The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Martin V (1415-1431)
Consistory of May 24, 1426 (II)


(4) 1. LA ROCHETAILLÉE, Jean de (?-1437)

Birth. (No date found), Rochetaillée, near Lyon, France. His real name was Jean de Font; Rochetaillée was his place of origin. Of a poor family; his father was a farm worker. His last name is also listed as Ruppescissa. He was called the Cardinal of Rouen.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure (both canon and civil law).

Early life. Cleric of the metropolitan cathedral of Lyon in 1392. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Paris. Official and canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Rouen. Corrector of apostolic letters.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Constantinople by Antipope John XXIII, July 13, 1412; named on the same day apostolic administrator of Saint-Papoul; occupied the post until September 23, 1418; occupied the patriarchate until June 26, 1423. Consecrated (no information found). Administrator of the see of Genève, September 23, 1418; occupied the post until June 12, 1422. He was one of the six French prelates electors in the conclave of 1417, which elected Pope Martin V. He replaced Cardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny as vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church in July 1421; and probably succeeded him in 1426 (1). Administrator of the see of Paris, June 12, 1422 until June 26, 1423. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rouen, June 26, 1423.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1426; published the following day; received the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina on May 27, 1426; entered the Roman Curia on July 6, 1427; the pope finished the ceremonies of his cardinalitial investiture on the following July 13. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Rouen from May 24, 1426 until 1431. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, January 1428. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Besançon, October 14, 1429 until his death. He was one of the most eminent jurisconsults of his time. He had a great influence during the pontificate of Pope Martin V. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. In 1432, he adhered himself to the Council of Basel, which named him vice-chancellor of the Church in 1434; he kept the post after his return to the obedience of Pope Eugenius IV; in this capacity, he registered an act by order of Pope Eugenius IV on November 12, 1436. He resided in Rome, where he was noted on February 26, 1435. Named legate in Bologna.

Death. Palm Sunday March 24, 1437, Bologna. His body was transferred to Lyon and buried in the choir of its metropolitan cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 37-38; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 841; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 126-127; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 34, 43, 137, 207, 261, 390, 391 and 426; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 27, 63, 106 and 225.

Links. Biographical entry, in French; and Rochetaillée en Franc-lyonnais, his native town, in French.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 126; Niccolò del Re, La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici(4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998), p. 445, says that he occupied the post from January 28, 1436 until his death.

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(5) 2. ALEMAN, C.R.S.J., Louis (ca. 1390-1450)

Birth. Ca. 1390, Arbent, diocese of Belley, France (1). Son of Jean Aleman, seigneur of Arbent, and Marie de Châtillon de Michaille. His last name is also listed as d'Aleman, Allemand, Allemandi, Alleman, Alamanus, Alemanus, Almannus and Alamandus. He was called the Cardinal of Arles.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint-Jean of Lyon. Obtained a doctorate in law at the University of Avignon in 1414.

Early life. Précenteur of Narbonne, August 4, 1409. He was present at the Council of Pisa in 1409. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Pierre de la Tour, diocese of Le Puy, from 1417. He was a guardian of the Council of Constance. Locumtenens of the camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, his grand-uncle, François de Conzie in July 1417; Pope Martin V confirmed him by bull of November 21, 1417; he replaced the camerlengo temporarily and resided in the papal curia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Maguelone by Pope Martin V, June 22, 1418. Consecrated, November 20, 1418, Mantua, by Pope Martin V. Confirmed by the pope, May 17, 1419. Papal envoy to Siena in 1422. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Arles, December 3, 1423; took possession of the see, May 16, 1424. Governor of Romagna (including Bologna) 1424.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1426; received the title of S. Cecilia on May 27, 1426, retaining the administration of the see of Arles. Named legate in Bologna; occupied the post until 1428. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church from 1427 to 1431. Did not participate in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. He fell out with the new pope because of the Council of Basel, which opened on July 23, 1431, and which the pope wanted to transfer to Italy; he went to Basel in 1432. He was noted in the Roman Curia on February 26, 1435. Cardinal Aleman continued to preside over the council after Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini left the assembly in 1438; he sided with the conciliarists; they deposed the pope on June 25, 1439 and elected Amedée de Savoie as Antipope Felix V on November 5, 1439; he was deprived of the cardinalate and the administration of Arles on April 11, 1440; he consecrated and crowned the antipope in Basel on July 24, 1440. Named by the antipope legate to the Diet of Frankfurt before Emperor Friedrich IV; attended the diet on September 1, 1446; he could not reconcile with the emperor and the pope. Did not participate in the conclave of 1447, which elected Pope Nicholas V. After the election of the new pope, Cardinal Aleman worked for the reestablishment of the peace within the church and obtained the abdication of Antipope Felix V on April 7, 1449; he was reinstated by the pope on December 19, 1449. Cardinal protoprete in 1449. Named legate in Low Germany. After his legation, he returned to Arles.

