The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Urban VI (1378-1389)
Consistory of December 17, 1384 (VI)
Celebrated in Lucera


(34) 1. ALSÁNI, Bálint (ca. 1330-1408)

Birth. Ca. 1330, Alsán, Hungary. Of a noble family. Son of Janos Alsáni, governor of Macva (or Macsói), now Serbia. He is also listed as Valentin d'Alsan and Valentino de Alsan.

Education. Studied in France and in Italy; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Professor in Esztergom. Canon of Pécs, Veszprém and Esztergom from 1352 (or 1353) until his promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pécs, July 21, 1374. Consecrated before October 25, 1374 (no further information found). Vice-chancellor of King Lajos I of Hungary in 1373 (or 1376). Ambasador of Hungary in Italy (Padua, Venice and Rome) in 1381.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1384; received the title of S. Sabina on February 9, 1385 (1); retained the administration of his see. Did not participate in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Cardinal protoprete from 1397 or 1398 until his death. Did not participate in the conclave of 1404, which elected Pope Innocent VII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1406, which elected Pope Gregory XII. He entered the papal court in Viterbo on August 22, 1407. Having fallen ill in Siena, he returned to Hungary via Venice.

Death. November 19, 1408, Pécs, Hungary. Buried in Pécs.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 288-289; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 651; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 134; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 41, 46, n. 1, and 410; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 43 and 316.

Link. Biographical entry, in Hungarian; his tomb and biography, in Hungarian; biographical entry, in Hungarian; his seal; and his arms.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 134, indicates that Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 651, erroneously says that he opted for the title of Ss. IV Coronati in 1386 because that title was assigned to Cardinal Francesco Uguccione in 1405, adding that Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. 152, omits Cardinal Alsán from the list of occupants of the title of Ss. IV Coronati.

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(35) 2. ACCIAIOLI, Angelo (1340-1408)

Birth. April 15, 1340 (1), Florence. Of an ancient and illustrious family. His last name is also listed as Acciajuoli and Acciaiouli. Other cardinals of the family were Niccolò Acciaioli (1669); and Filippo Acciaioli (1759). He was called the Cardinal of Florence.

Education. " ... noted for his learning, experience, and integrity... (2)

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Patras. Received the minor orders.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rapallo, December 3, 1375; resigned his see in 1386. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Florence in 1383.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1384; received the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso on November 20, 1385. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Legate in the kingdom of Naples at the head of the troops sent in favor of King Ladislas, of whom he was named tutor; he left on February 12, 1390; crowned the king in Gaeta on May 29, 1390; returned to Rome. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Salisbury, 1390-3191. He went to Florence on February 6, 1395; returned on May 11, 1395. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri on August 29, 1397. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapters of Exeter and Canterbury, 1400-1408. Named legate in Hungary; left on June 8, 1403; on the following August 5, he crowned King Lajos of Hungary in Raab. Participated in the conclave of 1404, which elected Pope Innocent VII. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1404. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in June 1405. Named vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church on August 29, 1405 (3). Returned to Rome from Viterbo on September 24, 1406. Participated in the conclave of 1406, which elected Pope Gregory XII. He was charged with the reform of the monastery of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome.

Death. May 31, 1408, Pisa. Buried in the cathedral; later, probably on June 12, 1409, his body was transferred to Florence and buried in the Carthusian monastery founded by Nicola Acciaiouli.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 296-297; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 657-658; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 134; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 36, 43, 250 and 412.

Links. Biographical entry, in Italian; The Acciajuoli cardinals, in English; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio di Bologna, Bologna and his image, kneeling down with Ss. Maddalena e Lorenzo, from the Carthusian monastery of Galluzzo, now in the Staatliche Museum, Berlin, Germany.

(1) This is according to Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 134; the site of the Acciaiouli family, linked above; his biographical entry in Italian, linked above; and the site of the Archiginnasio di Bologna, also linked above, say that he was born in 1349.
(2) Site of the Acciaiouli family, linked above.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 134; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, cols. 710, 727 and 772, says that he was chancellor from 1394 until his death.

