The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Boniface IX (1389-1404)
Consistory of February 27, 1402 (II)


(5) 1. CAETANI, Antonio (ca. 1360-1412)

Birth. Ca. 1360, Rome (1). Of the ancient noble family of the counts of Fondi. His last name is also listed as Gaetani and Gaytanus. He was called the Cardinal of Aquileia. Relative of Pope Boniface VIII. Uncle of Pseudocardinal Antonio Panciera (1411). Other cardinals of the family were Niccolò Caetani (1536); Enrico Caetani (1585); Bonifazio Caetani (1606); Antonio Caetani (1621); and Luigi Caetani (1626).

Education. "... fatti con distinzione i suoi studj..." (2).

Early life. At the end of his adolescence, he entered the ecclesiastical state.

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of Aquileia, January 27, 1395; took possession of the see on February 12, 1395; he resided in Rome; he resigned the see on February 2, 1402. Consecrated (no information found). On July 21, 1397, he obtained permission to visit the Holy Sepulchre in the Holy Land.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in the consistory of February 27, 1402. He left Rome on September 10, 1403 to take care of his affairs; returned on May 28, 1404; left again on September 30, 1406 to go to the thermal baths of Viterbo. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina on June 12, 1405. Grand penitentiary and archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica toward July 1405. Participated in the Council of Pisa in March 1409 and was deposed as a cardinal by Pope Gregory XII. Participated in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V. The new antipope made him opt for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina on July 2, 1409. Administrator of the see of Fiesole, July 2, 1409 until 1411. Did not participate in the conclave of 1410, which elected Antipope John XXIII.

Death. January 11, 1412, in Rome. Buried in the chapel of Pope Boniface VIII in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; later his remains were translated to the basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva and buried at the left of the main altar (3); he had built the apse of this basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 317-318; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 709; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417). Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 138; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26, 37, 40 and 99.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico Friulano; his arms on a coin of the patriarchate of Aquileia; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and an image of his sepulchral stone.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except his biographical data in Italian, linked above, which says that he was probably born in Piedimonte Matese, Caserta.
(2) Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 317, "did his studies with distinction".
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 709:

HIC REQVIESCIT REVERENDISS. IN CHRISTO
PATER DOMNVS ANTONIVS CAIETANVS
EPISCOPVS PORTVENSIS
SANCTÆ ROMANÆ ECCLESIÆ CARDINALIS
QVI OBIIT ANNO DOMINI
MCDXII.
MENSIS IANVARII DIE VNDECIMA
INDICTIONE QVINTA

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(6) 2. COSSA, Baldassare (1360/1370-1419)

Birth. 1360/1370, Ischia, Naples. Son of Giovanni Cossa, signore of the isle of Procida, and Cicciola Barile. He had three brothers. The family had a reputation as pirates. His first name is also listed as Baldassarre and his last name as Coscia. Distant relative of Pope Bonifacius IX on his mother's side.

Education. Studied theology in Rome; obtained a doctorate in law at the University of Bologna shortly before 1389.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna by 1386. Papal chamberlain in 1392. Archdeacon of Bologna in 1396. Protonotary apostolic. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in the consistory of February 27, 1402. Named legate in Romagna, he left Rome March 17, 1403; he was charged with recovering the city that was under the Visconti; the cardinal took control of the city in September 1403; Popes Innocent VII and Gregory XII confirmed his legation; later, in 1408, he was deprived of the legation by Pope Gregory XII; Antipope Alexander V reestablished his legation and named him vicar of Bologna. Did not participate in the conclaves of 1404 and 1406, which elected Popes Innocent VII and Gregory XII respectively. In 1408, he abandoned the obedience of Pope Gregory XII, taking with him in his defection many other cardinals, prelates and private persons. He worked strenuously for the celebratation of a pseudocouncil in Pisa, which took place in March 1409; he was the grand elector in the conclave that followed the deposition of Pope Gregory XII and Antipope Benedict XIII by the council. Participated in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V. He left Pisa on July 11, 1409 and returned the following August 8. The new antipope was not able to enter Rome because of the support of Ladislas of Durazzo for Pope Gregory XII; in opposition to Ladislas, Pisa supported Louis II of Anjou as king of Naples; Cardinal Cossa led the battle against Ladislas and entered Rome in October 1409; after his victory, he returned home to Bologna; Antipope Alexander V joined him in Bologna; on December 26, Cardinal Cossa entered Pistoia, where the curia was. Antipope Alexander V died in Bologna of natural causes on May 3, 1410. Participated in the conclave of 1410 and was elected antipope.

