The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
[Antipope] Benedict XIII (1394-1423)
Consistory of May 22, 1423 (VII)
Celebrated in Peñíscola


(16) 1. LOBERA Y VALTIERRA, Julián (?-1435)

Birth. (No date found), Munébrega, Comarca of Calatayud, archdiocese of Zaragoza, Aragón. Son of Domingo Lobera and Catalina Clara de Valtierra y Aragón. His last name is also listed as Dobla and Loba.

Education. Studied canon law at the University of Lérida.

Early life. After the early death of his wife, Isabel de Heredia, he entered the ecclesiastical state.

Priesthood. Ordained for the diocese of Tarazona (no further information found). Beneficiado of the church of Santa María de Munébrega. Chaplain at the service of Fernando Pérez Calvillo, canon of the cathedral chapter of Tarazona, when he was named bishop of Vich. Scribe of apostolic letters. In 1388, he already was canon of the cathedral chapter of Tarazona; occupied the post until 1411. Canon of Calatayud. He had a patrimonial benefice in Montbrega and a prestimonio in Caropiel Serrado. Perpetual vicar of Sunyen, Zaragoza. Rector of the University of Lérida, 1394-1395. In 1396, when Bishop Pérez Calvillo was transferred to the diocese of Tarazona, he named Canon Lobera vicar general and administrator of rents of the see of Vich. Attended the cortes of Zaragoza convoked by King Martín I of Aragón. After the cortes, he went to Avignon to meet with Bishop Pérez Calvillo and greet Antipope Benedict XIII; while in that city, he had to participate in the defense of the papal palace, which was attacked and sieged by French Marshal Jean II le Meingre Boucicaut.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Tarazona after 1404; in 1405, he assisted Pseudocardinal Pérez Calvillo in his deathbed and presided over his funeral. At least from November 2, 1406, he occupied the post of receiver of the funds of the Apostolic Chamber, at the moment in which the papal treasury was experiencing a grave crisis; the antipope charged him, with two other functionaries of his curia, to cut expenses and study the possibility of increasing revenues. On September 9, 1407, he was present, as a notary, at the negotiations between Antipope Benedict XIII and the ambassadors of Pope Gregory XII in order to arrange an interview between the two rivals. In 1411, together with Ximeno Dahe, he revised the accounts of the administration of the possessions of the late García Fernández de Heredia, archbishop of Zaragoza, corresponding to the years 1406-1411. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Mallorca, 1411.On October 31, 1412, he was especially called as witness of the testament of Antipope Benedict XIII. On October 1, 1414, Antipope Benedict XI!I, in the village of San Mateo, prorogated his Council of Perpignan until the first Sunday of Easter in the presence, among other, of Julián Lobera, cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Prior de Daroca in 1415. He was one of the few men whom King Alfonso V of Aragón allowed to reside in Peñíscola at the service of Antipope Benedict XIII; permission was granted on July 18, 1416. He witnessed the ultimatum that his cardinals and several prelates directed to the antipope in Peñíscola on February 8, 1417; when the majority of them abandoned the antipope, he remained at his side; for this, Cardinal Alamanno Adimari, legate of Pope Martin V, deprived him of a canonship in Barcelona. He was also acting camerlengo of the antipope.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Clemente in the consistory of May 22, 1423 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1423, which elected Antipope Clement VIII and voted for Pseudocardinal Domingo de Bonnefoi, O.Carth. On July 21, 1423, Pope Martin V gave Francisco Climent, administrator of the see of Barcelona and titular Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, faculties to absolve the schismatics of Peñíscola, among them Pseudocardinal Lobera, in case they repented; they had just elected Antipope Clement VIII on June 10, 1423 and, at the moment, there were no signs of repentance. He was imprisoned by Antipope Clement VIII; apparently, he was freed before July 26, 1429. He submitted to Cardinal Pierre de Foix, legate of Pope Martin V on August 16, 1429, in the village of San Mateo, and resigned the promotion (2).

Death. 1435 (no place found). Buried in the major chapel of the church of Munébrega.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 745-746; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 30 and 36; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Loba, Julián." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), sppl. 438-439.