Death. October 16, 1450, in odor of sanctity, in the Franciscan house in Salon, Arles. Buried in Saint-Trophine d'Arles (2). Numerous miracles are said to have occurred at his tomb.

Beatification. In a papal brief, Clement VII allowed his veneration as a blessed on April 9, 1527.

Bibliography. Albanès, Joseph Mathias Hyacinthe ; Chevalier, Ulysse. Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France. 7 vols. 1895-1920, III, 787-829; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 38-40; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 841-845; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 127; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 34, 40, 104 and 320; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 26, 27, 30, 61 and 93; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, xi, 180-199; Perouse, Gabriel. Le cardinal Louis Aleman, président du Concile de Bâle, et la fin du grand schisme. Paris : Picard, 1904.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in French, pp. 180-199; biography, in French, pp. 787-829; biography, in German; biographical entry. in Italian; biography, in English; his engraving and biography, in Italian; L'epigrafe di Louis Alemand nella Torre di Castel Bolognese, in Italian; his engraving, Bibliothèque de Lyon, Lyon, France.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 127; his biography in Italian, linked above, says that he may have been born in San Michele di Prazzo, in Val Maira, Piedmont.
(2) This is the text of his sepulchral inscription taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 843:

Omnia sunt hominum tenui pendentia filo,
Et subito casu, quæ valuere, ruunt.

Vnde sicut Deo placuit anno M.CCCC.L. luce vero
sexta mensis Septembris decima, bonæ memoriæ
Reverendus in Christo Pater, & Dominus Ludovicus sacro
Titulo Sanctæ Ceciliæ Presbyter Cardinalis,
Arelatensis vulgariter nuncupatus, sacræ huis
Basilicæ Administrator bene meritus, & Princeps, vitæ laudabilus,
& couersationis honestæ ad maius vocatus
tribunal devote vita est universæ carnis, & Catholice in gressus.
Orate pro eo, ut eius anima requiescat in pace.

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(6) 3. BEAUFORT, Henry (ca. 1374-1447)

Birth. Ca. 1374, Chateau de Beaufort, Meuse-et-Loire, France. Second of the four children of John of Gaunt, first duke of Lancaster, and his mistress, Catherine Roet, the wife of Sir Hugh Swynford; they were married in 1396. Grandson of King Edward III of England. He was baptized in the chateau where he was born. His cousin, King Richard II, legitimized the four children of the union in 1397 but they were barred from the succession to the throne. His last name is also listed as Beaufort Lancaster. He was called the English Cardinal or the Cardinal of Winchester.

