The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Boniface IX (1389-1404)
Consistory of December 18, 1389 (I)


(1) 1. MINUTOLI, Enrico (?-1412)

Birth. (No date found), Naples. Of a noble family. He is also listed as Arrigo Capece Minutoli and his last name as Minutolo. He was called the Cardinal of Naples. Another cardinal of the family, on his mother's side, was Enrico Enriquez (1753).

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bitonto by Pope Urban VI in 1382. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Trani in 1383. Transferred to the see of Naples, September 1389.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Anastasia in the consistory of December 18, 1389; retained the administration of his see until February 13, 1400. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1390 to 1412; joined the obedience of Pisa in 1409; confirmed as camerlengo of the College by Antipope Alexander V but he had to share the post with Pseudocardinal Amedeo di Saluzzo. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1396. Participated in the conclave of 1404, which elected Pope Innocent VII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati in 1405. Participated in the conclave of 1406, which elected Pope Gregory XII. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, December 1, 1406. Accompanied the pope to Siena and stayed for five months; he left in January 1409 to attend the Council of Pisa. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in May 1408. Participated in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, July 2, 1409. Participated in the conclave of 1410, which elected Antipope John XXIII. Legate of Antipope John XXIII in Bologna and vicar general in Ferrara and Friuli.

Death. June 17, 1412, Bologna. Buried in a magnificent mausoleum in the Minutoli Chapel in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 312-314; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417). Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 156-157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 38, 39, 143, 360 and 492; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 90-92.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his tomb, Cappella Minutolo; another image of his tomb, flickr; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(2) 2. OLEARIO, O.F.M., Bartolomeo (ca. 1320-1396)

Birth. Ca. 1320, Padua. Of an illustrious family. Son of Michele de Uliariis. He had three brothers, Iacopo, Francesco and Bondo, who was the 19th abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Mosacio. His last name is also listed as Juliari, Giuliari, Oleari, Uliari, Uliarii, Ularii, Ulariis, Uliario, Oleari, Oléaris, Olieri and Olivieri. He was called Cardinale Padovano.

Education. Studied at the University of Padua (divina ed umane scienze; obtained a doctorate philosophy). Entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) at the convent of Padua (annexed to that monastery is the basilica of S. Antonio di Padua, where the remains of the saint are venerated). (1). He obtained a doctorate in canon law (decretorum) and probably in theology also.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). He taught in several convents of his order. Among the works he wrote are Quodlibeta Theologica, now lost; Commentaria in quatuor Evangelia; and Sermones de Tempora, et de Sanctis. Trying to remedy the doctrinal and moral problems caused by the Great Schism in Italy, he dedicated himself to preaching in several cities and towns in Marca Trevigiana, Lombardy, Tuscany and Marca Anconitana. At the death of the bishop of Ancona, Giovanni Tedeschi, O.E.S.A., in 1380, begged Pope Urban VI to name Fr. Bartolomeo Oleario, O.F.M., to occupy the see. The pontiff acquiesced to the request.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ancona in 1381. Consecrated (no information found). Because of disturbances occasioned by the schismatics, he had to seek refuge in Tuscany. He was named archbishop of Crete in 1383 but could not occupy the see. In 1385, he preached in Florence and was very esteemed by the citizens. When Cardinal Angelo Acciaioli resigned the see of Florence, the people proclaimed Bishop Oleario its new bishop; and Pope Urban VI approved the election. He was transferred to the see of Florence, December 9, 1385; and occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate; he kept the see of Ancona in commendam.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana in the consistory of December 18, 1389. In 1393 he was named first abbot commendatario of the abbey of S. Cristoforo di Castel di Durante, in the diocese of Urbino. Shortly after in that same year, he was named legate in the kingdom of Naples, a fiefdom of the Holy See, whose king was Ladislao, son of King Carlo III di Durazzo. King Ladislao, although he was a boy of fourteen, had been crowned in May 1390 by Cardinal Angelo Acciaioli, then legate of Pope Boniface IX in Naples. The young king had to defend his throne against Luigi II of Anjou, who sought the support of the Neapolitan barons. The pope, wishing to return the kingdom to the obedience of King Ladislao and to stop the internal division caused by the schism, sent Cardinal Bartolomeo Oleario as his legate to Naples, with wide powers. The cardinal was very successful in his mission and went to Gaeta, where King Ladislao had sought protection. While in Gaeta, Cardinal Oleario was asked by the pope to ask King Martino I of Sicily, who favored the party of Antipope Benedict XIII, to submit to Rome. When the cardinal was about to leave in his new mission, he fell gravely ill and died.

