twenty-two years old. He never received the episcopal consecration. Archdeacon of Lyon, November 1, 1378. Archdeacon of Liège.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon of S. Maria Nuova in the consistory of December 23, 1383; retained the administration of his see until June 15, 1388. He visited Queen Maria of Naples in Villeneuve-lés-Avignon on January 7, 1384; and again on the following November 24 in Pont-de-Sorgues coming from Valence; they met again in Rochemaure on August 29, 1387 to negotiate the marriage of her son Charles II. He was named archdeacon of Reims in January 1389. Archdeacon of Reims from 1384 until January 4, 1419. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Rouen, 1385-1403; its archdeacon, 1403-1419. He was absent at the death of Antipope Clement VII on September 16, 1394 because he was in Bollène; he arrived for the obsequies and participated in the conclave of 1394, which elected Antipope Benedict XIII. Executor of the testament of Cardinal Jean de Murol. Legate in Paris in 1398 with Cardinals Guy de Malsec and Pierre de Thury; he was in Paris from January to June 24, 1399; he had to leave because of the plague and went to Normandie; then in October, he went to Rouen; returned to Paris in December 1399; went back to Avignon in January 1401. Cardinal protodeacon in 1403. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1403-1419; deposed in 1408 for having joined the obedience of Pisa but reappointed by Antipope Alexander V in 1409; and then confirmed by Pope Martin V; from 1409 to 1412, he shared the post with Pseudocardinal Enrico Minutoli. Legate before the king of Aragón. In 1408, he abandoned Antipope Benedict XIII, who deposed him on October 21 of that year. Attended the Council of Pisa. Participated in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V. Sent by the new antipope in a mission to Genève on October 16, 1409. He did not participate in the conclave of 1410, which elected Antipope John XXIII. Attended in the Council of Constance. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church toward 1416. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Left Constance on December 16, 1417, accompanying the pope to Florence. Sent by the new pope as legate to France and Germany. He made his will on June 19, 1419.

Death. June 28, 1419, Saint-Donat, archdiocese of Vienne (now diocese of Valence). His funeral was celebrated in Reims on June 29, 1419. His body was transferred to Lyon and buried in the primatial cathedral of Saint-Jean de Lyon; his tomb was destroyed by the Calvinists in 1562.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 680; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 51 and 513.

Webgraphy. The Saluzzo family, in Italian; his genealogy, A1 B2; another genealogy, click on "de Frédéric II à Louis Ier (1396-1475); biography, in French, pp. 165-166; biographical data, in French.

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(14) 6. AYCELIN DE MONTAIGUT, O.S.B.., Pierre (ca. 1320/1325-1388)

Birth. Ca. 1320/1325, diocese of Clermont, France. Great-grandnephew of Cardinal Hugues Aycelin de Billom, O.P., O.P. (1288). Brother of Cardinal Gillles Aycelin de Montaigut (1361). Cousin or nephew of Pope Clement VI. His last name is also listed as Amelii, Aicelin, Monteacuro, Montaigu and Montagu. He was called the Cardinal de Laon.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines). Obtained a doctorate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of the abbey of Saint-Martin des Champs, Paris. Prior of the abbey of Saint-Salve, archdiocese of Vienne. Chancellor of the duke of Berry around 1357; his lieutenant in Languedoc in 1360-1361.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nevers, August 2, 1361. Consecrated (no information found). Chancellor of the count of Potiers in 1368. French envoy before Pope Urban V in 1368. Transferred to the see of Laon, January 8, 1371. Ambassador before the duke of Bretagne in 1372. Member of the Royal Council in 1373. He was one of the tutors of King Charles VI in 1380. Provisor of La Sorbonne University.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of December 23, 1383; retained the administration of his diocese until 1385; he did not receive a title (1). Administrator of the diocese of Alet, April 25, 1385 until 1386. Prior of Saint Martin des Champs, ca. 1385-1388.