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(36) 3. CARBONE, O.Cist., Francesco (First half of the 14th century-1405)

Birth. First half of the 14th century, Naples. Son of Pietro (or Giovanni) Carbone, Neapolitan patrician, and Isabella Boccapianola. Brother of Pseudocardinal Guglielmo Carbone (1411). His last name is also listed as Carloni and Carbone Tomacelli (some sources say that he was related to Cardinal Pietro Tomacelli (1381), future Pope Boniface IX (1)).

Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians at the end of his youth.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Monopoli the end of 1382; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1384; received the title of S. Susanna on November 20, 1385. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Grand penitentiary after July 1389. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica after November 1389. Legate in Naples to support King Ladislas against Queen Giovanni, who supported Antipope Clement VII. Governor of several cities in the Papal State. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina in December 1392. Legate in Foligno. Abbot commendatario of Farfa from 1400. Participated in the conclave of 1404, which elected Pope Innocent VII.

Death. June 8 (or 18), 1405, quite suddenly, Rome. Buried in a marble tomb, with his effigy and an inscription (2), in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples. His brother the pseudocardinal was buried next to him (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 297-299; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 658-659; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 134; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 38, 48 and 346.

Links. Biography by Arnold Esch, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Treccani; his engraving (a modern version); his tomb in the cathedral of Naples, Naples, Italy; and his arms.

(1) It seems that Cardinal Carbone's mother married a brother of Pope Boniface IX in second nuptials, after the death of the cardinal's father.
(2) This is the text of the inscription, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 659:

Claris in excelsa Carbonarum Parthonopea
Ingenua tellure fatus de stirpe Columnas
Cardineique chori lux, gloria, spes quoque multis
Cui Sabinensis Apex, titulumque Susannæ dedere,
Criminaqui lauacro laxabt cuncta fescundo,
Et pius in cunctis, solersque ad misticæ rebus
Confilij probitate nitens, duxque ordinis alti
Corpore marmorea iacet hac Franciscus in arca
Letus in ætherea plaudit, sed spiritus aula,
Anno milleno Domini quinto quatriceno
Octava denaque die Iunij requievit.

(3) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 299; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 134; some sources indicate that they were buried in the church of S. Domenico Maggiore in Naples.

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(37) 4. BULCANI, Marino (First half of the 14th century-1394)

Birth. First half of the 14th century, Naples. From a noble family that resided in Naples and Sorrento. His last name is also listed as Vulcani. Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Renzio (1381). He was called the Cardinal Bulcani.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Neapolitan abbas (1). Protonotary apostolic. Subdeacon of the papal chapel. Nuncio before King Carlo III of Naples.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 17, 1384; received the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova on November 20, 1385. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in 1385. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica from 1385 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Cardinal protodeacon in July 1390. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church in February 1394.

Death. August 8, 1394, Assisi. Buried in the church of S. Maria Nuova e S. Francesca Romana, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 661; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 134; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25 and 51.

Links. Biography by Arnold Esch, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 15 (1972), Treccani; his tomb in the church of S. Maria Nuova e S. Francesca Romana, Rome, The Australian National University; another view of his tomb, The Australian National University; and his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 661; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 134, calls him abbé Benédictine.

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(38) 5. BRANCACCIO, Rinaldo (?-1427)

Birth. (No date found), Naples. Other cardinals of his family were: Landolfo Brancaccio (1294); Niccolò Brancaccio, pseudocardinal of Clement VII (1378); Ludovico Bonito (1408); Tommaso Brancaccio (1411); Francesco Maria Brancaccio (1633); and Stefano Brancaccio (1681). He was called the Cardinal Brancaccio.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Abate and papal acolyte. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 17, 1384; received the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto on March 20, 1385. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Participated in the conclave of 1404, which elected Pope Innocent VII. He left the curia, then in Viterbo, on December 13, 1405; he went to the thermal baths near Naples. Participated in the conclave of 1406, which elected Pope Gregory XII. In 1408, he received in commendam the title of S. Maria in Trastevere from Pope Gregory XII; confirmed by Antipope John XXIII. Participated in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V. He probably became cardinal protodeacon in 1409 or 1410. Participated in the conclave of 1410, which elected Antipope John XXIII, whom he crowned in Bologna on May 25, 1410. Antipope John XXIII named him governor of the province of Campagna e Marittima, with the title of papal vicar. Legate in Naples; he was charged with stipulating with King Ladislas of Naples the conditions for peace.