Education. Studied at Oxford University and at Aix-la-Chapelle.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prebendary of Thame, 1389. Prebendary in the cathedral of Sutton, 1391. Dean of Wells, 1397. He had an illegitimate daughter, Jane, with Lady Alice Fitzalan.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lincoln, June 1, 1398. Consecrated, July 14, 1398 (no further information found). Chancellor of Oxford University in 1399. Named chancellor of England in 1403 by his half-brother, who had seized the throne as King Henry IV; he occupied the post until 1404. Transferred to the see of Winchester, November 19, 1404; took possession of the see on April 11, 1405. Named legate of Pope Gregory XII in England and Ireland on August 27, 1409. Ambassador of the king of England in France. Chancellor of England again, 1413-1417. Member of the embassy that negotiated for peace with France in 1414. He made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1417. Participated in the Council of Constance and supported the supreme authority of the pope in all matters; he advised King Henry V and Emperor Sigismund to wait until the election of a pope to prepare a program of reform for the church. The king of England prohibited him from accepting the cardinalate if it were offered because the monarch did not want to lose his services in England while residing in the Roman Curia. He supported the election of Cardinal Oddone Colonna to the papacy; the cardinal was elected in the conclave of 1417 and took the name Martin V. The new pope named him his legate a latere for life. He lent the English monarch considerable amount of funds for the war against France. At the death of King Henry V in 1422, Bishop Beaufort was named guardian of the infant King Henry VI. While in charge of the king's care, the bishop antagonized the policies of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, who wanted to secure the throne for himself. In 1424, the bishop was named chancellor of England for the third time.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1426; received the title of S. Eusebio, May 27, 1426; retained the administration of his see; received the red hat on March 25, 1427 in Calais. Named by Pope Martin V legate a latere in Germany Hungary and Bohemia in 1427 to oppose the Hussite heresy. During his absence from England, the duke of Gloucester increased his influence over young and sickish King Henry VI; when he returned in 1428, the cardinal was able to counter the duke's intentions and to regain his influence in the Royal Council. He was a member of the tribunal that condemned Joan d'Arc, future saint, in Rouen. Did not participate in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. Obtained the commendam of the Celestin monastery of S. Eusebio, Rome, July 10, 1431. He crowned his grand-nephew Henry VI of England as king of France in the cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, on December 17, 1431. Once again, the duke of Gloucester tried to undermine the authority and influence of the cardinal when he attempted to eject the prelate from the Royal Council alleging that a cardinal could not hold a see in England; the claim was baseless and, after the death of the duke of Bedford, the cardinal became the most influential member of the council. In 1439 and 1440, he tried to negotiate a peace treaty with France; when France showed no interest, he pursued the war with great vigor. Cardinal protoprete in March 1444. He virtually completed the fabric of the nave of the cathedral of Winchester; he also restored Hyde abbey; and rebuilt the almshouses at St. Cross and provided funds to support thirty-five additional inmates, two chaplains and three nurses.

Death. April 11, 1447, Wolvesey Palace, Winchester. Buried in a chantry chapel in the retrochoir of Winchester Cathedral.

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 33-34; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 32-41; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 40-41; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 845-846; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 127; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 42, 306 and 530; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6 and 62; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, pp. 64-74; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, pp. 33-34.

Links. Portrait and biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; biographical data, in English; his arms and biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in English (the biography of the cardinal by Lewis B. Radford, 1908, is downloadable); pictures and biography, in English; his genealogy, A11; his drawing, Lewis Walpole Library Digital Collection, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America; his engraving, Lewis Walpole Library Digital Collection, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America; "Joan of Arc being interrogated by the Cardinal of Winchester", painting by Paul Delaroche, 19th century; engraving representing his death, by Cedric Reynolds, as told by William Shakespeare in his drama "Henry VI, 2d part, act III, scene III; another engraving of his death, by Johann Heinrich Füssli, 1772, also based on Shakespeare's drama; his arms, stained glass window, Queen's College, Cambridge, England; his tomb in the cathedral of Winchester; another view of his tomb.

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(7) 4. BUCKA, O. Praem., Johann von (ca. 1360-1430)

Birth.Ca. 1360, Prague. Of a patrician family from Prague. Son of Hána and Agnes. His last name is also listed as Bucek, Bucka and Bucca. The Czech sources call him Jan Železný. He is also listed as Johann der Eiserne, Ioannes Pragensis and Ioannes Germanus. He was called the Cardinal of Olomouc.

Education. Entered the Order of Canons Regular of Premontre (Premonstratensians or Norbertines) at the abbey of Strahow.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Provost of Vysehrad.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Leitomischl, Bohemia, by Pope Urban VII, in 1389 (1). Consecrated, April 28, 1389 (no further information found). He was a counselor of King Wenzel IV of Bohemia. And only briefly, he was a trusted friend of Hungarian King Sigismund. During the second arrest of King Wenzel IV, 1402 to 1403, he was appointed by King Sigismund administrator of the kingdom. Administrator of the see of Olomouc, December 14, 1416 until 1418; named its bishop, September 21, 1416; confirmed on February 14, 1418; occupied the see until his death; retained the administration of Leitomischl until 1420. Attended the Council of Constance. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Prague by Pope Martin V, August 13, 1421; occupied the post until his death; he had tried three times to become archbishop of that see.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1426; received the title of S. Ciriaco on May 27, 1426; retained the administration of Olomouc and Prague until his death. Administrator of the see of Vacz, 1429; occupied the post until his death. He did not hesitate combatting the heretics with arms in hand and riding his horse, clad in iron; for this and his intrepidity, he was called "Ferreous". During the last four years of his life, he frequently resided in the court of King Sigismund in Hungary.

