The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
[Antipope] John XXIII (1410-1415)
Pisa Obedience
Consistory of June 6, 1411 (I)


(1) 1. LANDO, Francesco (?-1427)

Birth. (No date found), Venice. Of an illustrious family. Son of Vitale, il Vecchio, (or Pietro), Lando. Venetian patrician. His last name is also listed as Landi. He was called the Cardinal of Venice.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure (both canon and civil law).

Early life. He was a renowned jurisconsult.

Episcopate. Elected by Pope Gregory XII patriarch of Grado in 1408. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the patriarchate of Constantinople, August 22, 1409; retained the administration of the see for thirteen months after his promotion to the cardinalate. Attended the Council of Pisa.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in the consistory of June 6, 1411. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Locum tenens, after December 16, 1417, of Cardinal Amedeo Saluzzo, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Elected camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 10, 1419; occupied the post until his death. Named camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on July 19, 1419; occupied the post until his death. Named bishop of the suburbicarian see of Sabina on December 23, 1424; he had the see in commendam since June 7 of the same year. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, October or November 1427.

Death. December 26, 1427, Rome. Buried in a chapel that he had built in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 1; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 797-798; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 138; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 32, 38, 41, 207 and 266; Orsoni, Alessandro. Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia. Corredata di annotazioni illustranti l'ecclesiastico-civile veneta storia. Venezia : Tip. G.S. Felice, 1828, p. 242.

Links. Biography by Dieter Girgensohn, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 63 (2004), Treccani; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 798:

Landibus aeternum senior celebrandus in aeternum
Hic FRANCISCVS habet cineres, quem clarae creavis
LANDA Domus, Venetia proles sanctissima gentis
Aetherea virtute mitens, ius nactus utriumque
Dcotor erat, Cleri lumen, gravis auctor honestis,
Iustitia sublimis apex, experitus belleres
Ecclesia merites, Gradi sibi creditae fedes,
Hinc Constantini Patriarcha appositus Vrbi,
Hierusalem sacri titulum post Cardinis auctum
Crux dedit; hic summa Pisani laude peregis
Concilii foedus, Gradi tunc sceptra tenebas
Fervida Constanci leminus corda furentis
Hic populi, monuitque acies, mertique paratus
Inde Sabinensem titulum, dum Praesul agebat
Spiritus aeternum clarus migravit in Orbem.


According to the same source, the canons of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica placed the following inscription in the Sacrario cernitur:

FRANCISCVS LANDVS ARCHIPRESBYTER CARDINALIS
HAC IN BASILICA SACELLVM EXTRUXIT ADIECTA
PRO PLVRIBVS SACERDOTIBVS DOTE DELECTOQVE
IBIDEM SEPVLCHRO VBI MORTVVS CONDERETVR.

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(2) 2. PANCIERA, Antonio (ca. 1350-1431)

Birth. Ca. 1350, Portogruaro, Friuli. Of a noble but impoverished family. Son of Palatine Count Antonio Panciera. His last name is also listed as Pancerini; and as Panciarini. Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Caetani (1402). He was called the Cardinal of Aquileia, iuniore.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law at the University of Padua.

Early life. Soon after finishing his studies, he went to Rome, probably with Bonaventura Badoer, future cardinaland blessed. Apostolic notary. In 1380, Pope Urban VI named him canon of the chapters of Aquileia and Cividale. Entered the service of Cardinal Pietro Tomacelli, future Pope Boniface IX. Entered the papal chancery as scrittore and abbreviatore of apostolic letters. When Cardinal Tomacelli was elected pope in November 1389, he became his secretary and familiar; at this time, he met Baldassare Cossa, future cardinal and Antipope John XXIII, who was very influential in the papal court.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Concordia, before July 12, 1392; took possession on July 10, 1393 on September 11, he was granted the privilege of having in his arms the insignia of the Tomacelli house for him and his descendents; the Panciera family still enjoys the privilege. Consecrated (no information found). He continued exercising his offices in the Roman curia. Named abbot commendatario of Moggio in 1400; occupied the post until his promotion to the patrairchate. Promoted to the patriarchate of Aquileia, February 27,1402; entered the see on April 7, 1402; took possession the following day. Between 1402 and 1408, many of his adversaries, Germany and Venice, tried to induce Popes Boniface IX, Innocent VII and Gregory XII to depose him. In October 1403, he acquired the castle of Zoppola for him and his family. When he refused to comply with Pope Gregory XII's order of presenting himself before the papal court in fifteen days, the pontiff deposed him as patriarch on June 13, 1408 and named another patriarch, Antonio da Ponte, in his place in 1409; the cardinals who were opposing the pope did not support the deposition. Patriarch Panciera appealed to the Council of Pisa for support and was restored to the see of Aquileia; when Antipope John XXIII sought the obedience of Germany for his cause, he promoted the patriarch to the cardinalate as a way to remove him from the patriarchate; the cathedral chapter of Aquileia elected the German candidate, Ludwig von Teck, who was supported by the antipope; the pope's appointee was ignored; the new pseudocardinal showed no enthusiasm for his promotion.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest with the title of S. Susanna in the consistory of June 6, 1411; he remained in Friuli until the war between the factions forced him to leave; he entered the Roman Curia on March 4, 1412 and took possession of his title. He went to the Council of Constance with Pope Gregory XII in 1414 but at the council he was one of the pope's accusers and actively participated in all the proceedings of the assembly. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Administrator of the see of Satriano, June 24, 1419 until December 23, 1420. Administrator of the suburbicarina see of Frascati, August 13, 1420; named bishop of the see on March 14, 1431; occupied it until his death. He went to Tivoli with the pope on June 25, 1421. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Rosazzo 1424 to 1430. He obtained from the pope the transference of the see of Concordia to Portoruaro on July 23, 1425; the transfer did not take effect. Cardinal primo prete in September 1427. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from 1428 until his resignation in 1431. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Summaga in 1431. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. He spent the last years of his life in the monastery of S. Biagio in Cantusecuto, also called della Pagnotta, near the Tiber river, Rome, which he had received in commendam on January 22, 1424. He left one hundred letters of great interest to know the civil and religious activities of which he was a protagonist.

