The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Martin V (1415-1431)
Consistory of July 23, 1423 (II)
Celebrated in Rome


(2) 1. RAM I LANAJA, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Domingo (ca. 1345-1445)

Birth. Ca. 1345 (1), Alcañiz (or Morella), Teruel, Aragón. Of a noble family. Son of Blasi Ram and Dolça Lanaja. His first name is also listed as Domènec. He was called the Cardinal of Lérida or of Tarragona.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine. Studied civil law at the University of Lérida; in 1406, he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of the collegiata of Alcañiz in 1394. Procurator of the church of San Salvador of Zaragoza in 1395. As representative of the cathedral chapter of Zaragoza, he participated in the cortes of Aragón in 1395. In 1405, he was the collector of the archdiocese of Zaragoza and as such, he set aside the funds for the papal court of Avignon. On August 1, 1406, he was admitted by Antipope Benedict XIII as referendary of his chancery in Monaco; on the following day, he took the customary oath. Prior of the church of San Salvador of Zaragoza in 1406. He was at the service of Antipope Benedict XIII in Perpignan on May 1, 1407. On June 13, 1407, the antipope sent him as nuncio to Spain, especially before King Martin I of Aragón. He was one of the seven ambassadors sent by Antipope Benedict XIII at the beginning of 1409 to negotiate the abdication with the Council of Pisa and the papal court of Pope Gregory XII; the mission was a complete failure. In 1409, he attended the Council of Perpignan.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Huesca by Antipope Benedict XIII, May 5, 1410; took possession of the see, August 20, 1410. Consecrated (no information found). In 1411, the Parliament of Alcañiz, in preparation for the meeting of the Parliament of Caspe, asked Antipope Benedict XIII to send Bishop Ram to guard the castle and village of Caspe during its sessions; the bishop was sent to Caspe and, in June 1412, he was also named one of the three judges of the kingdom of Aragón for the succession to the throne; he took a very active role in the discussions and voted in favor of Infante D. Fernando de Antequera; he was one of the signatories of Compromise of Caspe; after Vicente Ferrer, future saint, he was the most prominent figure of the compromise; he consecrated and crowned the infante as king of Aragón on January 15, 1414. At the beginning of 1415, he was sent to Naples by the king of Aragón to arrange the final details of the marriage of Infante D. Juan of Aragón with Queen Juana of Naples. Nuncio of Antipope Benedict XIII in Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica, January 16, 1415; his mission was to convince Queen Juana of Naples to join the obedience of Avignon; at the last minute, the queen changed her mind and married French Prince Jacques de Bourbon and maintained her allegiance to Rome. Viceroy of Sicily, 1415-1419. Attended the Council of Constance. Transferred to the see of Lérida, November 13, 1415; confirmed by Pope Martin V, December 15, 1417; celebrated a synod in 1418; one of his vicars general was Alfonso de Borja, future Pope Callistus III. He participated in the Council of Lérida, inaugurated on October 9, 1418, under the presidency of Cardinal Alamanno Adimari. He left the obedience of Avignon and joined the one of Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in secret in the secret consistory of July 23, 1423; confirmed but not published in the consistory of May 24, 1426; published on November 8, 1430; received the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (2). In 1424, he was the driving force of the Council of Tarragona, convoked to finish the last vestiges of the schism; in the name of the participants, he admonished King Alfonso V for the support he was giving to schismatics of Peñíscola and the measures he had taken against Pope Martin V, inspired on political reasons, such as the matter of Naples. Named president of the Generalitat of Catalonia, July 14, 1428. In September 1429, he had a very active part in the Council of Tortosa, along with Cardinal Pierre de Foix, papal legate, to end the remnants of the Western Schism; he responded to the inaugural address of the legate and intervened in the revision of the twenty-two constitutions of reform, among them a very important one concerning the catechism. Named administrator of the see of Lérida, March 10, 1430; occupied the post until July 20, 1435. King Alfonso V named him the first of three ambassadors, who, together with the ambassadors of Navarra, negotiated a truce with the king of Castilla; the five year truce was achieved near Soria on July 16, 1430 and publicly announced on the following July 25. Did not participate in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. Cardinal protoprete in March 1434. Administrator of the see of Tarragona, August 25, 1434. On March 24, 1435, together with Federico Ventimilia and Jaime Pelegrin, he requested for King Alfonso V of Aragón the investiture of Naples. He attended against the will of Pope Eugenius IV and entered the city on July 10, 1438; he was added to the conciliar embassy sent to the Diet of Frankfurt on February 23, 1439. King Alfonso V accredited him as his ambassador at the Council of Basle in 1439; following the royal instructions, he strongly opposed the deposition of Pope Eugenius IV; for his participation in the council, the pope removed him as administrator of Tarragona but on July 4, 1440, the pontiff restored him in the post. Entered in Florence, where Pope Eugenius IV was, on June 2, 1440. The pope concluded the ceremonies of his investiture to the cardinalate on June 23, 1440. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tarragona, July 4, 1440. Returned to Aragón as counselor of King Alfonso V, who was at war with Castilla. After peace was achieved, he returned to Rome, where he was noted on October 24, 1442. In 1444, he acted as arbiter to solve the differences between the kings of Castilla and Navarra. Named by Pope Eugenius IV bishop of the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina on March 7, 1444.