Death. October 9, 1430, Esztergom (or Pressburg, Bratislava). Buried in the Franciscan church of Vacz (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 41-42; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 846-847; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 127-128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 34, 42, 318, 376, 409 and 512; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6 and 62; Hledíková, Zdenka ; Kohout, Stepán. Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2001, pp. 596-598.

Links. Biography, in German; biography, in Czech, under "JAN ŽELEZNÝ".

(1) This is according to Hledíková, Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon, p. 596; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 127, says that he was elected in 1392; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 318, says that he was elected in 1398.
(2) This is according to Hledíková, Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1198 bis 1448 : ein biographisches Lexikon, p. 598; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 128, says that he was buried in the cathedral of Vacz.

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(8) 5. CASINI, Antonio (?-1439)

Birth. (No date found), Siena. Son of Francesco (or Giovanni) Casini, physician of Pope Urban VI, and a niece of that pope by the last name of Capocci. Grand-nephew of Pope Urban VI on his mother's side.

Education. Studied at the University of Florence; obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Pastor in Siena. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Florence. Vicar general of Florence. Sub-collector general in Tuscany. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in Rome during the pontificate of Pope Innocent VII, ca. 1405. Vice-legate in Bologna. Governor of Romagna.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pesaro in 1406 or October 1, 1407. Consecrated on November 2, 1407. Transferred to the see of Siena by Pope Gregory XII in 1408; confirmed by Antipope Alexander V on July 20, 1409; named administrator of the see at his promotion to the cardinalate; resigned the post on September 12, 1427. Treasurer of Pope Gregory XII, July 3, 1408. Treasurer of Antipope John XXIII in 1413. Attended the Council of Constance. Treasurer of Pope Martin V on March 5, 1419.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1426; received the title of S. Marcello, May 27, 1426; the pope finished the ceremonies of his investiture as a cardinal on June 5, 1426. Administrator of the see of Grosseto on September 12, 1427. Legate in Bologna, 1427-1429. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. Attended the first session of the Council of Basel in July 1431. He was noted in the Roman Curia on February 26, 1435. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in March 1437. For his charity toward the poor, he was called "il cardinal misericordioso".

Death. February 4, 1439, Florence. Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 41-42; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 847-848; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp.34, 44, 395, 269 and 446; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 27 and 63; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, X, 143-144.

Links. Madonna and Child with Saint Anthony Abbot and Cardinal Casini, relief by Jacopo Della Quercia, 15th century, Museo dell' Opera del Duomo, Siena, Tuscany, Italy; additional views of the relief.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his sepulchre, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 847:

SEPVLCHRVM ANTONII CASINI DE SENIS
TITVLO S. MARCELLI PRESBYT. CARDINALIS.
QVI OBIIT IV. FEBR. MCCCCXXXIX.

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(9) 6. ALBERGATI, O.Carth., Niccolò (Ca. 1375-1443)

Birth. Ca. 1375, Bologna. Son of Pier Nicola Albergati, who had a notable role in the Bolognese comunal life. He was called the Cardinal of S. Croce or of Bologna. He is also listed as Nicolaus de Albergatis; and his first name as Nicola.

Education. He started frequenting the University of Bologna in 1386. Entered the Order of the Carthusians in 1395; professed in the monastery of S. Girolamo di Casara, near Florence, in 1396. Received the minor orders on June 9, 1403; and the subdiaconate on September 22, 1403.