Death. July 3, 1431, monastery of S. Biagio in Cantusecuto, Rome. Buried in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, where there are still several fragments of the marble monument that contained his remains.

Bibliography. Battistella, Antonio. Genealogia della Nobile famiglia dei Conti Panciera di Zoppola. Udine : Tip. G. Percotto e Figlio, 1924; Bertolla, Pietro. I cardinali friulani. Udine : s.n., 1962. Estr. da: La vita cattolica, 1962, n. 39, 40, 41, 43, 47; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 1-4; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 798; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 138; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp 32, 39, 48, 99 amd 201; Paschini, Pio. Il Cardinale Antonio Panciera, commemorazione. Udine : 1932; Paschini, Pio. I vescovi originarii della diocesi di Concordia. Vittorio Veneto : Tipografia del Seminario, 1948, p. 10-12.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biographical entry, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico Friulano; portrait and brief biographical data by Ruggero da Portogruaro, in Italian, Fogolâr Furlan ; his arms on a coin, Classical Numismatic Group; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(3) 3. ADIMARI, Alamanno (1362-1422)

Birth. 1362, Modigliano, diocese of Faenza. Of a family from Florence. He was called the Cardinal of Pisa.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure (both canon and civil law) at the University of Florence.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Florence. Pastor of the church of S. Stefano, Modigliano. Provost of S. Gimignano. His cultural interests made him relate with exponents of the Florentine humanism, such as Leonardo Bruni. Protonotary apostolic in Rome ca. 1394. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Florence on December 13, 1400. Consecrated (no information found). His appointment to the see of Florence provoked a violent opposition in the city, coinciding with the transfer of the beloved Bishop Onofrio Visdomini to the diocese of Comacchio. The Signoria of Florence, to avoid the coming of the new bishop, sent dispatches and then messengers to Pope Boniface IX asking him, in vain, to withdraw from the decision. When the pope insisted, the Florentines, who reproached that Bishop Adimari had schemed to get the episcopal dignity, refused him access to the city and thus forced the pope to transfer him to the see of Taranto on November 16, 1401, while the archbishop of Taranto, Jacopo da Teramo, was transferred to Florence. It seems that he never went to his see of Taranto. On November 3, 1406, he was transferred to the see of Pisa; he occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. In 1409, he attended the Council of Pisa; he negotiated with Carlo Malatesta to make Pope Gregory XII attend the council; he was charged with reading the decrees; he joined the obedience of Antipope Alexander V. In 1410, he joined the obedience of Antipope John XXIII and was named legate a latere in France on June 9, 1410; his mission was to try to raise a new tithe on the clergy; in spite of the hostility University of Paris, his mission was successful and he was rewarded with the promotion to the cardinalate by the antipope.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Eusebio in the consistory of June 6, 1411. In 1411, he was sent to Spain to try to make it abandon the obedience of Antipope Benedict XIII. He entered Rome on November 20, 1412. Returned as legate to France on May 13, 1413, serving as a judge of "magistri" of the University of Paris in cases relating to the benefits; his mission ended with the opening of the Council of Constance, which he attended. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. He became a close collaborator of the new pope. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in 1418. The new pope named him his legate in Aragón and Navarra to end the schism of Antipope Benedict XIII; he left Constance on February 17, 1418; his mission was not successful; he left Barcelona on March 3, 1419 and arrived in the papal curia in Florence on April 30, 1419. The cardinal was immediately involved in the difficult negotiations between Pope Martin V and Braccio da Montone for the issue of the vicariate of Umbria; the cardinal was able to achieve peace in 1420. He left the papal curia on April 21, 1421 and met the pope in Tivoli on June 26, 1421; returned to Rome the following October 11.

Death. September 17, 1422, of the plague, in Tivoli. Buried in the church of S. Francesca Romana (S. Maria Nuova), Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 5-7; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 799-80; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 138-139; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 32, 42, 250, 400 and 473; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, pp. 748, 762 and 929.

Webgraphy. Biography by Edith Pàsztor, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 1 (1960), Treccani; his tomb, church of S. Francesca Romana (S. Maria Nuova), Rome, Australian National University; his arms and tomb, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 799 and the photograph of the same, linked above:

CORPUS ALAMANNI CARDINALIS PISANVS
HIC FLORENTIAE EX ADIMARIORVM ANTIQVA NOBILIQVE FAMILIA ORTUS
VTRIVSQUE IURIS DOCTOR T OMNI LITTERARUM GENERE ERVDITVS PRMVM PRO
THONOTARIVS DEINDE TARENTINVS POST PISANVS ARCHIPRESVL AD CARDINALATVS
APICEM PROVECTVS EST DVM PRO ROMANA ECCLESIA LEGATIONE FVNGERETVR IN
GALIIS DOCTORVM VIRORVM AMATVR ET CVLTOR VIR PSE DOCTISSI
MVS ZELATOR IVSTITIE ET COMVNIS REI PUBLICE BONI QVI PRO EC
CLESIE VNIONE APVD PISANVM CONSTANTIENQ CONCILIA VSQ AD
OPTATAM CONCLVSIONEM NEMINEM VERITVS LABORAVIT INTREPIDE OBIIT
EX PESTE ANNO ETATIS SVE LX MENSIS SEPTEMBRIS XVII DIE MCCCCXXII

The epitaph is on the rear outside wall of the church, near the entrance of the monastery of the Benedictine Olivetan monks.

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(4) 4. ESTEVES, João Alfonso (ca. 1340-1415)

Birth. Ca. 1340, castle of Azambuja, archdiocese of Lisbon, Portugal. Of a noble family. Son of Afonso Esteves, senhor of Salvaterra de Magos. He is also listed as João Afonso de Azambuja. He was called the Cardinal of Lisbon.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Initially, he was a soldier; later, entered the ecclesiastical state. He had an illegitimate son, Gonçalo (or Rodrigo) Anes, who was later legitimized by royal charter and married Catarina Afonso.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Silves before May 11, 1389. Transferred to the see of Porto, February 15, 1391. Transferred to the see of Coimbra, February 25, 1399. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lisbon, May 29, 1402. He was ambassador to Rome in two occasions. Attended the Council of Pisa in 1409. Later, he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

Cardinalate. Created psuedocardinal priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli in the consistory of June 6, 1411 (1); upon his promotion, he was named administrator of the see of Lisbon; occupied the post until his death. He adorned the tomb of Saint Dominic in Bologna and built the convent of S. Girolamo in Rome.