Death. April 25, 1445, Rome, at nearly 100 years of age (3). Buried before the altar of Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 31-32; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1113, no. 12; and 1677, II, col. 832, no. VI; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 125; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 283 and 379; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 5, 61, 167 and 248; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Ram, Domingo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), suppl., 622-624; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVI, 162-163.

Links. Biographical entry, in English; biography, in German; biography, in Catalan; biography, also in Catalan; his statue and biography, in Spanish; biography, in Spanish; his tomb; and the palace of the Ram family (now "Hotel Cardenal Ram"), Morella (Castellón), Spain.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 125; Goñi, "Ram, Domingo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, suppl., 622, says that he was born between 1360 and 1370; his biography in German, linked above, says that he was born ca. 1465-1470, which is clearly an error and probably means ca. 1365-1370.
(2) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVI, 163, says that he received the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo on November 8, 1430, when his cardinalitial creation was published. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 31; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 125; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 34, seem to indicate that he received that title on that same date. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1113, no. 12, says that he first received the title of S. Sisto and then, that of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo; the same source, 1677, II, col. 832, no. VI says that he only received the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo and not that of S. Sisto. Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p 78, says that he occupied the title of S. Sisto from May 24, 1428 until September 1427; and on p. 111, says that he occupied the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo from September 8, 1427 until March 6, 1443; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 125, specifically denies Cristofori's information concerning the title of S. Sisto. Louis Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge (Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889), col. 2233, says that Cardinal Ram occupied the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo from 1427 (?) until 1443; the same source, col. 2250, says that he occupied the title of S. Sisto in 1426. Onofrio Panvinio, Onvphrii Panvinii Veronensis Fratris Eremitæ Augustiniani, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati (Venetiis, apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577. Microform, 1960. (Manuscripta, microfilms of rare and out-of-print books; list 18, no. 27) ; Microfilm copy, made in 1960, of the original in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana. Positive./ Negative film in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana), p. 281, says that Cardinal Ram was created cardinal priest of S. Sisto in the consistory of July 23, 1423, celebrated in Rome.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 125; and the text of his epitaph transcribed in note 2; Goñi, "Ram, Domingo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, suppl., 624, says that this is hardly admissible because it means that he was finishing his studies at the University of Lérida at forty-eight, and that he was named bishop of Huesca at eighty-three.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 832:

Hic iacet Reverendiss. in Christo Pater & D.
D. DOMINICVS RAM EPISC. PORTVENSIS
S. R. E. Cardinalis Tarraconen. nuncupatus.
Qui obiit snno Dominini MCCCCXLV. mens. Aprilis.
Aetatis suæ centesimo, vel circa.

Cool Archive

(3) 2. CAPRANICA, Domenico (1400-1458)

Birth. May 31, 1400 (1), Capranica Prenestina. Son of de Niccoló Pantagati da Capranica and his wife, Iacobella. Brother of Cardinal Angelo Capranica (1460). The paternal last name was Pantagati but both brothers used as last name the name of the place where the family was from, Capranica. He was called the Cardinal of Fermo.

Education. He studied at the University of Padua in 1415 under Giuliano Cesarini, future cardinal; later, he studied at the University of Bologna; obtained a doctorate in law in 1425.