Priesthood. Ordained in June 1404. In the general chapter of his order in 1407, he was elected prior of the monastery of S. Girolamo di Casara. In 1412, he was named co-visitor and visitor of the Carthusian monasteries of Italy.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bologna, January 4, 1417, by unanimous decision of the Consiglio dei Seicento of the city of Bologna; on January 5, 1417, he was confirmed by the cathedral chapter; on January 8, Canon Pietro da Saliceto, president of the chapter, announced to Prior Albergati his election to the see of Bologna; on February 24, 1417, in obedience to the general of his order, he accepted to be consecrated bishop; on March 8, 1417, the cathedral chapter of Bologna asked the metropolite of Ravenna to confirm the election; it was ratified on the following March 15; received the episcopal consecration on July 4, 1417, in the Carthusian church of Bologna, from Tommaso Peronduli, archbishop of Ravenna, assisted by Pietro Ondedei, bishop of Imola; entered the diocese and took possession of the see on that same day; confirmed by Pope Martin V, April 13, 1418. Celebrated a diocesan synod in 1418. He had as secretaries Tommaso Parentucelli, future cardinal and Pope Nicholas V; and Enea Silvio Piccolomini, future cardinal and Pope Pius II. On July 27, 1418, Pope Martin V dispensed him from going to Rome to take the ritual oath of loyalty to the Holy See; instead, he took it before the bishops of Modena and Imola. On December 20, 1418, at the invitation of the pope, he went to Mantua to discuss the political position of Bologna concerning the Holy See. On January 18, 1419, he left for Mantua as ambassadors of the Commune of Bologna before the pope; returned to Bologna on the 27th because of the death of his father; on the following February 6, he left for Ferrara to meet the pope again; the purpose of this trip was to ratify the concordat stipulated in Mantua; he returned to Bologna on February 17, 1419. Because of the rebellion against the pope in Bologna instigated by Anton Galeazzo Bentivoglio, Bishop Albergati had to escape from the city on March 26, 1420; he was able to return on the following July 24, after the rebellion had been put down. Named nuncio before the kings of France and England on February 8, 1422 to obtain their reconciliation; he returned from France on August 9, 1423.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1426; received the title of S. S. Croce in Gerusalemme on May 27, 1426; kept the administration of the see of Bologna by bull of May 29, 1426; became its bishop again on July 27, 1440. On June 5, 1426, the pope finished the ceremonies of his investiture as a cardinal. Named legate a latere in a mission of peace in Italy because of the discord between Venice and Milan and with the League (Florence, the duke of Savoy, Mantua and Ferrara); his legation having been successful, he returned to Bologna on February 5, 1427 and then, went to Rome to inform the pope. Named legate a latere in mission of peace in Italy for the second time on August 6, 1427 because Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan had broken the peace agreement; the latter did not accept the peace conditions and the cardinal returned to Bologna; after the battle of Maclodio on October 12, 1427, Visconti accepted the counsel of Cardinal Albergati; on November 1, the cardinal went to Ferrara to preside, in the name of the pope, the peace conference. In August 1428, the cardinal had to escape from Bologna again, disguised as a monk, because of a new revolt by Bentivolgio; he went to Modena; he returned a few days later to Bologna under the promise that he was not going to be harmed; the fight between the factions did not placate; the pope placed the city under interdict prohibiting all sacred functions; the cardinal had, therefore, to leave the city and went to Imola; indignant, the Consiglio dei Seicento elected another bishop, Abbot Bartolomeo Zambeccari (he later resigned and the cardinal was recognized as the legitimate bishop); the papal troops placed the city under siege; the fight continued for a long time. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church from 1431 to 1432 (1). Named legate to Florence, Venice and Milan in 1431. He was noted in the Roman Curia on February 26, 1435 and January 22, 1440. He took part, together with Cardinal Hugues de Lusignan, in the negotiation of the Treaty of Arras between King Charles VII of France and Duke Philippe le Bon of Bourgogne. Sent by Pope Eugenius IV to preside the Council of Basel; he was not accepted by the other cardinals and went to Florence; later, he went to Ferrara with the pope and presided the first session of the Council of Ferrara on January 8, 1438; the representatives of the Greeks arrived in March 1438; the council was moved to Florence in February 1439. Named grand penitentiary in June 1438. On September 11, 1438, he was named legate to the Diet of Nüremberg; he arrived in the city on October 16; returned on December 17; and on February 13, 1439, he went to Florence to attend the council; he did not sign the document for the union with the Greek Church. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1440 (2); occupied the post until his death. On March 17, 1443, Pope Eugenius IV and the Sacred College of Cardinals left Florence for Rome, new see of the council; Cardinal Albergati followed the pope but had a bad crisis of kidney stone in Siena and passed away in that city. Even after his promotion to the cardinalate, he strictly observed the rules of his monastic order. He had a great reputation of holiness.

Death. May 9, 1443, of a serious crisis of kidney stone, in the convent of the Augustinians, Siena; on May 11, in the presence of Pope Eugenius IV, took place the solemn funeral. Buried in the Carthusian monastery of Monte Acuto, Florence (3); his praecordia was deposited in the chapel of the Augustinians, next to the main altar; one of his red hats was suspended over it; another hat was suspended from the ceiling of the cathedral of Siena. In 1633, Pope Urban VIII ordered a commission to exhume the remains of Cardinal Albergati and have them placed in a new urn. During the process, the cardinal's brain was found intact. It was placed in a reliquary and sent to the Certosa of Bologna His biographical notes were published in Rome in 1745.