Links. Biography, in Spanish; portrait and biography, in Spanish.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 30 and 36; and Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. VI, which say that he was named bishop of the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri on May 22, 1423 and occupied it until 1429.
(2) According to his two biographies in Spanish, linked above, Pope Martin V restored his cardinalate but none of the printed sources consulted mention it.

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(17) 2. DAHE, Ximeno (?-ca. 1431)

Birth. (No date found), Aragón. His first name is also listed as Eximio and Eximinus; and his last name as Daha.

Education. Obtained a licentiete in decrees and a baccalaureate in law.

Early life. Familiar of Antipope Benedict XIII. Vicar perpetuo of Santa María Magdalena, Zaragoza. Archdeacon of Benasch, in the cathedral of Lérida. Camerario of the Avignon curia. Auditor general of the antipope's curia. Auditor of the Papal Chamber. On July 26, 1407, in Rome, in the presence of Pope Gregory XII and his court, and of the ambassadors of Antipope Benedict XIII, he ordered to proceed with the reading of the letter of the king of France, in which the monarch offered guarantees for the meeting of Savona. Towards the end of 1411, together with Julian Lobera, he examined the accounts of the administrators of the late archbishop of Zaragoza, Garcma Fernandez de Heredia. At the beginning of December 1415, the cardinals of Peñíscola, before emitting their opinion, consulted him and some others, concerning how to proceed to end the schism; with their advice, the cardinals told Antipope Benedict XIII that, although the ways proposed by him were the best, since no one accepted them, the antipope was obligated to accept any other way that would be acceptable to one of the two other obediences. On December 6, 1416, he left Zaragoza called by Antipope Benedict XIII to go to Constance, with other of the antipope's ambassadors, on the businesses of the union of the Church (1). Promoted to pavorde of Lérida ca. 1417. After the deposition of Antipope Benedict XIII by the Council of Constance, when almost everyone abandoned him, he remained at his side and had to accumulate in his person the posts of referendary (on February 21, 1418), regent of the Penitentiary, and auditor of the Apostolic Chamber. Pope Martin V deprived him of the pavordía and the canonship of Lérida on March 30, 1418.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in the consistory of May 22, 1423. At the death of Antipope Benedict XIII, he showed his wish to recognize Pope Martin V; on July 21, 1423, the pope empowered Franisco Climent, titular Latin patriarch of Jerusalem and administrator of Barcelona, to grant absolution to the pseudocardinal; but the pseudocardinal in reality prolonged the schism by participating in the conclave of 1423, which elected Antipope Clement VIII, celebrated in Peñíscola. Pseudocardinal Dahe, on July 26, 1429 was in Peñíscola when the antipope resigned; during some weeks, he was detained in the cells of that castle because his disposition did not seem trustworthy to the representatives of King Alfonso V of Aragón; they feared that the pseudocardinal could derail the negotiations with the antipope or escape and cause scandal; he was detained until the arrival of Cardinal Legate Pierre de Foix; on August 23, 1429, he resigned his promotion and swore obedience to Pope Martin V; the cardinal legate granted him the priorate of Santo Sepulcro in Calatayud, province of Zaragoza.

Death. Ca. 1431 at the latest, Calatayud (?). Buried (no place found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 744; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. ; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Dahe, Jimeno." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), suppl., 248.

(1) This is according to Goñi Gaztambide, "Dahe, Jimeno." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, suppl. , who says that a document in the Vatican Archive indicates that the trip began on March 1, 1417 and ended on April 3, 1417, obviously insuficient time to go to Constanza and to return; it seems that the trip was some kind of service of espionage; the acts of the council do not mention the presence of the embassy of Antipope Benedict XIII in Constance.

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(18) 3. BONNEFOI, O.Carth., Domingo de (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found), Spain (1). He is also listed as Domènec Bonafè. His last name is also listed as de Bonne-Foi, de Bonne-Espérance, Bonafide and Bonaspe.

Education. Entered the Order of the Carthusians.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of the Carthusian monastery of Montealegre, Tiana, near Barcelona.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli in the consistory of May 22, 1423. Participated in the conclave of 1423, which elected Antipope Clement VIII, celebrated in Peñíscola. Imprisoned for three years by order of Antipope Clement VIII, for having exchanged compromising correspondence with Pseudocardinal Jean Carrier. He was excommunicated by Pope Martin V. Presented his submission to Cardinal Legate Pierre de Foix on August 24, 1429 and resigned the promotion.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 745; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 30.