Death. January 23, 1415, Brugge, Flanders, while traveling from Rome to Portugal. His body was taken to Lisbon and buried in the church of São Salvador (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 4-5; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 798; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 139; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33, 45, 196, 406, 452 and 507.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; brief biographical data, in Portugues, 6th entry on the page, patriarchate of Lisbon; and his genealogy, 1.1.2.3.2.2.2, Origem dos Avelar e dos Soveral, Manuel Abranches de Soveral.

(1) His brief biographical data in Portuguese, linked above, says that he was created cardinal by Pope Gregory XII.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from his genealogy in Portuguese, linked above: Aqui jaz o muyto honrado senhor dom joam esteves, arcebispo de Lisboa e cardeal de Roma. Varam sabedor e virtuoso, em Bolonha solenizou a sepultura de Sam Domingos, em Roma fundou o mosteyro de Sam Jeronimo e em Lisboa este em que se mandou sepultar.

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(5) 5. AILLY, Pierre d' (1350-1425)

Birth. 1350, Compiègne, France. Son of Colart d'Ailly, a notable bourgeois of that city, and his wife Perrine. His last name is also listed as Aliacensis; as Alliaco; and as Aillj. He was called the Cardinal of Cambrai.

Education. He graduate in arts in 1368. Obtained a doctorate in theology at Collège de Navarre, Paris, in 1372.

Early life. Professor of philosophy and theology at Collège de Navarre from 1375; its grand-maitre from 1384. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Noyon on September 14, 1381. In 1387, he was delegate of the University of Paris before Antipope Clement VII in Avignon; at his return, he was named chancellor of the university. In 1389, he became confessor and chaplain of King Charles VII of France in 1388 or 1391. In 1389, he was sent to by the king of France and the University of Paris to request Antipope Clement VII the canonization of Cardinal Pierre de Luxembourg. Archdeacon of Cambrai, May 1391. Treasurer of the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, in 1394. In 1394, he was sent again by the king of France to Avignon before Antipope Benedict XIII; Archdeacon d'Ailly told the antipope in consistory that he should retire; he received a negative response from the antipope

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Le Puy, April 2, 1395. Consecrated (no information found). In November 1396, Antipope Benedict XIII transferred him to the see of Noyon; when Bishop Philippe de Moulin of Noyon refused the transfer to another see, the antipope transferred Bishop d'Ailly to the see of Cambrai in March 1397, predating the bull to November 15, 1396; occupied the see until his promotion to the cardinalate. At his instance, Antipope Benedict XIII extended the celebration of the feast of the Most Holy Trinity, which was already celebrated in the diocese of Liège, to the entire church. On May 30, 1403, because of his returning to the obedience of Antipope Benedict XIII, he delivered a sermon at the ceremony of thanksgiving in Paris in the presence of the cardinal legate, the princes and the bishops. In 1406, in the Assembly of the Clergy in Paris, he spoke in favor of the authority of the pope.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Crisogono in the consistory of June 6, 1411. He entered the Curia on December 1, 1412; the antipope finished the ceremonies of his promotion to the cardinalate the following December 19. He was named administrator of Uzés on December 21, 1412; his predecessor in that see had been transferred to the see of Limoges but he refused; Cardinal d'Ailly was named on that same day administrator of the see of Limoges. Legate of Antipope John XXIII in Germany in March 1413; he left for his legation the following month of May. Named administrator of the see of Orange on August 7, 1413; occupied the post until 1418. He was in Constance from 1414 to 1418. Attended in the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Named by the new pope legate in Avignon; left Constance on March 30, 1418; arrived in Genève on June 3; and then went to Avignon. He was called the eagle of the doctors of France and the destructor of heresies. He left his library to Collège de Navarre (1). He was the author of Traités and Sermons, which were edited in Vienne in 1490. He also wrote Vie de Célestin V, which was published in Paris in 1539; and numerous works in astrology, which were printed or are in manuscripts. Cardinal Jean-Baptiste-François Pitra, O.S.B., included in the second tome of his Analecta norissima numerous sermons of Cardinal d'Ailly which were unpublished. His most famous work is Imago Mundi, which is believed to have influenced Christopher Columbus' idea of looking for a route to the Eastern Indies; a copy of the work annotated by Columbus is preserved in the Biblioteca Colombina.

Death. August 8 (or 9), 1420 (2), Avignon. His body was transferred to Cambrai and buried in the cathedral of that city (3).

