The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
[Antipope] Clement VII (1378-1394)
Consistory of January 23, 1394 (XI)
Celebrated in Avignon


(34) 1. FERNÁNDEZ DE FRÍAS, Pedro (?-1420)

Birth. (No date found), Frías, Burgos, Castilla. Of an obscure family. He was called the Cardinal of Spain or of Osma.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Valido of King Enrique III of Castilla toward 1368; and also of his son King Juan II.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osma, March 21, 1379. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of January 23, 1394; received then, or in 1396 or toward 1405, the title of S. Prassede; kept the administration of his diocese, which was confirmed by Antipope Benedict XIII on August 1, 1395; he kept the post until 1404; Antipope Alexander V confirmed him in the post on February 1, 1410. Did not participate in the conclave of 1394, which elected Antipope Benedict XIII. He remained loyal to the antipope in September 1398. He fell in disgrace in the Castillian court in 1405, during the conflict between the supporters and the adversaries of Antipope Benedict XIII; he was among the latter ones but for reasons of convenience (he hoped to be promoted to the primatial see of Toledo), he maintained the appearances; his dispute with the bishop of Segovia was the pretext prepared by the supporters of the antipope to cause the psuedocardinal's fall; he had to leave Spain and went to to Rome. Abandoned the obedience of Antipope Benedict XIII in 1408 and was deposed by him on October 21 of that same year. Attended the Council of Pisa. Participated in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V. Named vicar of this antipope in Rome on March 19, 1410; left Bologna on April 21 of that same year; learned of the death of Antipope Alexander V while on route to Rome; returned to Bologna on May 12. Participated in the conclave of 1410, which elected Antipope John XXIII. The new antipope confirmed him as vicar in Rome. Named bishop of the suburbicarian see of Sabina on September 23, 1412; he kept the title of S. Prassede in commendam until his death. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica after 1412. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Received the title of S. Cecilia in commendam on June 26, 1419. Legate in Venice. Founded the monastery of Santa María de Jerónimos de Espeja.

Death. September 19, 1420, Florence. His body was transfered to Burgos and buried in its cathedral (1).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 689; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 29, 38, 45 and 383; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Fernádez de Frías, Pedro." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), II, 918.

Webgraphy. Biographical article, in Spanish.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, now buried under the pavement of the cathedral:

ASPICE QUAM FRAGILE VITA MORTALICEN SIT.
QUI PREDIBUS HIC TERRITUR CARDINALIS HISPANIAE FUIT,
MONASTERIUM DE ESPEJA FUNDAVIT.
OBIIT FLORENTIAE MCCCCXXV.

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GORREVOD, Louis I de (?-?)

Birth. (No date found), Savoia (?). He is also listed as Ludovico de Savoia (1). Relative of Cardinal Louis de Gorrevod (1530).

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Jean de Maurienne.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of 1394 (1).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 689; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153-154; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 29.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, pp. 153-154, indicates that he is mistaken with Cardinal Louis de Gorrevod (1530).
(2) This is according to Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, II, cols. 689-690. Both "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 153-154, and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 29, doubt that he was ever promoted.

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ROCHECHOUART, Jean de (?-1398)

Birth. (No date found), Bourges, France. Son of Jean de Rochechouart, viscount of Limoges, and Jeanne de Sully.His last name is also listed as Rochechouard.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Archdeacon of Hannonie, diocese of Cambrai. Papal chaplain. Received the minor orders.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Couserans, November 28, 1358. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Saint-Pons-de-Thomières, January 29, 1361. Attended the Council of Narbonne in April 1374. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bourges, May 30, 1382. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Arles, October 17, 1390.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal ca. 1390 (1); or pseudocardinal bishop of Ostia in a consistory celebrated in 1392 (?); occupied the see until his death (2); or in 1394 (3). Prepared his testament in 1398, shortly before his death.

Death. Friday December 13, 1398 (4), Villeneuve-lès-Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Albanès, Joseph Mathias Hyacinthe ; Chevalier, Ulysse. Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France. 7 vols. 1895-1920, III. 869-875. Other Title : Gallia Christiana. Responsibility: D'après les documents authentiques recueillis dans les registres du Vatican et les archives locales. Complétée, annotée et publiée par le chanoine Ulysse Chevalier, III, col. 739-747; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 690; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 153-154; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 29, 36, 103, 139, 203 and 406; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 683-684; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, III, 548-550.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in French, p. 683-684; brief biographical data, in French; biography, in French, col. 739-747; biography, in French, p. 548-550.