(1) There are doubts about his origin, French or Spanish; he could have been from Rosellón, then in the kingdom of Aragón, and now part of France. Both, Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 745; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931, p. 157, say that he was born in Spain.

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(19) 4. CARRIER, Jean (?-1437?)

Birth. (No date found), Rouergue, France. Of obscure origin. His last name is also listed as Carrère, Carrerii and Caneri.

Education. Obtained a baccalaureate in canon law.

Early life. In 1406, he was one of the leaders of an insurrection against the archbishop of Toulouseand in favor of Pierre Ravat, future pseudocardinal, named archbishop by Antipope Benedict XIII. Procurator of the priorate of Saint-Jean of Tolouse. Archdeacon of Saint-Antonin, diocese of Rodez. Collector and vicar general of Antipope Benedict XIII in the states of Count Jean d'Armagnac; later, he became chlaplain of the count. He attracted the attention of the commissaries of Pope Martin V and was condemned for contumacy on July 24, 1420; he sought refuge in the stronghold of Viaur, in the château of Tourène. On August 17, 1420, the antipope charged him to act vigorously against the supporters of Pope Martin V that resided in the states of the count of Armagnac. One of the nuncios of Pope Martin V placed the château of Tourène under siege; Vicar general Carrier wrote a work against Pope Urban VI during the siege.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio in the consistory of May 22, 1423; he was still under siege in the château of Tourène. He did not participate in the conclave of 1423, which elected Antipope Clement VIII. He arrived in Peñíscola on December 12, 1423, after having evaded the siege; he had noted before a notary that his trip to Peñíscola did not mean that he recognized the new Antipope Clement VIII, who had been elected on June 10, 1423. Pseudocardinal Carrier was imprisoned by Antipope Clement VIII in the fortress of Peñíscola. He could not recognize Pope Martin V because, in his view, the latter was excommunicated. He retired to France; after consulting theologians and canonists, the pseudocardinal decided that that election was invalid because "it was done by liars, thieves and excommunicated persons" and declared that he alone had the right to fill the Holy See; he gathered a notary and several witnesses in Armagnac, France, and, on November 12, 1425, designated pope Bernard Garnier, a sacristan of Rodez, France, and consecrated him. Garnier took the name Benedict XIV (1). Pseudocardinal Carrier kept the election secret to avoid reprisals. At the time, he resided, with the antipope, in the château of Jalenques, which the count of Armagnac had placed at his disposition. Pseudocardinal Carrier called himself lieutenant general of the count of Armagnac in Rouergue. On January 29, 1429, he communicated to the count of Armagnac the existence of Antipope Benedict XIV. The count of Armagnac, for having refused to obey Pope Martin V, was excommunciated and deprived of his states.

Antipapacy. Antipope Benedict XIV died in 1429. He had named four pseudocardinals; one of them was Jan Farald. In 1430, they elected antipope Jean Carrier, who also took the name Benedict XIV. He named six pseudocardinals (2). After having been deprived of his asylum in Jalenques, he went to Puylaurens in 1433.

Death. 1437 (?), in a prison of château de Foix, without having retracted. Buried at the foot of a rock.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 747; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417)". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 157; Eubel, Conradusand Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 30.

Link. Biographical data, in French, fifth paragraph under "Message reçu le 18 Dec 1998".

(1) This antipope does not appear in the official list of popes and antipopes of the Annuario Pontificio either but is mentioned in a footnote to Antipope Benedict XIII in the 2001 edition, p. 17*, n. 30.
(2) They were Pierre Trahinier (cardinal de Bethléem), Bernard (cardinal d'Hébron), Pierre Tifane (cardinal de Tibériade), Jean (cardinal de Gibelet), " X" (Cardinal de Iona) and Jacques (cardinal de Césarée); in 1437, these pseudocardinals elected Pierre Tifane as Benoît XV, who died in 1470; and Jean Langlade as Benoît XVI in 1470, who died in 1499. Several sources consider these last two fictitious anitpopes. For further information on the topic, visit L'Église du Viaur : les derniers partisans de l'obédience avignonnaise dans le Midi (1420-1470); and La prolongation du Grand Schisme d'Occident au XVe siècle dans le midi de la France, pp. 163-175.

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