Bibliography. Ailly, Pierre d' 1350-1420. Imago mundi. Madrid : Testimonio Compañía Editorial, 1990. Notes: Thirteen Latin cosmographical treatises by Pierre d'Ailly (beginning with his Imago mundi) followed by five more by Jean Gerson (his Trigilogium astronomiae theologisatae, etc.) with ms. notes believed to be by Christopher Columbus. Full-color facsimile of the edition printed ca. 1483 in Louvain by Johannes de Westphalia, made from the copy once owned and annotated by Columbus, now held by the Biblioteca Colombina in Seville. "Una edicisn facsmmil de 980 ejemplares, numerados del 1 al 980 con destino exclusivo a los mercados internacionales ... (existiendo otra edicisn nacional de 1097 ejemplares de venta exclusiva para España) en coedición con el Quinto Centenario, Testimonio Compañía Editorial." Issued in a box which also holds the companion volumes of translation into Spanish by Antonio Ramírez de Verger (Tabula Americae 11) and the commentary by Juan Pérez de Tudela (Tabula Americae 13); Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 7-8; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 800-801; Cinus, Michel. La théorie du signe chez Pierre d'Ailly. Lille : A.N.R.T, Université de Lille III, 1998. Note: Thesis (doctoral)--Université de Paris X: Nanterre, 1998; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 139; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33, 40, 92, 118, 160, 511 and 518; Evans, Gillian Rosemary. Fifty key Medieval thinkers. London ; New York : Routledge, 2002. (Routledge key guides; Variation: Routledge key guides).Contents: Augustine of Hippo -- Ambrose of Milan -- Jerome -- Ps-Dionysius -- Cassiodorus -- Boethius -- Gregory the Great -- Isidore of Seville -- Bede -- Paschasius Radbertus -- Johannes Scotus Eriugena -- Hincmar of Rheims -- Remigius of Auxerre -- Gerbert of Aurillac -- Berengar of Tours -- Peter Damian -- Anselm of Canterbury -- Hugh of St. Victor -- Adelard of Bath -- Ivo of Chartres -- Maimonides -- Rupert of Deutz -- Peter Abelard -- William of Conches -- Bernard of Clairvaux -- Anselm of Havelberg -- Averroes (Ibn Rushd) -- John of Salisbury -- Hildegard of Bingen -- Joachim of Fiore --Francis of Assisi -- Robert Grosseteste -- Roger Bacon -- Bonaventure -- Albertus Magnus -- Thomas Aquinas -- Siger of Brabant -- Johannes Duns Scotus -- Dante Alighieri -- Ramon Llull -- Meister Eckhart -- Thomas Bradwardine -- William of Ockham -- Baldus of Ubaldis -- John Wyclif -- Pierre d'Ailly -- Jean Gerson -- Nicholas of Cusa -- Gabriel Biel; Guenée, Bernard. Between church and state : the lives of four French prelates in the late Middle Ages. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1991. Note: Translation of: Entre l'Élise et l'État. Ailly, Pierre d' -- 1350-1420; Basin, Thomas -- 1412-1491; Bernardus Guidonis -- Bishop of Lodève -- 1261 or 2-1331; Le Muisit, Gilles -- 1272-1353; Hartmann, Eduard. Pierre d'Aillys lehre von der sinnlichen erkenntnis. Fulda, Fuldaer actiendruckerei, 1903. Note: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Freiburg im Breisgau, 1903; Lee, Richard A. The force of reason and the logic of force. Basingstoke, Hampshire [England] ; New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Contents: Introduction; The Trouble with Force; Tracing the Logic of Force: Roger Bacon's De Multiplicatione Specierum; Creation, Order, and Violence in Thomas Aquinas; Albertus Magnus and Nicole Oresme on Force and Nature; Knowledge and Power in the Thought of Pierre d'Ailly; Hobbes' Logic of Force: The Phenomenon of Motion and the Capacities of Ratiocination; Bibliography; McGowan, John Patrick. Pierre d'Ailly and the Council of Constance. Washington, D.C. : The Catholic University of America, 1936. Dissertation: Thesis (S.T.D.)--Catholic University of America, 1936; Oakley, Francis. The political thought of Pierre d'Ailly: the voluntarist tradition. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1964. (Yale historical publications. Miscellany; 81. Note: Ailly, Pierre d', 1350-1420? ; Tractatus de materia concilii generalis; Pérez de Tudela y Bueso, Juan. Imago mundi del Cardenal Pedro d'Ailly y Juan Gerson, estudio crítico de Juan Pérez de Tudela. Madrid : Testimonio Compañía Editorial, 1991. (Tabula Americae ; 13). Note: One of two companion volumes to the facsim. ed. of the incunabulum, made from the copy (now held by the Biblioteca Colombina in Seville) once owned and annotated by Christopher Columbus. "Esta obra ha sido editada por V Centenario y Testimonio Compañía Editorial."; Roberts, Agnes Elizabeth. "Pierre d'Ailly and the Council of Constance: a study in "Ockhamite" theory and practice". In: Royal Historical Society (Great Britain) Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. London, The Society. 1935. 4th ser., v. 18, p. 123-142; Smoller, Laura Ackerman. History, prophecy, and the stars : the Christian astrology of Pierre d'Ailly, 1350-1420. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1994.

Webgraphy. Biographyby Charles Dubray, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in French, with emphasis on his philosophical work, Imago Mundi, Enciclopédie gratuite en ligne, Serge Jodra; biographical information in Spanish, in "1.6. Una nueva época: d'Ailly, Gerson, Clamanges", Universidad de Navarra Grupo Ciencia, Razón y Fe (CRYF); his jascent statue on his tomb, now at Musée des Beaux-Arts, Cambrai; his tomb and monument where his heart was kept, Requiem Datenbank; and his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of a plaque placed in the chapel of Collège de Navarre taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 801:

MEMORIA EST REVERENDISSIMI IN CHRISTO PATRIS
DOMINI DE ALLIACO TITVLI QVONDAM
S. CHRYSOGONI CARDINALIS PRESBYTERI
CAMERACENSIS EPISCOPI HVIVS PRIDEM DOMVS PRAECEPTORIS
SEV MAGISTRI AC BENEFACTORIS MAPLISSIMI
CVIVS LEGATA ET GESTA IN LITERIS SVPRA
HIS CONFECTIS ATQVE TABELLIS SVPPOSITIS CONTINENTVR.

(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 139; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 33, 40; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 801; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 8, say that he died in 1420.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 801:

HIC. IACET. REVERENDVS. PATER
DOMINVS. PETRVS. DE. ALLIACO
THEOLOGIAE. DOCTOR
QVONDAM. EPISCOPVS. CAMERACENSIS
ORATE. PRO. EO

Mors rapuit Petrum, petram subiit putre corpus
Sed Petram Christum Spiritus ipse petit.
Quisquis ades, precibus fer opem, semperque memento,
Quod prater mores omnia morte cadunt.
Nam quid Amor Regum, quid opes, quid gloria durent,
Aspicis, hac aderant tunc mihi, nunc abeunt.

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(6) 6. LIECHTENSTEIN-NICOLSBURG, Georg von (ca. 1360-1419)

Birth. Ca. 1360, Nicolsburg, Austria. Of an aristocratic family. Youngest of the four sons of Hartneid III Liechtenstein, "der Elder", and Anna von Sternberg. The other siblings were Matthias, Johann II and Heinrich V. His last name is also listed as Rosco and Rusca.