Beatification. He was inscribed as a blessed in the martyrology of the Carthusians and in the one of Bologna. In a papal decree, Singulare divinæ providentiæ, of September 25, 1744, Pope Benedict XIV approved his veneration as a blessed; his feast is celebrated on May 8.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 44-50; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 849-860; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 34, 41 and 141; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 27, 28, 62 and 108; Marini, Niccolò. L'azione diplomatica della S. Sede e il b. Niccolò Albergati, vescovo e cardinale. Roma : Tipografia Vaticana, 1887; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 254-272.

Links. Biography by Francis Grey, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Edith Pásztor, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 1 (1960), Treccani; images and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; medallion and biography, in Italian, English and German, Museo della Certosa di Serra San Bruno; his portrait by Jan van Eyck, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria, Olga's Gallery; his portrait by Francisco de Zurbarán, Museum of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain, infocadiz.com; his drawing by Jan Van Eyck, Staatliche Museum, Dresde, Germany, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; his portrait, Scuola Romana, between 1609 and 1630, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy, Lombardia Beni Culturale; Un Miracolo di Niccolò Albergati by Ercole Graziani, church of S. Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, Rome; Saint Nicolas Albergati, chartreux et cardinal de Sante Croce by Vicente Carducho, Musée du Louvre, Paris; his portrait, Bolognese Shop, 18th century (1700-1799), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his arms and portrait, 19th century (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait, 18th century (1700-1799), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his engraving, attributed to Donato Mascagni, 17th century, Dresde, Kupferstich-Kabinett, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Germany; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna, Italy; and another engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna, Italy; portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, 128; Niccolò del Re, La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici (4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998), p. 296, does not list him as occupant of that post.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 128; Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 261, indicates that he was named immediately after his investiture as a cardinal.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 858:

SEPVLCHRVM
Omni laude dignissimi, Reverendissimi Patris,
NICOLAI tituli S. Crucis in Hierusalem,
PRESBYTERI CARDINALIS.
Hic natus Bononiæ primum, ex priore Carthusiense
Petente Populo Bononiensi Episcopus.
Tum a Martino V. Pontifice Cardinalis designatus,
Post plurimas legationes Senis diem suum obiit,
Aetatis suæ anno sexagesimo octavo.
Vir piissimus, mitissimusque, vitæ integritate,
Singulariq; virtute, omnium testimonio comprobatus.

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(10) 7. MAIROSE, Raimond (?-1427)

Birth. (No date found), Millau (Amilhau), diocese of Rodez, France. His father, Jean Mairose, was an honorable merchant and consul of that city. His last name is also listed as Mairosé, Mayrueys Meyrueis and Mairosi de Avillano. He was called the Cardinal of Castres.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Toulouse and archdeacon of Lézat in that archdiocese. Apostolic notary.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint Papoul, July 25, 1423. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Castres, January 14, 1426.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1426; received the title of S. Prassede on May 27, 1426; the pope finished the ceremonies of his investiture to the cardinalate on November 4, 1426; retained the administration of his see until his death.

Death. October 21, 1427, Rome. Buried in his title (1). He left 60 scudi of gold to Notre Dame de l'Espinasse in Millau for the celebration of an annual service in the anniversary of his death.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 50-51; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 860; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 34, 45, 173 and 390; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6 and 64.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 860:

Ego Raymundus Mayrosi tit. S. Praxedis Presb. Card.
Castrensis vulgariter nuncupatus. Hac requies mea usque in finem sæculi.
Hic habitabo quoniam elegieam.
Orate pro me Fratres.
Anno Domini MCCCCXXVII.
Die xxi. Mensis Octobris obii.

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(11) 8. CERVANTES, Juan de (ca. 1380-1453)

Birth. Ca. 1380, Lora del Río, archdiocese of Sevilla, Spain. Of a family originally from Galicia, Spain. Son of Gonzalo Gómez de Cervantes and Beatriz Bocanegra. He was called the Cardinal of S. Pietro in Vincoli.

Education. Studied at the University of Salamanca; obtained a magister in theology and a doctorate in utroque iure (both canon and civil law).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Palencia. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Hermida. Named archdeacon of Calatrava by Antipope Benedict XIII on January 29, 1415. Archdeacon of Sevilla in 1419. Procurator of the king of Castilla in the Roman Curia in 1419. He requested from Pope Martin V the absolution ad cautelam of the censure which he might have incurred for having negotiated with Antipope Benedict XIII; the pope granted his request. Named papal referendary in 1420. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Burgos on July 14, 1423; also abbot commendatario of Salas in Burgos. In the Council of Siena, 1423-1424, he was elected president of Spanish nation and he zealously defended the pope against the attacks of the Aragonese ambassador, Guillermo Agramunt.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1426; received the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli on May 27, 1426; the pope finished the ceremonies of his investiture as a cardinal on June 5, 1426. To be able to support with honor his new dignity, he obtained numerous and rich benefices.