Episcopate. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Palermo, August 4, 1410 until 1414. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Taranto, July 3, 1412 until 1420. He left Rome for Campagna e Marittima, by order of the pope, on May 24, 1412; returned on May 31; left again on June 12. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica at the end of 1412. Named commendatario of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere by Pope Innocent VIII; held the commendam until his death. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V; by order of the pope, he closed the council with the words: Domini, ite in pace. Named administrator of the see of Aversa in 1418; occupied the post until his death (1). He went to Tivoli with the pope on June 17, 1421.

Death. March 27, 1427, Rome. His body was transferred to Naples and buried in a funeral monument, work of Donatello, Michelozzo di Bartolommeo and Pagno di Lapo, in the church of S. Angelo a Seggio del Nilo (2), which he had built as well as the adjacent hospital.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 304-305; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 662-663; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 52, 123, 388 and 473.

Links. Biography by Dieter Girgensohn, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 13 (1971), Treccani; his tomb, church of S. Angelo a Nilo, Naples, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and The Brancaccio cardinals by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 123; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 135, says that he was named on October 27, 1427, and that he died on tha same day; his biography in Italian, linked above, says that he occupied the post from 1418 until 1422.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the photograph of his tomb (now unavailable), linked above:

RAYNALDVS BRANCATIVS
S. R. E. CARDINALIS HVIVS
ECCLESIE ET SACRI
HOSPITALIS FVNDATOR
OBIIT XXVII. MARTII
AO. D. M. CCCCXXII

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(39) 6. CASTAGNOLA, Francesco (?-1385)

Birth. (No date found), Naples. Son of Paolo Castagnola.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 17, 1384; he never received a deaconry.

Death. November 15, 1385, Genoa. Buried in Genoa.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 664; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25.

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(40) 7. FIESCHI, Ludovico (Mid-14th century-1423)

Birth. Mid-14th century, Genoa. Of the counts of Lavagna. His last name is also listed as Flisco. The family gave the Church Popes Innocent IV and Adrian V; and Cardinals Guglielmo Fieschi (1244); Luca Fieschi (1300); Giovanni Fieschi (1378); Giorgio Fieschi (1439); Niccolò Fieschi (1503); Lorenzo Fieschi (1706); and Adriano Fieschi (1834). He was called the Cardinal Fieschi.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vercelli, March 29, 1382 (1); on January 19, 1387, he received two vicars general, one for spiritual matters, Winandus de Alamannia, canon of Vercelli; and the other for temporal ones, Antonio Fieschi; he was never consecrated bishop.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 17, 1384; received the deaconry of S. Adriano in January 1385. On July 7, 1385, he freed Pope Urban VI, who was besieged in Nocera, and took him to Genoa. Named as administrator of Vercelli on July 30, 1387. Vicar general for the states of the Church, August 6, 1388; he recovered Angani. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Legate of the new pope in Genoa; he left July 14, 1390; returned to Rome on March 11, 1391; went back to Genoa on May 22, 1392; went back to Rome on March 4, 1398. Returned from Campagna on December 27, 1401 and March 25, 1403. Cardinal protodeacon in 1403. Went to Genoa on October 3, 1403; stayed until Easter 1404. Did not participate in the conclave of 1404, which elected Pope Innocent VII. He abandoned the obedience of Pope Innocent VII on October 22, 1404, and joined the obedience of Antipope Benedict XIII on May 11, 1405; he joined the antipope in Avignon; he was confirmed as administrator of Vercelli by the antipope on November 17, 1405. Administrator of the see of Carpentras on October 31, 1406; Antipope Alexander V confirmed him in the post shortly before October 2, 1409; occupied the post until his death (2). After the deposition of Antipope Benedict XIII on June 26, 1409, in the Council of Pisa, he adhered to the obedience of Antipope Alexander V. Did not participate in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V. Named legate and vicar general of Forli by Antipope Alexander V on October 10, 1409; he was deposed by Antipope Benedict XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1410, which elected Antipope John XXIII. Named administrator of the suburbicarian see of Sabina by Antipope John XXIII on June 17, 1412. Returned to Bologna from Rome as legate, with Cardinal Giordano Orsini. Later, he was named legate in Ferrara. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. On May 3, 1418, he went to Carpentras. From Genoa, he went to Florence on October 7, 1419. Named legate in Sicily; he left Rome on October 5, 1420 and returned on March 4, 1421.