Education. Studied at the University of Vienna from 1377.

Early life. Provost of the church of All Saints in Vienna. 1381 Provost of the metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stefan, Vienna, 1381; and at the same time, chancellor of the University of Vienna. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Passau in 1389. In 1390, he went to Rome as an envoy of Duke Albrecht III; there he was appointed protonotary apostolic. Chosen bishop of Trent by the cathedral chapter of Trent and the support of the duke.

Episcopate. Elected prince-bishop of Trent by the cathedral chapter, with the support of Duke Albrecht, at the beginning of 1390; confirmed by Pope Boniface IX on October 10, 1390; took possession on November 7, 1390. Consecrated (no information found). His episcopate was plagued by constant quarrels with the citizens of the city Trent, who sought to extract themselves from the authority of the bishop; by arguments with its vassals; and finally, by the latent conflict with Duke Friedrich IV of Hapsburg-Tyrol, whose requirement on sovereignty over the diocese Bishop Liechtenstein did not recognize. In 1407, he was forced to resigned his lay rights in favor of Vienna; they were returned in 1409. One year later, in 1410, he had to relinquish again his lay right over the principality in favor of Duke Friedrich; he withdrew then to Nikolsburg/Maehren. His efforts to regain his lay power over his diocese let him seek assistance from Antipope John XXIII and King Sigismund, who appointed him his advisor and princeps aulae; his efforts finally were successful when in 1411/1412, Duke Friedrich gave up.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of June 6, 1411; he did not accept the promotion, go to the Curia or receive a title. He attended the Council of Constance. He joined the obedience of Pope Martin V and returned to his diocese, where controversy erupted again shortly after.

Death. August 20, 1419, possibly poisoned, castle of Neuspaur, Southern Tyrol. Buried in the cathedral of Trent.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 8-9; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 801; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33 and 498.

Webgraphy. Biography, in French, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A1 B2 C3 D1 E5 F4, Genealogy.EU.

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(7) 7. BRANCACCIO, Tommaso (?-1427)

Birth. (No date found), Naples. Nephew of Antipope John XXIII on his mother's side. He is also listed as Tommaso Tortello Brancaccio; and his last name as Brancati; and as Brancatius. Other cardinals of his family were: Landolfo Brancaccio (1294); Ludovico Bonito (1408); Niccolò Brancaccio, pseudocardinal of Clement VII (1378); Rinaldo Brancaccio (1384); Francesco Maria Brancaccio (1633); and Stefano Brancaccio (1681). He was called the Cardinal of Tricarico.

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pozzuoli by Pope Innocent VII at the beginning of 1405. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Tricarico, July 30, 1405; took possession the following September 20. Consecration (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in the consistory of June 6, 1411; kept the administration of his diocese until 1417; named administrator again on September 11, 1419. Abbot commendatario of S. Giacomo di Stura, Turin, 1411. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Administrator of the see of Aversa, 1418 until his death. He went to Tivoli with the pope on June 17, 1421. He had a deplorable reputation.

Death. September 8, 1427, Rome. His body was transferred to Naples and buried in a mausoleum, where other cardinals of his family were also buried, in the church of Ss. Angeli ad Nidum.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 13; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 803; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33, 42, 123, 410 and 497.

Webgraphy. Biography by Dieter Girgensohn, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 13 (1971), Treccani; The Brancaccio family by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait on a mural in the chapter hall, cathedral of Pozzuoli, Italy (his name, Thomas Brancatii, appears in the second line below the painting), Comune di Pozzuoli; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and The Brancacci Chapel, in Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence, Italy, Olga's Gallery; Cappella Brancaccio - Ludovico e Tommaso, cardinali Brancaccio, Panoramio.

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(8) 8. CASTIGLIONE, Branda (1350-1443)

Birth. 1350, Castiglione d'Olona, Varese, archdiocese of Milan. Of the family of Pope Celestine IV. Son of Maffiolo Castiglione and Lucrezia Porro. Milanese patrician. Palatine count from 1417. His last name is also listed as Castiglioni. Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni Castiglione (1456); Francesco Abbondio Castiglioni (1565); and Giovanni Castiglione (1801). He was called the Cardinal of Piacenza.

Education. He studied law at the University of Pavia and became a famous jurisconsult.

Early life. Giureconsulto collegiato in 1374. Lector of sacred canons at the University of Pavia in 1389 by the support of Duke Galeazzo of Milan. Chaplain of Pope Boniface IX. Apostolic collector in Hungary, ca. 1403. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Piacenza, August 16, 1404; deposed by Pope Gregory XII in 1409 and replaced on July 10; maintained in the see by Antipope Alexander V, who sent him as legate to Lombardy in 1410. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Clemente in the consistory of June 6, 1411. Administrator of the see of Veszprém, September 1, 1412 until his death. Legate in Hungary. Legate in Germany in 1413. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. In 1417 obtained from Emperor Sigismund the privilege that all the male components of the lineage be elevated to the rank of palatine count. Abbot commendatario of Tre Fontane, Rome, from 1419. Legate of Pope Martin V in Bohemia; he left Rome on April 15, 1421; and returned on the following October 27; named legate again on December 17, 1421; he left Rome on March 17, 1422; returned on March 3, 1425. Named administrator of the see of Lisieux on June 29, 1420; took possession on September 7, 1420; occupied the post until April 12, 1424. Named bishop of the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 14, 1431. President of the council of the duke of Milan in 1433. Transferred to the suburbicarian see of Sabina, January 29, 1440; occupied the see until his death. Legate of Pope Eugenius IV in Lombardy toward 1442. He was a friend of artists and famous for his simplicity of life.

Death. February 4 (or 3, or 5), 1443, at collegio Castiglione, Lombardy, which he had founded for the poor. Buried in the main church of the castle of Castiglione. Guarniero Castiglione, his relative and protégé, delivered the funeral oration.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 9-13; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 801-803; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p.159-160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33, 37, 41, 401 and 524; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 60.

