The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
[Antipope] Benedict XIII (1394-1423)
Consistory of September 22, 1408 (V)
Celebrated in Perpignan


(11) 1. RAVAT, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Pierre (?-1417)

Birth. (No date found), Pamiers, France. His last name is also listed as Raban, Rabat, Ravati and Ravot. He was called the Cardinal of Toulouse.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine (1). Obtained a doctorate in decrees (law).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Chancellor of the University of Toulouse. Papal referendary. Chancellor of the metropolitan see of Toulouse. He went to the curia of Avignon.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mâcon, August 20, 1395 (2). Consecrated (no information found). Antipope Benedict XIII sent him, with Elias de Lestange, bishop von Saintes, to the second Paris meeting of the French prelates in August 1396. In 1398, he was sent to the third Paris meeting of the French prelates; the antipope wanted to send Miguel de Zalba, future cardinal, as part of the legation but King Charles VI of France opposed it; in this national council, the French clergy, wanting to end the schism, decided to withdraw their obedience to both the pope and the antipope; Bishop Ravat spoke in favor of Antipope Benedict XIII; on March 7, 1398, Bishop Ravat wrote to the antipope telling him that five days earlier, in the presence of the French king and the dukes, the bishop of Palestrina had proposed, in the name of the Sacred College of Cardinals, to follow the voie du concile. Transferred to the see of Saint-Pons de Thomières, March 29, 1398 (3); occupied the see until 1409. From 1401 to 1402, he was again in Paris as the most outstanding agent of Antipope Benedict XIII; on March 2, 1402, before the ambassadors of the king of Aragón and of the deputies of the University of Toulouse, who had spoken in favor of Antipope Benedict XIII (and whom King Charles VI of France had called to Paris), Bishop Ravat pronounced a very vehement speech against the abandonment of the obedience of Avignon that had been requested; seeing in the assembly Cardinals Guy de Malsec, Amedeo di Saluces and Pierre de Thury, who had resided in Paris for more than three years, he took them aside and told them that if the pope would suddenly die, they would not have the right to elect another one, because they had been made guilty of lèse-majesté, for using violence against Pope Boniface IX, their lord; the invective extremely mortified the three cardinals; Cardinal Malsec undertook to justify him and his colleagues, and rejected all the fault, placing the responsibility on the populace of Avignon, which had carried the situation to excess against the pope. In 1402, the antipope named him referendary. Bishop Ravat also went, with Pedro de Zagarriga, bishop of Lérida, in a legation before Pope Boniface IX in Rome; they had the first audience with the pope on September 22, 1404; Bishop Ravat encouraged the pope to work for the end of the schism and to meet with Antipope Benedict XIII; another meeting took place a week later; the pope died on October 1, 1404; the governor of Castello Sant'Angelo arrested Bishop Ravat and the other four ambassadors and took them to the fortress; they were freed a few days later after paying a ransom of 5,000 florins; they could not stay in Rome any longer because their safe conduct had expired; they went to Florence; the Roman cardinals elected Pope Innocent VII; Bishop Ravat and his colleagues returned to Nice, where Antipope Benedict XIII was, on April 11, 1405. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toulouse, September 18, 1405; Antipope Benedict XIII disregarded the canonical election to this see of Vital de Castelmoron occurred on May 5, 1402; the nomination produced a conflictive situation which resulted in a violent encounter in the cathedral of Saint-Etienne on the day of the new archbishop's installation, November 14, 1406, which resulted in the death of one person; the bulls were published amidst the tumult and posted in all the parishes of the city; at the same time, the excommunication of Archbishop Castelmoron and his followers was issued; because of the neutrality between the two obediences that King Charles VI of France had proclaimed, on January 12, 1406, Archbishop Ravat was expelled from Toulouse and the province. On May 20, 1408, he went from Portovenere to Livorno to meet Pope Gregory XII; when the discussions of the cardinals of the two obediences turned against Antipope Benedict XIII, Archbishop Ravat and two others left the meeting and returned to Portovenere. Archbishop Ravat accompanied the antipope in his rushed retreat to Perpignan; there, the antipope celebrated a consistory and promoted Archbishop Ravat.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio in the consistory of September 22, 1408; retained the administration of his see until July 9, 1409. In 1409, Antipope Alexander V addressed two apostolic letters to the faithful and clergy of Toulouse in which he approved the election of Archbishop Vital de Castelmoron and declared null the nomination of Archbishop Ravat and all his acts as pretended archbishop; on October 21, 1408, the national council of France, gathered in Paris, declared Bishop Ravat partisan notoire et complice de Pierre de Lune qu'il qualifiait des titres odieux de schismatique et d'hérétique, et déclara impétrables tous les bénéfices qu'il tenait de l'antipape; the bishop had to resign his see of Saint-Pons de Thomières. Cardinal primoprete in 1409. He remained in the obedience of Avignon until his death.

