The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Gregory XII (1406-1415)
Consistory of May 9, 1408 (I)
Celebrated in Lucca


(1) 1. CORRER, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine of S. Giorgio in Alga, Antonio (1359-1445)

Birth. July 15, 1359 (1), Venice. Son of Filippo Correr, brother of Pope Gregory XII, and Cassandra Venier (2). Cousin of Pope Eugenius IV. He was called the Cardinal of Bologna. His last name is also listed as Corario, Corrario, Corraro and Corer.

Education. He was one of the founders of the congregation of the Augustinian Canons Regular of S. Giorgio in Alga, Venice.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Dean of Corone, September 28, 1390; successor of his uncle.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Modon, 1405; confirmed on February 24, 1407. Consecrated by Pope Gregory XII (no further information found). From March to May, 1407, he was sent to Marseille to negotiate with Antipope Benedict XIII his interview with the pope to take place in Savona. Transferred to the see of Bologna, March 31, 1407; he was impeded from taking possession of the see by Cardinal legate Baldassare Cossa, future Antipope John XXIII, who considered Pope Gregory XII illegitimate; he resigned the see when he was promoted to the cardinalate; the see was adminstered by a vicar until 1412. Chamberlain of the pope until July 9, 1415. Administrator of Asolo, 1408 to 1410. Named patriarch of Constantinople, succeeding his uncle, ca. 1408; occupied the see until August 1409.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli in the consistory of May 9, 1408; retained the administration of his see until November 2, 1412. Named legate in Germany and Flanders on December 13, 1408. At the request of his uncle the pope, he opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina on May 9, 1409. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, July 1412. Did not attend the Council of Pisa. Did not participate in the conclave of 1409, which elected Antipope Alexander V. Did not participate in the conclave of 1410, which elected Antipope John XXIII. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Administrator of the see of Cittanova, April 25, 1420 until February 20, 1421. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica from 1420 until 1434. Accompanied Pope Martin V to Tivoli on June 17, 1421. Named legate in Perugia; returned to Rome from his legation on November 9, 1425. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of S. Angelo, Verona, until 1428. Abbot commendatario of the abbeys of S. Zeno, Verona, and S. Giovanni di Verdara, Padua. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. As dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, he opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri on March 14, 1431 (3). Named legate to negotiate the peace between Florence and Siena on April 4, 1431; left Rome four days later. Resigned the commendam of the priorate of Saint-Martin de Noyen, diocese of Lisieux, on August 5, 1431. Administrator of the see of Rimini, October 10, 1435; occupied the post for six weeks, until November 21, 1435. Administrator of the see of Cervia, November 1435 until 1440. Named grand penitentiary in May 1438. He authored a history of his times, which remained unpublished.

Death. January 19, 1445, monastery of S. Giovanni, of his congregation, Padua. His body was transferred to Venice and buried in the church of S. Giorgio in Alga (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 339-341; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 765; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 141-142; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 31, 37, 45, 74, 141 and 352; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 95 and 126; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 245-248; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 291.

Link. Biography by François-Charles Uginet, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 29 (1983), Treccani; his portrait and arms, 19th century (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his arms and engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 141; Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 245, says that he was born in 1369.
(2) Some sources say that her name was Chiara.
(3) This is according to Merluzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 248; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 142, says that he opted on that date but that he was named dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in May 1438.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 765:

Sepulchrum piissimi Patris
DOMINI ANTONII CORARII
Beata memoriæ Episcopi Ostiensis
Cardinalis Bononiensis
Fundatoris huius Congregationis
Qui obiit anno a Nativitate Domini
MCCCCXLV. DIE XIX. IANVARII
Orate pro eo.

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(2) 2. CONDULMER, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine of S. Giorgio in Alga, Gabriele (ca. 1383-1447)

Birth. Ca. 1383 (1), Venice. His family was originally from Pavia. He was one of the four children of Angelo Condulmer and Beriola (Bertola or Beziola) Correr, sister of Pope Gregory XII. His last name is also listed as Condolmer, Condulmieri, Condulmaro, Condolmieri and Condulmerio. Cousin of Cardinal Antonio Correr, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine of S. Giorgio in Alga (1408). Uncle of Cardinals Francesco Condulmer (1431) and Pietro Barbo (1440), future Pope Paul II. He was called the Cardinal of Siena.