Death. April 3, 1423, Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Lorenzo in the metropolitan cathedral of Genoa.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 302-303; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 656-657 and 750-751; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 134-135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 48, 168 and 521.

Links. Biography by Wolfgang Decker, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 47 (1997), Treccani; catalog of the bishops of Vercelli; and his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 134; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 521; the catalog of bishops of Vercelli, linked above, says that he was named in 1384; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 826, indicates that he was named in 1385.
(2) Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, cols. 750-751, indicates that he participated in the conclave of 1406, which elected Pope Gregory XII, and crowned him pope.

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(41) 8. PALOSIO, Stefano (?-1396)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a patrician family. He was called the Cardinal of Todi.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Camerlengo of the Roman clergy. Received the subdiaconate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Brescia, September 3, 1371. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Todi, March 30, 1373. Vicar of the pope in Rome in 1377. He was one of the guardians of the conclave of 1378, which elected Pope Urban VI. He was deposed from the see of Todi by Antipope Clement Clement VII for having followed Pope Urban VI in 1382.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1384; received the title of S. Marcello in January 1385; administrator of the see of Todi until 1395. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1390. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in September 1394. Charged by the pope with the repair of the roof of the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Mura in Via Ostiense, Rome.

Death. April 24, 1396 (1), Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 294-295; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 656-657; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 44, 147 and 502.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 135; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25 and 44; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 656, says that hed died on iij Kalends Maij anno 1398; the same source, col. 657, confirms the date in the transcription of the epitaph, in note 2, below.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 657:

HIC IACET REVERENDISSIMVS PATER IN CHRISTO
D. STEPHANVS PAOLVSIVS TIT. S. MARCELLI S. R. C.
PRESBYTER CARD. ARCHIPRESBYTER HVIVS BASILICAE
QVI OBIIT ANNO DOMINI MCCCXCVIII.
MENS. APR. D. XXIX. CVIVS ANIMA REQUIESCAT
IN PACE. AMEN.

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(42) 9. ANNA DE SOMMARIVA, O.S.B.Cam., Angelo d' (Ca. 1340-1428)

Birth. Ca. 1340, probably in Lodi. Of a noble family. He is also listed as Angelo da Lodi; and his last name as D'Anna Sommariva; and as Summaripa. He was called the Cardinal of Lodi.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict Camaldolese in the diocese of Lodi; he used the name of the diocese as his own.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 17, 1384; received the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolio in January 1385. Participated in the conclave of 1389, which elected Pope Boniface IX. Cardinal protodeacon in August 1394. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pudenziana in May 1396. Participated in the conclave of 1404, which elected Pope Innocent VII. Participated in the conclave of 1406, which elected Pope Gregory XII. Cardinal protoprete in November 1408. Abandoned the obedience of Rome and joined the one of Pisa. Participated in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V. Participated in the conclave of 1410, which elected Antipope John XXIII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina on September 23, 1412. Named legate in Naples. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. On March 13, 1418, he resigned the commendam of the Cistercian abbey of S. Maria di Casamari. Accompanied the pope to Tivoli on June 17, 1421. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in February 1426.

Death. July 21, 1428, Rome. His body was transported to Naples and buried in the church of S. Maria in Cosmodin, called S. Maria di Portanova (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 306-307; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 663-664; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 37, 46 and 50.

Links. Biography by Alfred A. Strnad, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 32 (1986), Treccani; his portrait by Ugo Zuecca, parish church of Villanova del Sillaro, Lodi, Lombardy, Italy, Lombardia Beni Culturali; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and Famiglia d'Anna, in Italian (the cardinal's portrait is one third down the page).

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 664:

Hic iacet in Tumulo sacri Cardine coetus
Laudensis dictus Senior: pater optimus iste
ANNA, fuit generosa domus, sed amabile nomen
ANGELVS Angelicam pia mens revolavit in Aulam
Mille CCCC bis demis octoque iunctis
Currebat Christi mesis quoque Iulius anni

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SAARWERDEN, Friedrich von (1348-1414)

Birth. 1348, (no place found), Germany. Nephew of quasi-Cardinal Kunon von Falkenstein, archbishop of Trier, on his mother's side.