Webgraphy. Biography by Dieter Girgensohn, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 22 (1979), Treccani; biographical information, in Italian, Sapere.it; Masolino a Castiglione Olona a cura di Primo Casalini, in Italian, Arengario; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana

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(9) 9. LANGLEY, Thomas (1363-1437)

Birth. 1363, Middleton, near Rochdale, Lancashire, England. He was the third son of William Langley and his wife Alice. His last name is also listed as Armellini.

Education. He attended school at St. Marys abbey at Thetford from 1375 until 1381. He later studied at Cambridge University.

Early life. He attached himself to the house of John of Gaunts, duke of Lancaster, and benefitted from his patronage. In 1385, he was appointed rector of Radcliffe. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of York, 1400; its dean, 1401; he appointment was not allowed by Pope Boniface IX because of his part in the deposition and murder of King Richard II. Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1403.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of London in 1404; Pope Innocent VII did not allow his installation. Named chancellor of England by King Henry IV on June 2, 1405; occupied the post until 1407; and again from 1417 to 1421. Elected archbishop of York by the cathedral chapter at the end of 1405; his election was not confirmed by Pope Innocent VII because his strong displeasure for the execution of Archbishop Richard le Scrope of York, ordered by the king of England for alleged high treason. Elected bishop of Durham, May 14, 1406; took possession on June 17, 1406; consecrated, August 8, 1406. Attended the Council of Pisa in 1409. Ambassador of the king of England to Scotland in 1409; he was largely instrumental in achieving peace with Scotland and entertained the Scottish king and queen, when he help sign the Treaty of Durham. Ambassador of the king of England to France in 1410.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of June 6, 1411; he did not accept the promotion and did not receive a title and the red hat. He rebuilt the Norman parish church of Middleton and founded a grammar school related to the church. He participated in the coronation of the eight-year-old Henry VI as king of England in Westminster abbey on November 6, 1429; he led the king to the altar.

Death. November 28, 1437 (1), Durham. Buried in the Galilee chapel in the cathedral of Durham

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 31-32; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 30-32; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 13-14; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 803; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33, 231 and 233; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, pp. 59-62; Hélène Millet, "Le cardinal Gilles des Champs (ca 1350-1414)", in F. Bériac, A.-M. Dom (sous la direction de), Les prélats, l'Église et la société (XIe-XVe siècle). Hommages à Bernard GuillemainBordeaux, CROCEMC, 1994, p. 231-241; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, p. 31.

Webgraphy. Images and biography, in English, Middleton; biography, in English, Wikipedia; Galilee chapel, Durham cathedral, Durham, England, A&A Art and Architecture, The Courtauld Institute of Art; Durham cathedral, Durham, England, A&A Art and Architecture, The Courtauld Institute of Art; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 31, which says that he died in 1429, a few weeks after the coronation of King Henry VI.

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(10) 10. HALLAM, Robert (?-1417)

Birth. (No date found), Oxford, England. His last name is also listed as Halan, Alun and a Luna.

Education. He studied at Oxford University and obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Archdeacon of Canterbury in 1400. Chancellor of Oxford University in 1403. In 1405, he resigned all his posts and went to reside in Rome.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of York, May 22, 1406; his appointment was not accepted by King Henry IV. Transferred to the see of Salisbury, October 23, 1407; consecrated (no date found), Siena, by Pope Gregory XII. On June 24, 1408, he was obligated to take an oath of obedience before the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London. King Henry IV of England sent him and Bishop Henry Chichele as ambassador to the Council of Pisa in 1409.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of June 6, 1411; he did not accept the promotion and did not receive a title and the red hat. Attended the Council of Constance together with the bishops of London, Bath, Winchester, Lichfield, Hereford, Bangor and Norway; Bishop Hallam brought a retinue which included a troop of sixty-four horse; by his denunciation of Antipope John XXIII, he in part caused the latter's flight from Constance; he supported the theory that a general council had authority over the pope. He was absent from the council during 1416 because he was in a diplomatic mission in France and England.

Death. September 4, 1417, suddenly, castle-fort of Gottlieben, Constance. Buried at the foot of the steps of the main altar of the cathedral of Constance with the emperor and the council fathers in attendance. A magnificent brass, probably engraved in England, was placed on his tomb and remains there.

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 32-33; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 30-32; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 14-15; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 803-804; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33, 233 and 435; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, pp. 62-64; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, pp. 32.

Webgraphy. His tomb and biography, in English, Wikipedia; and biographical data in twelve registries of "Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae".

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(11) 11. DESCHAMPS, Gilles (ca. 1350-1413)

Birth. Ca. 1350, Rouen, France. Son of Robert des Champs, seigneur of Tourville, and Thomase de Mandestour. His first name is also listed as Ægidius; and his last name as Des Champs and de' Campi. He was also called Gilles de Orléns and Gilles Des Champs.

Education. Magister of theology in Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Rouen, 1380. Provisor of Collège de Navarre, Paris, 1390; occupied the post until 1404. In May 1395, he accompanied the dukes, uncles of King Charles VI of France, to Avignon; he took the opportunity to obtain from most of the cardinals a favaroble opinion concerning the abdication of Antipope Benedict XIII in order to extinguish the schism; the antipope frustrated the negotiations. He preached in Avignon on June 26, 1395 at the laying of the first stone of the church of Saint-Pierre-Célestin and for the extinction of the schism. In June 1397, he went again to Avignon, as ambassador of France, together with representatives from Castilla and England, in a mission that presented Antipope Benedict XIII an ultimatum before the abandonment of his obedience. In March 1399, when Antipope Benedict XIII was under siege in Avignon, he was sent to propose to him a transaction that the antipope did not accept. Confessor and almoner of King Charles VI of France in 1404 (or 1408-1410). The king of France wanted to name him bishop of Senlis but the nomination did not take place.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Coutances in May or June 1408; consecrated, September 27, 1408; confirmed October 2, 1409. Attended the Council of Pisa in 1409 as ambassador of the French king and as bishop of Coutances.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of June 6, 1411; he did not receive a title; he kept the administration of his see.