Education. Studied at the University of Padua.

Early life. Prior secular of the collegiate church of S. Agostino, near Venice. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Verona, ca. 1398; he took his dignity seriously and went to live in that city; later, his parents asked him to return to Venice. Distributed his possessions to the poor (20,000 ducati) and joined the Congregation of the Agustinian Canons Regular of San Giorgio in Alga in 1400. He was called to Rome by his uncle the pope in 1406. Protonotary apostolic.Treasurer of the Holy Roman Church, 1407.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Siena, December 30, 1407. Consecrated, 1408, at Siena, by Pope Gregory XII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest with the title of S. Clemente in the consistory of May 9, 1408. He did not attend the Council of Pisa. In June 1411, Antipope John XXIII gave his title of S. Clemente to pseudocardinal Branda Castiglione. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Named vicar of the pope and legate a latere in Marche Anconitana on January 3, 1420; he left the Roman Curia the following February 8. Named legate in Bologna in August 1423; returned to Rome on August 24, 1424. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere ca. 1426 or 1427. Abbot commendatario of the monasteries of S. Giorgio Maggiore and S. Salvatore, Venice; and of S. Giuliano, Rimini. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Giustina, Padua, until 1444. Participated in the conclave of 1431 and was unanimously elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on March 3, 1431 in the sacristy of the basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva. Took the name Eugenius IV. Crowned on March 11, 1431, before the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Lucido Conti, protodeacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. He transferred the Council of Basle to Ferrara on September 18, 1437; and then to Florence in January 1439; there an ephemeral union with several Orthodox Churches was accomplished. The schismatic Council of Basle suspended him as pope on January 24, 1438; deposed him on June 25, 1439; and elected Antipope Felix V on November 5, 1439. He created twenty seven cardinals in six consistories.

Death. February 23, 1447, Rome. Buried originally in the Vatican basilica. In the 17th century, during the construction of the new basilica, his remains were transferred to a magnificent tomb in the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 341-342; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 766 and 867-928; Del Re, Niccolò. "Eugenio IV." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 470-472; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 142; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 31, 41, 44 and 446; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 7-8; Gill, Joseph. Eugenius IV, pope of Christian union. Westminster, Md.: Newman Press, 1961. (The popes through history, v.1); Hays, Denys. "Eugenio IV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 634-640; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.241-243; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 150-153; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 293.

Links. Biography, in English; portrait, arms, statue and biography, in Italian; bronze relief and biography, in English (Britannica); portraits by Jean Fouquet, "le peintre du roi"; his statue, 18th century, Prato della Valle, Padua; his effigy on three medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; his effigy and arms on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; three coins of his pontificate, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; his arms, church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, Rome; his arms; and his tomb, church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, Rome.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except his first biography in English, linked above, that says he was born in 1388.

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(3) 3. DOMINICI, O.P., Giovanni (ca. 1356-1419)