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna; he was condisciple of Cardinal , future Pope Gregory XI.

Early life. He was a renowned jurisconsult. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Cologne. Papal chaplain in 1360. Received the subdiaconate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Cologne, November 13, 1370. Consecrated (no information found). Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire for Italy. He crowned Wenceslas, king of the Romans, in Aix-la-Chapelle, on June 21, 1376; after having announced the election to Pope Gregory XI the previous June 12.

Cardinalate. Pope Urban VI offered him the cardinalate, either in 1381 or in the consistory of December 17, 1384, but he declined the promotion. On January 6, 1401, he crowned Rupert, king of Germany, in Cologne. On July 24, 1411, he crowned Sigismund, king of the Romans.

Death. April 9, 1414, Poppelsdorf, Bonn. His body was taken to Münsterkirchen, Bonn, and then, down the Rhine river to Cologne, where it was buried in a magnificent marble monument in the metropolitan cathedral on April 14, 1414.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 293-294; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 654-655; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24 and 198; Janssen, Wilhelm. "Friedrich von Saarwerden." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2001, pp. 283-285.

Links. Biography, in German; his image and biography, in German; his arms on a coin; view of his tomb from above; lateral view of his tomb; and detail of the statue on his tomb.

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NASSAU, Adolf von (ca. 1345/1346-1390)

Birth. Ca. 1345/1346 (1), Germany. Of the counts of Trier. Son of Adolf Il von Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein and Margarethe von Nürnberg.

Education. Studied at the Mainz cathedral school; in spring 1364, he went to study canonical law at the University of Padua; from 1366, he studied at the University of Bologna.

Early life. Master of the cathedral of Cologne, 1362. In 1365, he received the expectation of a canonicate and a dignity at the cathedral chapter of Mainz, but whether he ever received it is uncertain. Pfruenden of the chapter of Sankt Florin in Koblenz, 1364; and in 1366, in Bingen and Wetzlar. Provost of the chapter of Sankt Georg in Limburg, archdiocese of Trier, in 1371. Received the minor orders. On January 27, 1371, his uncle, Archbishop Gerlach von Nassau of Mainz, decided to have him appointed his coadjutor, but the archbishop died before the promotion took place.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Speyer, April 28, 1371; he was rarely in his diocese. Consecrated, September 8, 1371 (no further information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Mainz, April 18, 1379; he was succeeded in the see of Speyer by his brother Johann on that same day. Administrator of the see of Speyer, March 22, 1380 by Antipope Clement VII, because his brother had been imprisoned for supporting Antipope Clement VII; replaced in the see of Mainz by Ludwig von Meissen, whom he had succeeded. He passed from the obedience of Antipope Clement VII to that of Pope Urban VI, who, having transferred Archbishop Ludwig to Magdebourg, named Archbishop Adolf to the see of Mainz again on April 28, 1381.

Cardinalate. Pope Urban VI offered him the cardinalate, either in 1381 or in the consistory of December 17, 1384, but he declined the promotion.

Death. February 6, 1390, Heiligenstadt. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Mainz.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 293; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 654; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 135-136; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 322 and 460; Jürgensmeier, Friedhelm. "Adolf von Nassau." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2001, pp. 411-412.

Links. Biography, in German; biography, in German; his genealogy, A4; and his coin.

(1) This is according to Jürgensmeier, "Adolf von Nassau." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon, p. 411; and his genealogy, linked above; his two biographies in German, also linked above, indicate that he was born ca.1353.

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FALKENSTEIN, Kuno von (1320-1388)

Birth. 1320,Falkenstein, Germany. Of a noble family. Second son of Philipp IV von Falkenstein-Münzenberg and Countess Johanna von Saarwerden. Uncle of quasi-Cardinal Friedrich von Saarwerden, archbishop of Cologne. His first name is also listed as Conone, Simon and Simone.

Education. He probably attended the cathedral school of Mainz and also possessed military training.