Death. Between March 22 and June 5, 1417 (4), Barcelona. Buried in the chapel of Santa Eulalia, next to the main altar of the cathedral of Barcelona.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 741-742 ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 30, 47, 331, 406 and 488; Fisquet, Honoré Jean Pierre. La France pontificale (Gallia Christiana) : histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'etablissement du Christianisme jusqu' à nos jours, divisée en 18 provinces ecclésiastiques. 21 vols. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1874, II, 554-558.

Link. Brief biography, in German, p. 127-128; biography, in French, pp. 554-558.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 156; his biography in French, linked above, says that he joined the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans).
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 156; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 331; his biography in French, linked above, says that he never was bishop of Mâcon and indicates that he was named bishop of Alet in 1377 and that later, he was transferred to the see of Carpentras; neither Louis Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge (Paris : V. Palmé, 1889), p. 1441; nor Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 573, mention him among the occupants of the see of Mâcon. As far as the see of Alet (or Electa), Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 486, also indicates that he occupied the see from 1377 until 1386, when he was transferred to Carpentras; neither Eubel, I, 237, says that Pierre de Monteacuto was elected to this see in 1385 and that he was not the same than Pierre Ravat; neither "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux", nor Mas Latrie, mention him among the occupants of this see. Concerning the see of Carpentras, "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux", does not mention the see at all; neither Eubel nor "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux" or Mas Latrie mention him among the occupants of the see of Carpentras; Gams, p. 530, says that he was bishop of Carpentras from 1377 to 1394.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 156; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 406; his biography in French, linked above, says that he was named on December 3, 1397.
(4) This is according to This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 156; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 30 and 47; and his biography in German, linked above; his biography in French, also linked above, says that he died in 1409.

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(12) 2. ARMAGNAC, Jean d' (1350s-1408)

Birth. 1350s, (no place found), France. Illegitimate son of Jean II d'Armagnac. Another cardinal of the family was Georges d'Armagnac (1544).

Education. Obtained a baccalaureate in law.

Early life. Cleric of Leictoure. Archdeacon of Lomanie, diocese of Leictoure. Apostolic protonotary.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mende, April 22, 1387. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Auch, October 17, 1390; administrator of the see on September 22, 1408; occupied the post until his death. Counselor of state of King Charles VI of France in 1401. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Rouen, February 26, 1407; he could not take possession and remained in the metropolitan see of Auch.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of September 22, 1408; he never received the title or the red hat; he had made his will on August 22 of that year.

Death. October 8, 1408. Perpignan. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 747; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 30, 121, 342 and 426.

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(13) 3. MARTÍNEZ DE MURILLO, O.Cis., Juan (?-1420)

Birth. (No date found), Murillo, Spain. He is also listed as Juan Martínez. His last name is also listed as Martinius Murillius. He was called the Cardinal of Montearagón.

Education. Entered the order of the Cistercians (1).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of monastery of Montearagón, diocese of Huesca.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in the consistory of September 22, 1408. Left the obedience of Antipope Benedict XIII in 1415 and was deposed by him. Did not participate in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Joined the obedience of Pope Martin V, who received him on August 1, 1418 and restored his cardinalate and title on March 17, 1419 in Florence.

Death. November 1420, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 742; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 30 and 53.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 742, which says some indicate that he was a Canon Regular but that others truly indicate that he was was a Cistercian; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 156; Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. 40, says that he entered the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine and lists him as Giovanni Martino Murillo.

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(14) 4. URRIÉS Y PÉREZ SALANOVA, Carlos Jordán de (?-1420)

Birth. (No date found), Huesca. Son of Pere Jordán de Urriés, major dome and conceller, and María Pérez de Salanova. He is also listed as Carlos Jordán de Urriés y Pérez. His last name is also listed as Urríes. He was called the Cardinal of Urrieé.

Education. Studied canon law.