Birth. Ca. 1356 (1), Florence. His family name was Banchini or Bacchini. His father, Domenico Dominici, was a merchant; his mother, Paola Zorzi, was from Venice. He was called the Cardinal of Ragusa.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) at the convent of S. Maria Novella, Florence, in 1372.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1380. Vice-prior of S. Maria Novella , 1381; prior, 1386-1387. Profesor of theology in S. Zanipolo, Venece, 1388. From 1391, he initiated a movement for the reform of the observance of the rule of his order which motivated his appointment to vicar general of the observant convents in 1393. In 1395, he founded the convent of Corpus Domini in Venece. Expelled from Venece in 1399, he went to Florence as vicar of S. Maria Novella, teaching theology and founding the convent of Fiesole in 1405. He was a brilliant orator and writer of numerous Scriptural works. Sent to Rome by Florence in 1406 to help extinguish the schism, he arrived in Rome after the election of Pope Gregory XII, whom he informed of his mission; on December 5, 1407, the pope gave him the faculty of treating the union with the delegates of Antipope Benedict XIII; on the following December 13, he was sent to Florence to preach for the union of the church; the pope, against the friar's will, promoted him to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ragusa March 26, 1408. Consecrated (no information found). Named legate before Antipope Benedict XIII, with Giacopo del Torso, on March 26, 1408.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sisto in the consistory of May 9, 1408; he kept the administration of his see for a year. Legate in Venice, November 17, 1408. Legate in Hungary, January 8, 1409. On July 23, 1409, he was named abbot commendatario of the monastery of Ss. Andrea e Saba, Rome. Administrator of the see of Tropea, May 16, 1410; occupied the post until the following September 17. Provost commendatario of S. Maria dell'Isola Tremici, diocese of Chieti, May 23, 1410. Legate in Genoa and Milan, January 1, 1411. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Ss. Vito e Salvo, diocese of Chieti, January 13, 1411. Administrator of the see of Melfi, March 2, 1412. Administrator of the see of Bova, April 21, 1412; occupied the post until his death. Cardinal protoprete in September 1412. Legate in Germany, September 25, 1414. Grand penitentiary in November 1415. When Pope Gregory XII decided to abdicate to end the schism, he charged Cardinal Dominici, with Procurator Carlo Malatesta, with bringing his abdication to the Council of Constance on July 4, 1415; he submitted his resignation as cardinal but the council refused it and sent him as legate to Sinigaglia on January 30, 1416. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Named by the new pope legate in Bohemia and Hungary on July 10, 1418; he accompanied Emperor Sigismund when the monarch left Genève the following July 22.

Death. June 10, 1419 (1), Buda, Hungary. Buried in the convent of St. Paul the Hermit, Buda. Numerous miracles took place at his tomb.

Beatification. Invoked as a blessed since May 1622, he was beatified, by recognition of immemorial public worship, by Pope Gregory XVI on April 9, 1832; his feast is celebrated on June 10.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 336-339; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 763-764; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 142; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 31, 47, 143, 335, 412 and 500.

Links. Biography, in English; biographical entry, in Italian; portrait and biography, in Italian; three portraits and biography, in Italian; biography, in Spanish; Political views in the preaching of Giovanni Dominici in Renaissance Florence, 1400-1406 by Aryeh Debby, critical essay, Renaissance Quarterly, Mar 22, 2002; portraits and biographical entry, in Italian; and his engraving and arms.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 142; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 31 and 47, which indicates that other sources say that he died on June 6, 1419; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 763, says that he was born in 1340; the date given by his biographies, linked above, fluctuates between 1355 and 1357.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 142; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 33; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 76, says that he died on June 10, 1419 and that other sources indicate he died in 1420; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 339, says that he died in 1420 and add that other sources indicate that he died in 1418 or 1419; his biographies in English and Spanish, linked above, say that he died in 1420.

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(4) 4. DEL TORSO, Giacopo (?-1413)

Birth. (No date found) (1), Udine. Of a noble family. Son of Giovanni (or Zani) del Torso, called "Rosso". His first name is also listed as Jacopo, Jacopino and Giacopino and his last name as de Tors. He was called the Cardinal of Udine.

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna; obtained a doctorate in medicine in 1387.

Early life. Exercised the profession of physician in Udine. Deputy of the city of Udine. Entered the ecclesiastical state.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1395. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal cathedral of Aquilea. Canon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Udine. Ambassador of the city of Udine before the pope. Protonotary apostolic. Legate in Venice. Legate of Pope Innocent VII before King Ladislaus of Sicily, January 25, 1405. Legate of Pope Gregory XII to Genoa and Savona on October 17, 1407, to negotiate the union with Antipope Benedict XIII; and again, together with Cardinal Giovanni Dominici, on March 26, 1408.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria Nuova in the consistory of May 9, 1408. Legate in Venice.

Death. 1413, Rimini. Buried in the church of St. John the Evangelist, Rimini.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 341-342; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 766; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 142-143; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 31 and 51.

Links. Biographical entry, in Italian.

(1) His biography in Italian, linked above, indicates that he was born in 1387 and then says that he obtained a doctorate in medicine in that same year, which is obviously erroneous.

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