(1) This is according to his biography in French, linked above.
(2) This is according to Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. 5.
(3) This is according to Louis Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge (Paris : V. Palmé, 1889), p. 1155; and Charles Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... (Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969), col. 1465. Both "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 154; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 29, doubt that he was ever promoted; the former source says that he is mistaken with Cardinal Jean de Neufchatel; his second biography in French, linked above, says that it is very doubtful that he was ever promoted because it does not appear in the archives of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
(4) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 154; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 36 and 105; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1465, indicate that he died on September 13, 1394.

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GIMIEL, Guillaume de (?-ca. 1383)

Birth. (No date or place found), France. His first name is also listed as Guilielmus and Gillen; and his last name as Gumiel.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Archdeacon of Billom, diocese of Clermont. Papal chaplain. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Papal legate in Spain; resided in Murcia for several years and then was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal; no further details are known (2).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cartagena (Murcia), November 24, 1372 (1); occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found).

Death. Ca. 1383, Avignon. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p.154 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 168.

Webgraphy. Biographical information, in Spanish.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 154; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 168; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 24, says that he was named in 1385; his biographical information in Spanish, linked above, says that he was named in January 1375 and that he convoked synods in April 1375 (he presided over it personally), 1377, 1370, 1380 and 1382 (he left for Avignon.
(2) This is according to Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 24; and his biographical information in Spanish, linked above; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 154, says that he should be eliminated from the list of prelates promoted by Antipope Clement VII.

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SAVOIA, O.S.B., Edoardo di (?-1395)

Birth. (No date or place found), Savoia. His first name is also listed as Edwardus and Edelbus; and his last name as Savoia-Achaya.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of San Giusto di Suse, diocese of Turin.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Belley, May 7, 1371. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Sion, November 27, 1375. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tarentaise, February 21, 1386; took possession of the see on March 19 of that year.

Cardinalate. He was created pseudocardinal; no further details are known (1).

Death. February 1395 (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 154; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 131, 442 and 472.

(1) This is according to Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 539; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 154, says that he should be eliminated from the list of prelates promoted by Antipope Clement VII.

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ESPAGNE, O.S.B., Guillaume d' (?-1383)

Birth. (No date or place found), Spain or France. He is also listed as Guillaume IV d'Espagne and Guillermo de España.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of Mas d'Azil, diocese of Rieux.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pamiers, February 4, 1351. Consecrated (no information found). 1366. Transferred to the see of Comminges, June 6, 1371.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal; no further details are known (1).

Death. 1383 (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 154; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 94 and 207.

(1) This is according to Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 539; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 154, says that he should be eliminated from the list of prelates promoted by Antipope Clement VII.

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AYCELIN DE BELLÈMERE, Gilles (?-ca. 1407)

Birth. (No date or place found), France. He is also listed as Gilles de Bellèmere and Aegidius de Bellèmere; his first last name is also listed as Aiscelini and his second last name as Bellemer.

Education. Studied utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Archdeacon of Avignon. Professor of canon and civil law law. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lavaur, October 8, 1382. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Puy, October 17, 1390. Transferred to the see of Avignon, August 19, 1392.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal; no further details are known (1).

Death. Ca. 1407, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 154; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 91, 124 and 518.

Webgraphy. La vie et les œuvres de Gilles Bellemère by Henri Gilles, Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes, CXXIV (1966), 1, pp. 30-136.

(1) This is according to Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 539; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 154, says that he should be eliminated from the list of prelates promoted by Antipope Clement VII; his biography in French, linked above, says that he is confused with Cardinal Gilles Aycelin de Montaigu (1361) and that he was never promoted to the cardinalate.

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ITHIER, Raimond (?-1385)

Birth. (No date found), Beaumont, diocese of Sarlat, France. Nephew of Cardinal Pierre Ithier (1361). His last name is also listed as Itier.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest (1); he never received a title. He resided in Avignon after his promotion.

Death. July 16, 1385, Avignon. Buried in the chapel of Saint-Georges in the convent of the Jacobins (Dominicans) in Avignon.

Bibliography. Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660. Note(s): Signatures: Vol. 1: à4 pi4 A-8Y2 (last leaf blank); Vol. 2: A-4N4 (last leaf pasted to back board)./ Pagination: vol. 1: 722, [10] p.; vol. 2: 632, [12] p./ Volume 2 has title: Preuves de l'histoire de tous les cardinaux [etc.]./ Embossed on spine: Histoire des cardinaux./ Title page of volume 1 in red and black./ Includes indexes at back of each vol: Vol. 1: Table des chapitres; Vol. 2: Table des matières./ Vol. 1: 236 portraits; Vol. 2: not illustrated./ Engraved initials; headpieces. Other Titles: Histoire de tovs les cardinavx françois ...; Histoire des cardinaux; Preuves de l'histoire de tous les cardinaux ... , I, 675-676; and II, 500.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French; and his epitaph.

(1) He is mentioned as a cardinal only by François Du Chesne, Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois de naissance, I, 675-676; and II, 500.

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