Early life. On February 3, 1386, he was recommended to the cathedral chapter of Huesca by the king of Aragón. He was in Perpignan with Antipope Benedict XIII since July 24, 1408.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro in the consistory of September 22, 1408. On November 15, 1408, he read the Gospel in the opening mass of the Council of Perpignan. In 1409, he wrote a treatise defending the antipope and against the cardinals in the Council of Pisa (1). On October 31, 1412, he was present at the reading of the will of Antipope Benedict XIII in Peñíscola. He accompanied the antipope when the latter visited Morella on August 15, 1414; and at his solemn entrance in Valencia on December 14, 1414. On June 25, 1415, the antipope named him sacrista of the cathedral of Huesca, in spite of the statute of the diocese that prohibited persons who were not members of the chapter from occupying dignities. On that same day, in the presence of Pseudocardinals Urriés and Carrillo, the antipope protested the fact that he had not been granted safe conduct to go to Villafranca di Niza. After the edict withdrawing from the obedience of Avignon, on January 6, 1416, King Alfonso V of Aragón unsuccessfully tried to attract Pseudocardinal Carlos de Urriés; he remained loyal to Antipope Benedict XIII for two years; and since July 18, 1416, with explicit permission of the king. On May 3, 1416, three pseudocardinals, Urriés, Carrillo and Fonseca, responded to King Alfonso V, that they could not abandon Antipope Benedict XIII, because he was the legitimate pope, vicar of Christ and head of the Church; in their letter, they showed a deep knowledge of theology and of the Fathers of the Church. With the same firmness, they rejected the notice of the Castillian embassy, of December 15, 1416, to go to the Council of Constance; but their commitment to the cause of the antipope was collapsing. On February 8, 1417, the three pseudocardinals and some other prelates reiterated the request that they had formulated other times to Antipope Benedict XIII that he abdicate and that he send a delegation to the Council of Constance to carry out the resignation and to apologize for the delay; the antipope rejected it; they washed their hands and declared themselves innocent of whatever would happen; the antipope responded a month later; the three pseudocardinals responded immediately insisting on the necessity to abdicate to end the schism and reaffirming themselves in their position; in vain they waited for the answer; on December 26, 1417, the three cardinals, seconded by a series of bishops and Catalan-Aragonese abbots, begged the antipope again to resign without delay and to order his pseudocardinals to elect pope Martin V, recently chosen by the cardinals and the council; this plea had the air of an ultimatum; in case of a rejection, they reserved their freedom of action; consequently, on January 5, 1418, they left Antipope Benedict XIII, who called them degenerate children and who declared they had incurred infamy and other pains; a month later, the antipope deposed them. Did not participate in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. The new pope, before whom they prostrated themselves in Florence, restored their dignities and benefices, and had the condescence of letting them elect him on August 1, 1418.

Death. October 8, 1420, in his residence in Trastevere, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 745; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p.156 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 30 and 50.

Links. Biographical entry, in Spanish; biographical entry, also in Spanish; and Los Urríes: un notable linaje altoaragonés by Santiago Broto Aparicio, Amigos de Serrablo, Año XXII, no. 121 (September 2001); and Año XXII, no. 122 (Diciembre 2001); the cardinal is mentioned in XIX and his parents in XVIII.

(1) The work was entitled "Allegationes pro Benedicto XIII, adversus Cardinales Concilii Pisani."

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(15) 5. CARRILLO DE ALBORNOZ, Alfonso (?-1434)

Birth. (No date found), Cuenca, Spain. Son of Gómez Carrillo, governor of the king of Castilla, and Urraca de Albornoz. Uncle of Pseudocardinal Alfonso Carrillo de Acuña, el joven (1440). Relative of Cardinal Gil Álvarez de Albornoz, C.R.S.A. (1350). His first name is also listed as Alonso. He was called the Cardinal of S.Eustachio or de Carrillo.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in the consistory of September 22, 1408.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Osma, November 28, 1408 until his death. On May 3, 1416, three pseudocardinals, Urriés, Carrillo and Fonseca, responded to King Alfonso V, that they could not abandon Antipope Benedict XIII, because he was the legitimate pope, vicar of Christ and head of the Church; in their letter, they showed a deep knowledge of theology and of the Fathers of the Church. With the same firmness, they rejected the notice of the Castillian embassy, of December 15, 1416, to go to the Council of Constance; but their commitment to the cause of the antipope was collapsing. On February 8, 1417, the three pseudocardinals and some other prelates reiterated the request that they had formulated other times to Antipope Benedict XIII that he abdicate and that he send a delegation to the Council of Constance to carry out the resignation and to apologize for the delay; the antipope rejected it; they washed their hands and declared themselves innocent of whatever would happen; the antipope responded a month later; the three pseudocardinals responded immediately insisting on the necessity to abdicate to end the schism and reaffirming themselves in their position; in vain they waited for the answer; on December 26, 1417, the three cardinals, seconded by a series of bishops and Catalan-Aragonese abbots, begged the antipope again to resign without delay and to order his pseudocardinals to elect pope Martin V, recently chosen by the cardinals and the council; this plea had the air of an ultimatum; in case of a rejection, they reserved their freedom of action; consequently, on January 5, 1418, they left Antipope Benedict XIII, who called them degenerate children and who declared they had incurred infamy and other pains; a month later, the antipope deposed them. Did not participate in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. The new pope, before whom they prostrated themselves in Florence, restored their dignities and benefices, and had the condescence of letting them elect him on August 1, 1418. Named legate in Bologna on August 16, 1420; he left from Florence the following day; returned to Rome on February 23, 1424. Administrator of the see of Sigüenza before September 17, 1422. He was named cardinal priest of Ss. IV Coronati in January 1423; he restored his title magnificently. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in 1428. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. He was sent by the Council of Basle as vicar to Avignon in 1433. Died shortly after returning to Basle.

Death. March 14, 1434, Basle. His body was transferred to Rome; and later to Sigüenza, where he was buried in the cathedral (1).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 745-746; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 30, 50, 383 and 444.

Links. His genealogy, IX - Gómez Carrillo; his tomb in the presbytery of the cathedral of Sigüenza, Spain; and his armsin the church of Ss. IV Coronati, Rome.

(1) This is according to the site of the cathedral of Sigüenza; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 746, says that he was buried in the cathedral of Osma.

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