Death. March 5 (or 15), 1413 (or May, 15, 1413), Rouen. Buried in the chapel on the right behind the main altar in the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 14-15; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 804; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33 and 205; Millet, Hélène. "Le cardinal Gilles des Champs (ca 1350-1414)", in Les Prélats, l'Église et la société : XIe-XVe siècles : hommage à Bernard Guillemain. By Bériac, Françoise. Guillemain, Bernard ; and Dom, Anne-Marie. Talence : CROCEMS : Université Michel de Montaigne, Bordeaux III, 1994, pp. 231-241; Toustain de Billy, René. Histoire ecclésiastique du diocèse de Coutances. 3 vols. François Dolbet and Alexandre Héron, editors. Rouen, Ch. Métérie, 1874-1886, II, 189-201.

Webgraphy. Biography, in French, pp. 189-201.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from his biography in French, lined above, p. 200: In hac sepultura jacet bonæ memoriæ quondam, eminentissimæ scientiæ nobilis vir, magister Ægidius de Campis de Rotonago oriundus, sacræ Theologiæ eximius professor, Episcopus Constantiensis as sacrosanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ Presbyter Cardinalis Constantiensis nuncupatus, qui obiit anno Domini 1413, die 5ª Marti.

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(12) 12. CARBONE, Guglielmo (?-1418)

Birth. (No date found), Naples. Son of Pietro Carbone, Neapolitan patrician, and Isabella Boccapianola. Brother of Cardinal Francesco Carbone, O.Cist. (1384).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Archdeacon of Aquileia. Protonotary apostolic.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chieti, August 18, 1396; he had not yet reached the canonical age. Consecrated (no information found)

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Balbina in the consistory of June 6, 1411; he kept the administration of his see. Attended the Council of Constance. He was imprisoned by Landolfo Colonna and freed after a long captivity. Did not participate in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V.

Death. Before November 22, 1418, Naples. Buried in the cathedral of Naples, next to his brother the cardinal in the family's chapel (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 25-26; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33, 40 and 481.

Webgraphy. His arms and engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 26; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 160; some sources indicate that they were buried in the church of S. Domenico Maggiore in Naples.

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(13) 13. FILLASTRE, Guillaume (1348-1428)

Birth. 1348, La Suze, Maine, France. Of a family originally from Bourgogne. His last name is also listed as Filastre and Philastrius. He was called the Cardinal of S. Marco.

Education.Studied at the University of Angers; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; he was very knowledgeable in mathematics, Greek and Latin.

Early life. Dean of the collegial church of Saint-Symphorian, Reims. Dean of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Reims, March 8, 1391 (1). In Reims, he taught theology and mathematics; founded a library; rebuilt the school of theology; and completed at his expense one of the towers of the cathedral. In January 1399, he accompanied the duke of Orléans, as his legal assessor, to Avignon to meet Antipope Benedict XIII; the duke was the most favorable tothe antipope among the French dukes and tried to obtain an agreemnt with him once France abandoned the obedience of Avignon. Deputy to the General Assembly of the Clergy celebrated in Paris in 1406; he supported Antipope Benedict XIII. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Marco in the consistory of June 6, 1411 (2). He entered the curia on June 16, 1412. Prior of Saint-Ayoul de Provins.

Episcopate. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Aix, July 25, 1414; the appointment did not take effect until the death of his predecessor, Thomas de Puppio, in 1420; named again on November 13, 1420; took possession on January 1, 1421; occupied the post until July 3, 1422. Attended the Council of Constance; he preached in its 34th session on June 5, 1417 and recommended the abdication or deposition of Antipope Benedict XIII and the abdication of Antipope John XXIII, according to the view of the French court. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. Named with Cardinal Giordano Orsini legate to the signing of the peace between the kings of France and England; they left Constance on April 2, 1418; returned and entered Florence on September 25, 1419. He built a palace next to the church of S. Crisogono and was named protector of that church. He went to Tivoli with the pope on June 17, 1421. Administrator of the see of Saint-Pons de Thomières, July 3, 1422. He went to the thermal baths on September 15, 1422 and returned to Rome on December 6, 1422. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica at the end of 1422. He willed his manuscripts to the chapter of the cathedral of Reims.

Death. Saturday November 6, 1428, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Crisogono, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Albanès, Joseph Mathias Hyacinthe ; Chevalier, Ulysse. Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France. 7 vols. 1895-1920, I, 95-97; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 18-20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 807; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 160; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33, 44, 96 and 406; Fisquet, Honoré Jean Pierre. La France pontificale (Gallia Christiana) : histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'etablissement du Christianisme jusqu' à nos jours, divisée en 18 provinces ecclésiastiques. 21 vols. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1874, VIII, 562-564.

Webgraphy. Biography by Joseph Fischer, in English The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in French, pp. 562-564; biography, in French, pp. 95-97; biographical entry, in Italian, Sapere; his image in a stained-glass window, cathedral of Le Mans, Le Mans, France; his arms in an illuminated manuscript; and his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his first biography in French, p. 562, linked above; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 160, says that he was named on March 8, 1392. The discrepancy can be explained because in the old French calendar, known as vieux style, the number of the year was not changed until Easter, therefore, according to our calendar, the appointment was in 1392, but according to the old calendar, it was in 1391.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 33, 44 and 406; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 160; his first biography in French, p. 562, linked above, says that he was created cardinal deacon of S. Maria Nuova without giving a date, and on June 6, 1411, named cardinal priest of S. Marco.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 807:

SEPVLCHRVM
Guillelmi Tituli S. Marci, Prebyteri Cardinalis
Coenomanesis Dioecesis,
Ministri Ecclesiæ sancti Chrysogoni,
Olim Decani Rhemensis,
Iuris Vtriusque Doctoris.
Habeat Deus, quam creavit animam:
Habeat Natura quod suum est.
Expectans resurreectionem, & utriusq; vita æternam.
Oportet enim corruptibile hoc induere corruptionem,
Et mortale hoc induere mortalitatem.
Obiit Anno Domini MCCCCXXVIII.
Mense Novembris, die vero sexta,
Ætatis suæ octogesimo.