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan chapter of Trier, 1325. Canon schoolmaster, 1345. Provost of the metropolitan chapter of Mainz, In 1327, he received an expectation of a canonicate in the cathedral chapter of Mainz; he obtained it in 1335. Pastor of Nie-der-Weisel, diocese of Mainz, in 1355. Provost of the chapter of Nörten in 1335 and 1339. In 1344, he became schoolmaster. Cathedral canon of Trier; and in 1360, its provost; he never entered into the office. Perhaps provost of Sankt Bartholomäus-Stiftes, Frankfurt, 1345-1353. Provost of the cathedral chapter of Mainz, July 3, 1348. He had received the diaconate when promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop coadjutor of Trier, April 4, 1360. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the metropolitan see of Trier, May 27, 1362; resigned the see in April 1388. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Cologne, with the title of archbishop coadjutor, during the episcopate of Archbishop Engelbert von Marck, December 23, 1366; after the latter's death, he was named apostolic administrator on March 27, 1370; occupied the post until the November 1371, when Friedrich von Saarwerden was named archbishop. Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire for France. On June 12, 1376, he wrote to Pope Gregory XI communicating him the election of Wenceslas, king of the Romans.

Cardinalate. Pope Urban VI offered him the cardinalate, either in 1381 or in the consistory of December 17, 1384 but he declined the promotion.

Death. May 21, 1388, Koblenz. Buried in a magnificent sepulchre in the church of Sankt Kastor, Koblenz.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 294; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 655; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p.136 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 198 and 495 Seibrich, Wolfgang; Janssen, Wilhelm. "Kuno von Falkenstein." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2001, pp. 803-806.

Links. Biography, in German; biography, in German; his coin; another coin; and another coin.

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HOORN, O.F.M., Arnold von (ca. 1339/1340-1389)

Birth. Ca. 1339/1340, Hoorn. Of the counts of Horn. Son of Wilhelm, herrn von Hoorn, Altena, Gaesbeek, Herstel, and his second wife, Elisabeth von Kleve. He is also listed as Arnould de Hornes and his last name as Horn and Horne.

Education. Entered the order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). Studied in Paris; obtained a baccalaureate in law and a licentiate in art; later, pursued further studies in law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Cologne. Further studies. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Liège and Utrecht in 1362. The following year, 1363, he obtained a canonicate in the cathedral chapter of Cologne and became its archdeacon.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Utrecht, July 9, 1371. Consecrated, September 28, 1371, Rome (no further information found); he made his solemn entrance in Utrecht on September 21, 1372. Transferred to the see of Liège, June 12, 1378; occupied the see until his death.

Cardinalate. Pope Urban VI offered him the cardinalate, either in 1381 or in the consistory of December 17, 1384 but he declined the promotion.

Death. March 8, 1389, Liège. Buried in the Cistercian convent of Keyserbosch, Hoorn, founded by his family.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 294; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 655-656; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 136; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 402 and 491; Herwaarden, Jan van ; Minke, Alfred. "Arnold von Hoorn (OFM)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2001, pp. 377-378.

Links. His genealogy, A1 E1 F7; and chronology of his episcopate in Liège, in French.

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LIEGNITZ, Wenzel von (1348-1419)

Birth. 1348 (1), Silesia, Germany. Of the princes of Silesia and the dukes of Signe. Son of Wenzel I, duke of Liegnitz, of the royal house of Poland, and Anna von Teschen. His irst name is also listed as Waclaw and his last name as Silesia-Liegnitz and Slezia.

Education. Studied at the University of Montpellier..

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Breslau 1368. Received the subdiaconate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lebus, with papal dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, December 3, 1375; he resided in Fürstenwald because the residence of the cathedral had been destroyed by the troops of Emperor Karl IV in 1373. Administrator of the see of Breslau, from the beginning of 1381 until 1382; elected bishop of Breslau by the cathedral chapter; transferred to the see of Breslau by Pope Urban VI, July 28, 1382; during his episcopate, the northern tower of the cathedral of Breslau was removed; Otmachów, Oberglogau and Falkenberg collegiate chapters were established; in Striegau a Carmelite monastery was established, as well as a monastery of Hermits of Saint Paul in Wiese bei Oberglogau; and Johanniterkomturei in Warmbrunn was converted into Cistercian provostship in 1403; he celebrated diocesan synods in 1401, 1406 and 1415; resigned the see, December 17, 1417; went to live in Ottmachauer Schloss; Pope Martin V granted him properties and emoluments pertaining to the see of Breslau. Duke of Liegnitz from 1409 until 1419 .