Episcopate. Named administrator of the see of Tuy before November 1430; occupied the post until 1438. Did not participate in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV; he supported the admission of Cardinal Domenico Capranica in the conclave but failed. Named archdeacon of Talavera by the new pope on March 23, 1431. He arrived at the Council of Basel on November 21, 1432; he sided with the conciliarists; he demonstrated a great aggressivity against the pope as well as radical conciliarist convictions; his prestige was so great among the fathers of the council that, after six months of his arrival, he was chosen the sole judge in causes of the faith; he occupied the post until September 20, 1434, when, because of his embassy to Italy, he was replaced by Cardinal Louis Aleman; he left for Florence on September 10 together with Cardinal Albergati his mission, to pacify the Italian peninsula and to recover the lands of the church; on May 11, 1435, the two cardinals notified the council the failure of their mission. He was noted in Rome on February 26, 1435; during his stay in the curia, he changed his views on the council and reconciled with the pope. On March 27, 1436, Cardinal Cervantes returned to Basel with powers from the pope to solve the difficulties between Basel and the Council of Florence; he remained in Basel for almost a year as the only representative of the pope; in 1436, Eneas Silvio Piccolomini, future Pope Pius II, became his private secretary. Administrator of the see of Avila in 1437 or March 1438; occupied the post until August 19, 1441. Before the end of 1437, he went to the thermal baths in Baden. After the suspension of the pope by the Council of Basel on January 24, 1438, he was named, with others, to administer the Papal States; this never took place. At the beginning of 1439, he was in Constance; after a brief appearance in Basel, where he helped the imperial ambassadors to prepare a peace document; he then retired to Nidou, Switzerland, for a few days; later, he went to Mainz, where the electors celebrated a reunion on April 13, 1439; on June 6, 1439, he was near Basel; he did not present himself at the Council of Ferrara-Florence, nor did he participate in the conclave of 1439, in Basel, which elected Antipope Felix V. He was in Castilla on March 4, 1440; on September 15, he celebrated the wedding mass and blessed the marriage of Prince Enrique (future King Enrique IV of Castilla) with Blanca de Navarra in Valladolid. At the beginning of 1441, he received King Juan II of Castilla in Avila. Administrator of the see of Segovia, July 19, 1441. Legate of Pope Eugenius IV to Lombardy. Named bishop of the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri on March 7, 1446; he kept the administration of the see of Segovia and his other commendams. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Did not participate in the conclave of 1447, which elected Pope Nicholas V. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Sevilla, April 7, 1449; occupied the post until his death; he built a hospital in Sevilla. Did not participate in the secret consistory of October 27, 1451. On August 13, 1452, he was named legate a latere before the king of England to negotiate the peace with France.

Death. November 25, 1453, Sevilla. Buried in San Hermenegildo chapel, which he had built, in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 51-52; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 860-861; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 34, 36 and 45 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 27, 29, 30, 31, 60, 78, 165 and 234; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Cervantes, Juan de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), Suppl, 124-128.

Links. "Juan Rodríguez del Padrón, Juan de Cervantes y Gonzalo de Medina. Apuntes biográficos", in Spanish, article by Enric Dolz i Ferrer, December 8, 2004; El Cardenal Juan de Cervantes, Conferencia, November 28, 2003, Lora del Río (announcement in Spanish); his tomb, San Hermenegildo chapel, metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla; another view of his tomb.

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(12) 9. DELLA PORTA, seniore, Ardicino (Second half of the 14th century-1434)

Birth. In the second half of the 14th century, in Suno, province of Novara. From a family originally from Piacenza. Son of Genesio della Porta, doctor in law. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Ardicino della Porta, iuniore (1489). He was called the Cardinal of Novara.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure (both canon and civil law).