Death. November 8, 1388, Reims, probably poisoned. Buried in the church of the abbey of Saint-Martin des Champs, Paris (2). He left part of his wealth to Collège de Montaigut, founded in Paris by his grand-uncle, the archbishop of Narbonne.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 679-680; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p.148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 28, 296 and 369; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, XIX, 1864-1873, 59-59.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French; biography, in French; biography, in French, p. 57-59; another biography, also in French.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 148; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 28; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 679, says that he received the title of S. Marco; this title was occupied in the obedience of Avignon by Cardinal Pierre Amiel de Sarcenas, O.S.B.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 679:

Hic iacet in tumulo Reverendissimus in Christo Pater Dominus
PETRVS DE MONTE ACVTO
S. R. E. Presbyter Cardinalis Laudiniensis nuncupatus,
huius Ecclesiæ Administrator, Consiliariusque Domini nostris Francorum Regis
excellens, & magnificus, qui Rhemis in servitio dicti Domini nostri Regis
diem suum clausit extremum,
sub anno Incarnationis Domini 1388. mensis Novembris die octava.
Pro cuius anima salute velitis Deum orare.

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(15) 7. WARDLAW, Walter (ca. 1317/1320-1387)

Birth. Ca. 1317/1320, (no place found), Scotland. Son of Henry Wardlaw, first Laird of Wilton, and Mary Stewart; they had at least our sons and three daughters. His first name is also listed as Walterus. He was called the Cardinal of Scotland.

Education. Magister in theology.

Early life. Rector of Erol. Secretary to the king of Scotland. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Glasgow; later, its archdeacon. He was at the University of Paris in 1349. Archdeacon of Dunkeld in 1349; he probably could not occupy the post. Archdeacon of Lothian, 1359-1367. He had prebends in the dioceses of Glasgow and Saint Andrews.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Glasgow at the beginning of 1367 by the cathedral chapter; confirmed by the pope, April 14, 1367. Consecrated (no information found). In June 1369, he was sent as ambassador to England. Ambassador of the king of Scotland before the king of France in 1382.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of in the consistory of December 23, 1383; retained the administration of his see until his death; he never received a title. Named by the antipope legate a latere in Scotland and Ireland on November 24, 1384. He was one of two ambassadors to negotiate a truce between Scotland and England at Boulogne-sur-Mer in September 1384. He was the first cardinal from Scotland.

Death. December 23, 1387 (1), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 680; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 28 and 264.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; his genealogy, no. 2, at the end of the page; Clan Wardlaw, in English; Archdeacons of Dunkeld; and Archdeacons of Lothian.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 148; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 28; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 680, does not give a date but suggests that he survived Antipope Clement VII, who died in 1394; the "Succession of Bishops and archbishops of Glasgow from the foundation of the city, 1175-78, till 1649", in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, indicates that he died in 1389; and 'Historical preface: 1175-1370', Charters and Documents relating to the City of Glasgow 1175-1649: Part 1 (1897), pp. V-XXIII, also in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, paragraph before the last, indicate that he died in 1387.

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(16) 8. NEUFCHATEL, Jean de (ca. 1340-1398)

Birth. Ca. 1340, Neufchatel (in Switzerland since 1815). Son of Thibaut V, baron of Neufchatel, and Jeanne de Châlon, dame de Nancuise. Relative of Antipope Clement VII. His last name is also listed as Novocastro.

Education. Obtained a docotorate in law.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Autun. Treasurer of the cathedral of Besançon.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nevers, February 10, 1371; he had not yet reached the canonical age. Consecrated in 1371 by Guillaume de Melun, archbishop of Sens. Transferred to the see of Toul, August 27, 1372; took possession on May 4, 1373. Chamberlain of Antipope Clement VII.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati in the consistory of December 23, 1383. He arrived in Avignon on June 4, 1384 and received his title. On January 7, 1385, he went to greet Queen Maria of Naplesat Villeneuve-lès-Avignon. He departed from Avignon on October 2, 1387 and returned on December 13, 1388. In 1389, he was delegated by the antipope to resolve the conflict between the cathedral chapter of Paris and the chapter of Saint-Benoit. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri in December 1392. He did his best to the end of the schism. He was absent in Lorraine when Antipope Clement VII died on September 16, 1394. Did not participate in the conclave of 1394, which elected Antipope Benedict XIII; returned to Avignon and consecrated the new antipope on October 11, 1394. Testamentary executor, on September 24, 1394, of Cardinal Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille and of Cardinal Jean de Murol on September 19, 1397. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Le Mans. On September 16, 1396, the French princes sieged Avignon; he harangued the people in rebellion against Antipope Benedict XIII, whom he also abandoned; he was named captain of the city and entered it on September 16, 1398; he died shortly after.