Antipapacy. Elected antipope on May 17, 1410 in Bologna. Took the name John XXIII.

Priesthood. Ordained on Saturday May 24, 1410 in the Apostolic Palace in Bologna.

Episcopate. Consecrated, Sunday May 25, 1410 in the cathedral of S. Petronio, Bologna, by Cardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny, bishop of Ostia and Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. Crowned on the same day in front of the door of the catedral of Bologna by Rinaldo Brancaccio, protodeacon of Ss. Vito e Modesto. After Ladislas of Durazzo retook Rome, Antipope John XXIII headed a military operation and entered Rome on April 12, 1411; to remain in the city, he negotiated a peace with Ladislas in June 1412. He called a council in Rome for the reform of the church but it received very little support and was ended in March 1413. He sought refuge in Florence after the occupation of Rome by Ladislas in July 1413. King Sigismund of the Romans, future emperor, who supported Pope Gregory XII, proposed the calling of a general council to end the schism; Antipope John XXIII, who was in weakened position, had to agree and issued a bull of convocation on December 9, 1413; even before the papal document had been issued, King Sigismund had produced an edict calling a council in Constance on November 1, 1414; the council opened on November 5, 1414. The Council of Constance asked the pope (Gregory XII) and the two antipopes (Benedict XIII and John XXIII) to abdicate; at first, Antipope John XXIII refused to abdicate; then, on March 2, 1415, he agreed to resign if Benedict XIII and Gregory XII did resign as well; on March 19, he escaped from Constance in disguise as a postman; he sought refuge in Schaffousen protected by Duke Friedrich of Austria. When King Sigismund threatened him, the antipope tried to escape crossing the Rhine; this move made the antipope lose credibility before the council fathers, who declared the superiority of the council over the pope; summonses were issued for Antipope John XXIII to appear before the council; he received the summonses in Freiburg; King Sigismund convinced Duke Friedrich Austria to give him control over the city, and the antipope was arrested and imprisoned in Randolfzell; accused of ambition, simony, bad conduct, and tyranny, he was tried by the council fathers and deposed on May 29, 1415. Created eighteen pseudocardinals in four consistories. He was imprisoned in Germany until 1418 and was freed by the payment of a hefty ransom. After his release, he made his submission to Pope Martin V, who absolved him and named him cardinal bishop.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Frascati in the consistory of June 23, 1419.

Death. December 22, 1419. Buried in the baptistery of the metropolitan cathedral of Florence. His funeral monument, ordered by Cosmo de' Medici, was built by Donatello de' Bardi, Michelozzo di Bartolomeo and Pagno di Zapo Portigiani (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 318-320; and III, 1-26; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 710 and 785-810; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 138; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26 and 50; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 5 and 61.

Webgraphy. Biography by Johann Peter Kirsch, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Spanish; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography, in Italian; biography, in English; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; views of his tomb and biography, in Italian, Mediateca Medicea di Palazzo Medici Riccardi; his engraving by an anonymous artist, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another engraving by an anonymous artist, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his arms, Palazzo Comunale di Bologna, romeartlover; his effigy, on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; his tomb in the baptistery of the metropolitan cathedral of Florence, Web Gallery of Art; baptistery of S. Giovanni, metropolitan cathedral of Florence, Paradoxplace, Adrian Fletcher.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 710:

BALTASSARIS COSSAE IOANNIS XXIII. QVONDAM
PAPAE CORPVS HOC TVMVLO CONDITVM

(7) 3. CIBO, Leonardo (?-1404)

Birth. (No date found), Genoa. Of a patrician family. Brother of Cardinal Angelo Cibo (1402). His last name is also listed as Cybo.

Education. Studied utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. He practiced lawyer and was a famous jurisconsult.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano in the consistory of February 27, 1402.

Death. Before October 1404 (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 320; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 710; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417). Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 138; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26.

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(8) 4. CIBO, Angelo (?-1404)

Birth. (No date found), Genoa. Of a patrician family. Brother of Cardinal Leonardo Cibo (1402). His last name is also listed as Cybo.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in the consistory of February 27, 1402.

Death. Before October 1404 (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 320; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 710; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417). Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 138; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26.

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