Death. April 16, 1396, Gaeta. The funeral took place in the church of the Franciscans in that city, where he was also buried (2).

Bibliography. Aranci, Gilberto. "I cento cardinali di Firenze. Serie cronologica." in Firenze e i suoi cardinali : studi offerti al card. Silvano Piovanelli del Titolo di S. Maria delle Grazie a via Trionfale, arcivescovo emerito di Firenze, in occasione del XX anniversario dell'elevazione alla dignità cardinalizia, 1985, 25 maggio, 2005. A cura di Gilberto Aranci (Firenze : Pagnini editore, 2005, (Pubblicazioni dell'Archivio arcivescovile di Firenze; Studi e testi ; 9)), p. 30, no. 4; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1285; Campana, Augusto. "Lettera del cardinale padovano a Coluccio Salutati", in: Classical, Mediaeval and Renaissance. Studies in honor of Berthold Louis Ullman, edited by Charles Henderson jr., II, (Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura : Roma 1964), p. 237-254); Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 314; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 706-707, no. 2; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 132; Eggs, Georgius Josephus. Purpura docta, seu, Vit Vitæ, legationes, res gest Vitæ, obitus, aliaque scitu, ac memoratu digna, &c. S.R.E. Cardinalium. Six books in three vols. Farnborough, Hants., England : Gregg International, 1970. Originally published : Francofurti : Prostant & veneunt apud Joannem Georgium König, 1714, II, 497-498; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417). Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 137, no. 2; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 46, 88 and 250; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 665 and 749; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLVIII, 287; Venezia, Giafrancesco da. "Fra Bartolomeo degli Uliari." La Resegna nazionale, LIX (1891), 776-787.

Links. His engraving, Biblioteca, Archiginnasio di Bologna, Bologna, Italy; and same engraving and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, VI, 25, 46, 88 and 250, which says that he entered to Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines). Niether Umberto Betti, I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), nor Remigius Ritzler, "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, list him among the Franciscan cardinals.
(2) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 707, which says that he was a Franciscan Conventual, indicates that the following two inscriptions were placed on his tomb:

Vnica Cardinei fueras, qui gloriæ coetus
Hacte petrategit Patavinis moenibus ortum:
Almas inter nunc animas lætaris Olympo.
Missus eras partes demum legatus ad istas,
Cum tibi vinaces mors inuida sustulit annos,
Vnanimis quicquid condignum munere fama
Scire datur, studiis sublimi mente locasti.
Longa tuum meritis clarum per secula nomen.
Non adimit suprema a dies: tua vivida virtus
Nunquam morte cadens omni memorabitur ævo.

HIC IACET REVERENDISS. IN CHRISTO PATER
DOMINVS BARTHOLOMAEVS DE VLIARIS DE
PADVA DEI GRATIA TT. S. PVDENZIANA PRESBYTER
CARD. PADVANVS REGNI SICILIAE APOSTOLICAE
SEDIS LEGATVS QVI OBIIT DIE XVI.
APRILIS ANNO MCCCXCVI. INDICT. IV.

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(3) 3. MIGLIORATI, Cosmato Gentile de' (ca. 1336-1406)

Birth. Ca. 1336, Sulmona, L'Aquila. His first name is also listed as Cosimo and Cosma; and his last name as Meliorati. Of a noble family, of military tradition and mercantile interests. Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Migliorati (1405). He was called the Cardinal of Bologna.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the University of Bologna; studied under Giovanni da Legnano, later vicar of that city.