Cardinalate. Pope Urban VI offered him the cardinalate, either in 1381 or in the consistory of December 17, 1384 but he declined the promotion.

Death. December 30, 1419, Ottmachau. Buried in the collegiate church of Ottmachau, which he had founded; after that church was translated to Neisse, his tomb was moved to Jakobuskirche in 1477; with his death, the line of the dukes of Liegnitz became extinct.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 294; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 656; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 136; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 313 and 535; Kastner, Karl. Breslauer Bischöfe. Breslau : Ostdeutsche Verlagsanstalt, 1929; Kopiec, Jan. "Liegnitz, Wenzel von. Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2001, pp. 112-113.

Links. His genealogy, A1 B2; tomb and biography, in German; and brief biography, in German.

(1) This is according to Kopiec, Jan. "Liegnitz, Wenzel von. Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon, p. 112; and his two biographies in German, linked above; his genealogy, also linked above, says that he was born in 1346.

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ROŽEMBERKA, Petr (Ca. 1325-1384)

Birth. Ca. 1325, (no place found), Bohemia. Of a noble family. Eighth of the eleven children of Petr I z Rožemberka, grand chamberlain in kingdom of Bohemia, and Kateřina z Vartemberka. It was believed that he descended from an Orsini of the 12th century; the form of his last name as Orsini-Rosenberg dates from the 17th century. He is also listed as Pietro Rosenberg, Pietro Orsini and Pietro Orsini-Rosenberg.

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. Ordained for the diocese of Prague (no further information found). Provost of the church of All Saints in the castle of Prague.

Cardinalate. Pope Urban VI offered him the cardinalate, either in 1381 or to be conferred in the consistory of December 17, 1384, but he declined the promotion, contento della vita quieta, e privata (1).

Death. November 16, 1384 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 294; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 656; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 136; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24.

Link. His genealogy, A8.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 294: "contented with a quiet and private life."
(2) This is according to his genealogy, linked above; Johann Heinrich Zedler, and Carl Günther Ludovici, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste (64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici), says that he died on December 11, 1384.

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STEFANESCHI, Giovanni (?-ca. 1388)

Birth. (No date found), of the region of Trastevere, Rome.

Education. " ... ricchissimo di sostanze, e primario per autorità e credito tra in Romani..." (1)

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro on September 1381 or in December 1381 (2). Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Cecilia in 1385 after the deposition of Cardinal Adam Easton, who was the occupant of the title until then.

Death. Ca. 1388, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 305-306; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 663; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 136; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 305: "very rich in substance and first by authority and credit among the Romans".
(2) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place.

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RODRÍGUEZ, O. de M., Pedro (?-1401)

Birth. (No date or place found). Of the noble family Torres. He is also listed as Petrus Hispanus and Pedro de Plasencia.

Education. Entered the Order of Our Lady of Mercy (Mercedarians). Obtained a doctorate in decrees (canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Archdeacon of Altaripa, archdiocese of Toledo. Theologian and preacher.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Plasencia, September 3, 1372. Consecrated (no information found). Ambassador before Pope Gregory XI.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest on September 18 or 28, 1378 or 1388 (1); his title is unknown.

Death. October 18, 1401 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 285; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 649-650; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 64; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVIII, 94.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136; and Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 64; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, II, 285; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVIII, 94, say that he died during the pontificate of Pope Urban VI.

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JUAN (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found), Urgel (?). He is also listed as Juan de Vergelaand as Giovanni di Urgel.

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Urgel (1). He went to Pisa in January (no year known) on his way to Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1378 (2).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 266; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 639; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 136; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25.

(1) He does not appear in any of the catalogs of occupants of this see.
(2) This is according to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 639; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place.

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"N" (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is not given by the sources and that is why is he referred to as "N".

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Edena or Edessa (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1378 (2).

Death. (No information found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25.

(1) He does not appear in any of the catalogs of occupants of this see.
(2) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 639; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place.