The translation in French appears in his first biography in this language, p. 563, linked above: Tombeau de Guillaume, cardinal-prête du titre de Saint-Marc, né dans la diocèse du Mans, protecteur de l'église de Saint-Chrysogono, ancien doyen de Reimas, docteur de l'un et l'autre droit. Qui Dieu ait son âme qu'il créa la nature a ici ce qui lui appartient, attendant la resurréction et la vie éternelle pour l'une et pour l'autre, car il faut que ce qui est corruptible soit revêtu de incorruptibilité et que ce corps mortel soit revêtu d'immortalité. Il muorut à la âge de 80 ans, le 6 de novembre de l'an du Seigneur 1428.

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(14) 14. CONTI, Lucido (?-1437)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of the Valmontone branch of the family. Of the signori of Poli. Third of the eight children of Ildebrandinus Conti and Caterina di Sangro, niece of Cardinal Gentile di Sangro (1378). His first name is also listed as Lucio. His family gave the Church three popes, Innocent III, Gregory IX, Alexander IV and Innocent XIII. Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Conti (1483). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Conti (1517). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni dei conti di Segni (1200); Ottaviano dei conti di Segni (1205); Carlo Conti (1604); Giannicolò Conti (1664); and Bernardo Maria Conti (1721).

Education. "... eccellente sua erudizione..." (1).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon S. Maria in Cosmedin in the consistory of June 6, 1411. Attended the Council of Constance. Participated in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. He went to Tivoli with the pope on June17, 1421; stayed until July 28; and returned on August 27; he left again, for reasons of health, on July 19, 1422 and on September 3, 1423; returned on the following December 2. Cardinal protodeacon in October 1427. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1431-1437. With Cardinal Giordano Orsini, he was charged by Pope Eugenius IV to receive Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, who was on his way to Rome to be crowned by the pope; the coronation took place on May 31, 1433. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Nicola di Calamitis, diocese of Reggio, toward 1432; resigned the post on June 19, 1433. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in 1434. He was noted in Rome on February 26, 1435. Legate in Bologna; he was almost killed during a revolt; he retired to Imola; returned to Bologna and died in that city.

Death. September 9, 1437, Bologna. Buried in the church of the Servites in that city.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 17-18; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 806; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 160-161; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33. 51 and 59; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 261.

Webgraphy. His funeral monument, church of the Servites, Bologna, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio; and his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 17.

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(15) 15. ZABARELLA, Francesco (1360-1417)

Birth. August 10, 1360 (1), Piove di Sacco, near Padua. His last name is also listed as Zabarellis. He was called the Cardinal of Florence.

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna; he had Laurentius de Pinu, Andrea da San Gerolamo and Johannes de Legnano as professors; he took the examinations in canon law in Bologna in 1382; he then went to Florence, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law in 1385.

Early life. Professor in Florence, 1385-1390. Canon of the cathedral chapter of S. Maria dei Fiori, Florence. Vicar of Bishop Angelo Acciaiuoli of Florence; he was elected to the see of Florence in 1386 but the election was no confirmed by the pope. He went to Padua and became a professor of law; he taught until 1410. Archpriest of the cathedral chapter of Padua in 1398 (2). Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. He wrote the book De schismate in favor of Pope Urban VI. In 1406, he was sent before the king of France by the duke of Padua, who was besieged by the Venetians; he brought the duke's submission to Venice.

Sacred orders. He had only received the minor orders when he was promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Florence, July 18, 1410. Consecrated, August 15, 1410 (no further information found); confirmed on September 16, 1410. He opened a school of law in Florence.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano in the consistory of June 6, 1411; he kept the administration of his see for ten days. Participated in the Council of Rome in 1413. Named legate with Cardinal de Challant, he left the curia on September 6, 1413 for Germany to join Emperor Sigismund. Attended the Council of Constance; he had an important role in the council; he was a supporter of the conciliarist theory; he abandoned Antipope John XXIII because he did not want to submit himself to the council. He authored sixteen volumes on law and literature published in Basle in 1565. He was considered the premier jurisconsult of his time.

Death. September 26, 1417, of the plague, Constance (3). Buried in a marble tomb before the altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the cathedral of Padua (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 15-17; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 804-806 ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 161; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 33, 49 and 251.

Webgraphy. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Italian, Enciclopedie on line, Treccani; brief biographical entry, in Italian, Sapere.it; brief biographical data, in Venetian dialect, at the beginning of the page, Quatro Ciàcoe Mensile de cultura e tradission vènete; "Padua in Crisis and Transition Around 1400" by Thomas E. Morrissey, in English, International Congress of Historical Sciences, Oslo, August 2000; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna, Italy; his portrait 17th century (1650-1660), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait, 18th century (1700-1710), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his funeral monument, Venetian Shop (1410), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); and his portrait, engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 161, which says that he was born in 1339.
(2) This is according to his second biography in English, linked above; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 161 says that he was named in 1396.
(3) According to his second biography in English, linked above, it was rumored that he was about to be elected pope. The source adds that upon learning the news of his death, Emperor Sigismund is said to have declared, "Hodie mortuus est papa" (Today the pope died).
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 805:

FRANCISCO ZABARELLAE FLORENTIAE ARCHIEPISCOPO
VIRO OPTIMO VRBI ATQVE ORBI GRATISSIMO
DIVINE HVMANISQVE IVRIS INTERPRETI
PRAESTANTISSIMO IN CARDINALIVM COLLEGIVM
OB SVMMAM SAPIENTIAM COOPTATO AS EORVNDEM
ANIMIS PONTIFICI PROPE MAXIMO IOANNE XXIII.
EIVS SVASV ABDICATO ANTE MARTINVM V.
OB SINGVLAREM PROBITATEM IN CONCILIO
CONSTANTIENSI DESTINATO IOANNES IACOBI
VIRI CLARISSIMI FLIVS ID MONVMENTI PONENDVM CVRAVIT
VIXIT ANNOS LXXVIII. OBIIT CONSTANTIAE MCCCCXVII.

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