Early life. Rector of the church of S. Maria Annunziate in Sulmona, 1370-1381. During the episcopate of Bishop Andrea Capograssi of Sulmona, he was maestro elemosiniere, chaplain, and familiar of Carlo di Calabria. From 1373, he was archpriest of Sulmona. Chancellor of the archdiocese of Capua in 1379. professor of law at the Universities of Perugia and Padua. Highly recommended by the Commune of Bologna and by his professor, he went to Rome and entered the curia. Chaplain of Pope Urban VI in Rome. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in 1380. In 1383, he was provost of Valva; and dean of the chapters of S. Panfilo and S. Pelino, diocese of Valva. In that same year, 1383, he went to Florence sent by Pope Urban VI in a mission. Apostolic collector of tithes in England for ten years. On his return, he was promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ravenna, November 4, 1387. Consecrated on December 5, 1387 (no further information found). He could not take possession of the see because of the strong opposition of Guido da Polenta, signore of the city, who supported Antipope Clement VII. Transferred to the see of Bologna, June 19, 1389; retained the administration of the metropolitan see of Ravenna until September 15, 1400, when he resigned it in favor of his nephew Giovanni de' Migliorati, future cardinal. Vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; prefect of the conclave of October 1389.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in the consistory of December 18, 1389. Papal treasurer and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church during the pontificate of Pope Boniface IX. Named legate in Lombardy and Tuscany on to promote the peace between Gian Galeazzo Visconti and the communes of Florence and Bologna; left Rome on March 9, 1390. Named camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in May 1396. Legate for the peace of Italy. When Pope Boniface IX fell gravely ill, he named Cardinal Migliorati president of the consistory with unlimited authority over the government of the church. Participated in the conclave of 1404 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on October 17, 1404. Took the name Innocent VII. He was crowned on November 11, 1404, in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, probably by Cardinal Landolfo Maramaldo, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere (1). He created eleven cardinals in one consistory.

Death. November 6, 1406, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 315-316; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417). Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 25, 26-27, 41, and 141; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 234; Del Re, Niccolò. "Innocenzo VII." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. ; De Vicentiis, Amedeo. "Innocenzo VII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 581-584; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 232-235.

Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait, arms, tomb and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; his engraving by Tobias Stimmer, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; another engraving, Cartantica.it; small image of his head, Sts. Martha and Mary Parish, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada; and his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

(1) Cardinal Ludovico Fieschi, protodeacon of S. Adriano, was absent from the conclave.

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(4) 4. MARONI, Cristoforo (?-1404)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. His last name is also listed as Manoni, Marone, Morone and Maron. He was called the Cardinal of Isernia.

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Isernia e Venafro in 1387; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Ciriaco alle Terme in the consistory of December 18, 1389. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica toward September 1397. Prior commendatario of the monastery of Ss. Alessio e Bonifazio all'Aventino, Rome; after his death, the priorate was united to the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Together with Cardinals Francesco Carbone and Bartolomeo Carafa, he served as arbiter in the dispute between Pope Boniface IX and Paolo Savelli, Roman prince, concerning the control of several castles; the dispute was resolved to the satisfaction of the two sides. Participated in the conclave of 1404, which elected Pope Innocent VII.

Death. December 4, 1404, Rome. Buried in a marble tomb in the chapel of S. Gregorio in the patriarchal Vatican basilica (1). His tomb was renovated in 1574.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 316-317; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 708; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417). Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 157-158; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 42 and 287.

Links. His arms, abbey of S. Stefano all'Isola, Isola della Scala, Verona, Italy; and another image of his arms.

(1) This is the inscription placed on the wall next to his tomb, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 708:

Qui legitis carmen lacrymabile, fundite fletus,
undite, 7 hoc multis lacrymis ornate sepulcrum,
Maxima Cardinei, cubat hic nam gloria coetus,
Corpore Christophorus sed spiritus infidet astris,
Fidus Apostolicæ per tot stuitantia cimba
Naufragia Ecclesiæ fuit, & tunc terno salutis
Multiplici virtute nitens, & amator honesti
Vir erat, evecto cui tanto ad culmen honoris.
Nominis alme tui titulum Cyriace dedisti.

ANNO DOMINI MCCCCIV.

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