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SANSEVERINO, Stefano (?-1380/1389)

Birth. (No date found), kingdom of Naples. Of the counts of Marsi.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in September 1379 (1); his deaconry is unknown. He returned his red hat in the hands of Queen Giovanna of Naples in 1380; he got married not having received the sacred orders; the letter of the minister general of the Franciscans to the king of Castilla on May 29, 1380, announced the resignation but did not make any mention of the marriage.

Death. Shortly after 1380 or before 1389, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Baluze, Etienne. Vitae paparum avenionensium; hoc est Historia pontificum romanorum qui in Gallia sederunt ab anno Christi MCCCV usque ad annum MCCCXCIV. 4 vols. Nouv. édtion d'après les manuscrits par G. Mollat. Paris : Letouzey et Ani, 1914-1927; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 285; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 69; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 136; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 649; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place.

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PICCOLBASSI, Giovanni di (?-1383)

Birth. (No date found), Bologna. His last name is also listed as Picciolbassi.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Ostia in October 1378 (1) to replace Cardinal Bertrand Lagier, O.F.M., who had passed to the obedience of Antipope Clement VII."Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 136-137; and Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotions took place.

Death. July 18, 1383 (no place found). Buried in a marble tomb, with his effigy and epitaph (2), in the church of S. Proculo, Bologna.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 307-308; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 664-665; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 664; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place; "Essai" adds, on the same page, that it may be possible that Chacón confuses him with Giovanni Picciolpassi, named by Pope Urban VI bishop of Ostuni toward 1380 and dead in June 1383 and that in such a case, he should be eliminated from the list of cardinals as recommended by Mas Latrie.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 664:

ANNO DOMINI MCCCLXXXIII. DIES XVIII. MENSIS IVULII
REV. IN CHRISTO PATER DOMINVS IOANNES DE PIZZOLPASSIS
DE BONONIA EPISCOPVS OSTIENSIS
SPIRITVM ALTISSIMO COMMENDAVIT.

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COSSA, Giulio (?-shortly after 1380.)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of an ancient and noble family.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere probably after June 1380 (1).

Death. Shortly after June 1380, Rome. Buried in his title (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 307; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 664; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 136; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 664; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 664:

IVLIVS hic tegitur COSSVS Romanus in Vrna
Cuiroseus sacro vertice fulsit apex
Quo vivente olim, victricis gloriæ Romæ
Vivere vita fuit,quo moriente mori.

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ORSINI, Raimondello (?-?)

Birth. Rome. Of a noble family. Of the counts of Nola. His first name is also listed as Raimondo and Raimoudello.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in December 1381 (1); or on December 14, 1383 (2).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 295-296; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 657; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLIX, 166-167.

(1) This is according to Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XLIX, 167.
(2) This is according to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 657; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136-137; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place.

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CARBONE, Giovanni (?-before October 15, 1389)

Birth. (No date found), kingdom of Naples. His last name is also listed as Carlone.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon on December 14, 1383 (1). His deaconry is unknown.

Death. Before October 15, 1389, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 308; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 665; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 137; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 657; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 136-137; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place. Several sources indicate that he may not be a cardinal but the father of Cardinal Francesco Carbone (1384) and Pseudocardinal Guglielmo Carbone (1411), but their father's name was Pietro.

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THOMAS, O.P. (?-toward 1390)

Birth. (No date or place found), England. Of a noble family.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans). Obtained a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information foud). Confessor of King Richard II of England. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Author of theological works.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli in December 1383 (1).

Death. Toward 1390, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II,308 ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 665; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 137; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 665; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 137; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 25, indicate that he may have been also created cardinal by Pope Urban VI but that it is not known with certainty if the promotion took place.

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Note. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 666, mentions the names of two more cardinals cited by Felice Contelori, Elenchvs eminentiss.m & reuerendis.m S.R.E. cardinalivm ab anno 1294. ad annum 1430; ex bibliotheca eminentiss. & reverendiss. principis D.D. card. Barberini ... Vita Martini qvinti (Romae, apud Andream Phaeum, 1641), giving only their names, titular churches and indicating that they took part in the election of Antipope Clement VII. They were Franciscus, cardinal priest of S. Sabina; and Bertrandus, cardinal priest of S. Cecilia.

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