Early life. Secretary of Pope Martin V in 1418. Apostolic treasurer. Named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber on February 3, 1423; confirmed on December 3, 1425. Attended the Council of Siena in 1424. Protonotary apostolic. Commendatario of several benefices in the dioceses of Metz, Bologna, Perugia, Chiusi and Tortona. Provost of Albi.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in secret in the secret consistory of July 23, 1423; confirmed but not published in the consistory of May 24, 1426; published on November 8, 1430; received the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata on November 8, 1430; received letters of felicitation from Cardinals Niccolò Albergati, Prospero Colonna and Giuliano Cesarini on November 11, 19 and 30, 1430, respectively.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fermo, 1425. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Forlì in 1426. Obtained in commendam the parish church of Mazzalovo, diocese of Imola. Named legate in Bologna in 1428; he was forced to leave because of a popular uprising; he reestablished order in 1429. Administrator of the see of Fermo, November 8, 1430; occupied the post until his death. Governor of Perugia and of the duchy of Spoleto in 1430; the red hat was not sent to him because the custom at the time was that it was sent only to cardinals occupying first class legations and Perugia was not such. Could not participate in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV, because the ceremonies of his investiture as cardinal (the opening of the mouth, enabling him to vote in consistories and conclaves) had not been finished; returned to Perugia; Pope Eugenius IV, who was wrongly informed, refused to admit him as a cardinal. He went to the Council of Basle in the spring of 1432 to defend his title and ask the council to pronounce itself in his favor; the bishop of Valva administered his see during this time; he was finally admitted by the pope on April 30, 1434; went to Florence, where the pope received him cordially on July 8, 1434. Named again legate in Perugia. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1438 and 1448. In 1438, Pope Eugenius IV, sent him to the Council of Ferrara, with the special charge of treating with the Greek bishops and theologians the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches. Commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of S. Salvatore di Settimo, diocese of Ferentino; resigned the post on April 23, 1441. He was noted in Rome on January 22, 1440 and October 24, 1442. He left for Siena on April 4, 1443 to return to Rome; went back to Siena on the following May 8. Named legate in Marche Anconitana; he left for his legation on September 10, 1443 and returned to Rome on November 17, 1444 and was received by the pope in public consistory. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, retaining his deaconry in commendam until his death, May 1443 or January 1444. Left for Perugia on December 11, 1444; returned to Rome from his legation on August 31, 1446. Participated in the conclave of 1447, which elected Pope Nicholas V. Named again legate in Marche Anconitana by the new Pope Nicholas V on April 19, 1447; left for his legation on the following May 5; returned to Rome on December 17 of the same year. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in 1447. Named grand penitentiary in 1449. Cardinal protoprete in September 1450. Attended the secret consistory of October 27, 1451. Named legate before King Alfonso V of Aragón, king of Naples; left Rome on July 18, 1453, after the fall of Constantinople. Named again legate before King Alfonso V at the end of 1454. Participated in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III. Attended the public consistory of November 17, 1456. Protector of the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans). He corresponded with Giovanni di Capistrano, future saint. He stayed in Rome during the plague of 1456. Founded the "Almo Collegio Capranica" in his palace on January 5, 1457; he prepared its constitutions and donated his 2000 volume library, which was enlarged by his brother Angelo, future cardinal; the collegio is still in existence. He was very charitable and an able diplomat. He was a noted writer; among his works are "Il governo del pontificato" and "L'arte del ben morire (Ars moriendi) (2)"; it was published in 1487.

Death. Monday August 14, 1458 (3), Rome; of a violent fever; two days before the opening of the conclave. Buried in the tomb that he had built in the chapel of the Rosary, next to the tomb of S. Caterina di Siena, in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (4). His brother, Cardinal Angelo, was buried next to him when he died in 1478.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, II, 32-37; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 832-841; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 1125-126; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26 and 50; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 250; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 59, 62, 67 and 154; Moroni, Gaetano. knaidel. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, IX, 214-216.

Links. Biography, in English; biographical information, in Italian; Biblioteca Capranicense, in Italian; Capranica family, in Italian; his testament, in Latin; his image on a fresco by Bernardino di Betti, called Pinturicchio, in the library of the Cathedral of Siena, showing the cardinal leaving for the Council of Basle followed by Enea Silvio Piccolomini, future Pope Pius II; detail of the painting showing the cardinal; his image, fresco by Antoniazzo Romano, Collegio Capranica; the two Capranica cardinals, fresco by Antoniazzo Romano, Collegio Capranica; and his tomb.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 125; and his biographical information in Italian, linked above; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, VI, 214; and his biography in English, also linked above, say that he was born in 1400; the site of the Capranica family, in Italian, linked above says that he was born on May 31, 1398.
(2) This is the full title of the work: "Speculum artis bene moriendi de temptationibus, penis infernalibus, interrogationibus agonisantium, et variis orationibus pro illorum faciendis".
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 126; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 6, 32 and 62; his biography in English, linked above, says that he died on July 14, 1458.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 840-841:

SEDENTE PAVLO II.
Domenico Capranicensi TT. S. Crucis in Hierusalem,
Presb. Cardinalis Antististi Firmano, Maiori Poenitnetiario.
XII. Apostolicis Legationibus claro.
Pacis Italica in Anno XXV. contistutori.
Doctrina, religione, & sanctis semper operibus admirabili.
Angelus eiusdem Tit. Cardinalis
Vnanimi fratri, ac sibi commune monumentum hoc fecit.
Vixit idem Dom. Ann. LVIII.

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