Death. October 4, 1398, in Avignon, of an infectious fever produced by the wounds he suffered in the siege of the city; in odor of sanctity; his body was burned on the same day in a fire that destroyed his palace. His ashes were gathered and deposited in the Carthusian church of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, with an epitaph (1).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 680; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 149 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 28, 36, 41, 369 and 502; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, XII, 59-60.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French; biography, in French, p. 59-60; his genealogy, A2 C1 F2 H2; and his engraving.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 680:

Hic iacet Reverendissimus in Christo Pater bonæ memoriæ
Dominus Ioannes Miseratione Divina Episcopus Ostiensis,
Sancta Romanæ Ecclesiæ Cardinalis de Novocastro nuncupatus,
qui obiit Avenione anno Domini 1398. IV. Octobris.

Huic Deitas parce, quæ summa vinis in arce.
Collustrans coelos sis sibi dulce melos,
Et securamen, soret omnis spiritus. Amen.

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(17) 9. FETIGNY, Pierre de (?-1392)

Birth. (No date or place found), France. His last name is also listed as Fetenhiaco, Ferenhiac and Fitiniaco.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Advocate at the parliament of Paris. Archdeacon of Chartres. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris. Protonotary apostolic. Counselor of the duke of Anjour before the expedition of Naples, against which he spoke on August 21, 1381.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro in the consistory of December 23, 1383. Arrived in Avignon on November 21, 1384. He went to greet Queen Maria of Naples in Villeneuves-lè-Avignon on January 7, 1385.

Death. November 5, 1392 (1), Avignon. Buried in the church of the Celestins, near Pont-de-Sorgue, Avignon (2).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 681; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 149 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 28 and 50.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French; another image of his engraving.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 149; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 28 and 50; his biography in French, linked above; and his epitaph transcribed in footnote 2, indicate that he died on November 4, 1392.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 681:

Hic requiescit bonæ memoriæ Dominus PETRVS DE FITIGNIACO
genere nobilis, utriusque Iuris Doctor, qui
Advocatus Parlamenti, & Canonicus Parisiensis existens, &
pugil Ecclesiæ , inde immeritus per Dominum Clementem
Papam VII. assumptus fuit in B. Mariæ in Aquiro Diaconum
Cardinalem, qui obiit anno Domini 1392. die quarta Novembris
anima cuius requiescat in pace.

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ZAMORA, Martinho de (?-1382)

Birth. (No date found), Zamora, Castilla or in Portugal. He is also listed as Martinus Lusitanus and Martin de Portugal.

Education. Licentiate in law.

Early life. Prior secular of the church of Vimara, diocese of Braga.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Silves, February 9, 1373 (1); took possession of the see, May 7, 1374. Consecrated (no information found). In 1377, he was named by Pope Gregory XI one of the judges in the process against Archbishop Lorenzo of Braga; he sentence was annulled by Pope Urban VI. Transferred to the see of Lisbon, February 7, 1379; took possession the following May 5; occupied the see until his death. Ambassador of the king of Portugal in France; pronounced a discourse before King Charles V of France on July 14, 1380; returned to Lisbon.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal in the consistory of December 23, 1383; never received a title; he had been killed seventeen days before the celebration of the consistory but the news had not reached Avignon.

Death. December 6, 1383, killed in an insurrection when he was thrown from the tower of the cathedral of Lisbon; his naked body was stoned and dragged through the streets of the city; left in Rossio, the dogs started biting and eating it; when the people could not take the stench, it was buried in Rossio.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 680; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 452 and 507

Webgraphy. Biography, in Portuguese.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 148; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 452; his biography in Portuguese, linked above, says that he was name bishop of Silves in 1371; elected by the cathedral chapter to the metropolitan see of Braga in 1372, but that he did not receive papal confirmation; and transferred to the see of Lisbon in 1380; neither "Essai" nor Eubel, mention his promotion to Braga; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 94, does not mention him among the occupants of the metropolitan see of Braga either; and coincides with "Essai" and Eubel concerning the dates of appointment to the sees of Silves and Lisbon.

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