Early life. He was a very able jurisconsult. He was married to Gioacchina Visconti and had three sons, Pietro, Giano and Corrado, who later was count of the Holy Roman Empire. He was a consistorial lawyer already in 1413. In that same year, King Ladislao of Naples granted him an annual pension of 200 ducati for his devotion and for unspecified services to the king and kingdom. When Antipope John XXIII called the Council of Constance, he was asked to take part as consistorial lawyer. His presence in that city is attested in May 1415. In the following November, he became a lawyer of Friedrich, duke of Austria, in the cause against the bishop of Trent over the church and episcopate of that city. In December of that year and January of 1416, he took part in the work of the cause that opposed the cathedral chapter of Strassbourg to the bishop of the diocese. On February 24, 1416, he spoke in favor of the master general of the Order of S. Maria dei Teutonici. A few days earlier, he had presented a memorandum of ten points against Simone di Teramo. A month later, he submitted a note concerning the cause of the duke of Bourgogne. At the end of April, he proposed the confirmation of the election of Henri de Savoisy to the bishopric of Sens; and also acted again as the lawyer of the cathedral chapter in the cause of Strassbourg. Present at the sessions of the Council in May 1416, he subscribed the treaty of the bishop of Lodi against the Poloni and in September he spoke in the name of the ambassadors of Queen Giovanna Il of Anjou and her husband, Giacomo de la Marche. In February 1417, he participated in the session in which, in the presence of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, it was again discussed the Tridentine cause. On April 13, 1417, the remaining sovereigns had nominated him their advocate at the Council reconfirming his yearly pension of 200 ducati. He was present in the October session in which some articles on the planned reform of the Church had been discussed. Pope Martin V was elected on November 11, 1417. When the Council was heading towards its end, it was decided, on April 18, 1418 that the future council would have as a venue Pavia. Della Porta spoke on behalf of the emperor, announcing that he approved, accepted and praised the choice of that city; and a few days later, he made a speech at the conclusion of the Council, always on behalf of the emperor. The sovereign manifested his gratitude by creating Della Porta on June 23 a Palatine count. After his wife had died, Della Porta had entered the ecclesiastical state. He went to Rome with the new pope and became cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and corrector of apostolic letters.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1426; received the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano on May 27, 1426; the pope finished the ceremonies of his investiture as a cardinal on June 5, 1426. With a bull of September 16, 1426, the pope authorized Cardinal Della Porta the use during his lifetime, with the obligation to provide for repairs, the palace where the prior and monks of the hospital of Saint John of Gerusalemme used to live, in the area of the fori of Julius Caesar and Augustus. In the summer of 1429, Pope Martin V went to the Alban hills and named Cardinal Della Porta, who remained in Rome, vicar general in temporalibus. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV.

Death. April 9, 1434, probably in Rome. Buried in the oratory of S. Tommaso in the old Vatican basilica; later, his remains were transferred to the grotto of the new basilica (1). In the Communal Library Passerini Landi of Piacenza are preserved some of his Consilia legalia.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 43-44; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 848; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 34 and 49; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6 and 66.

Links. Biography by Franca Petrucci, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 37 (1989), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb, patriarchal Vatican basilica.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 848:

Hic de la PORTA iacet ARDICINO, utroque
Iure tenens primum Doctor in Orbe locum:
Primus, orabat per Consistoria causas,
Iustitiam summa Religione colens:
Post ad Cardineum merito exaltatus honorem,
Inter Apostolico sedit, & ipse Patres.
Talem Roma tibi Lombarda Novaria misit
Insignem generis nobilitate virum.

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(13) 10. LUSIGNAN, Hugues de (1380/1385-1442)

Birth. 1380/1385, Cyprus. Of Greek nationality. Fifth of the twelve children of King Jacques I of Cyprus, titular king of Armenia and Jerusalem, and Helvis de Brunswick-Grubenhagen. The other siblings were a girl (who died in infancy); Janus (king of Cyprus); Philippe (constable of Cyprus); Henri (titular prince of Galilee); Eudes (seneschal of Jerusalem, who entered at the service of the king of Aragon); Guy (constable of Cyprus); Jacqueline (who died in 1397); Échive (probably married to Count Sclavus d'Asperg); Marie (who married Ladislas d'Anjou, king of Naples); Agnès (abbess of Wunstorf); Isabelle (who married her cousin Pierre de Lusignan, titular count of Tripoli, son of Jean, prince of Antioch). Uncle of Pseudocardinal Lancelot de Lusignan (1447). His first name is also listed as Hugues-Lancelot; and his last name as Lisinhac and Lusignano. He was called the Cardinal of Cyprus.

Education. Educated in the court of his father.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Named by Antipope John XXIII administrator perpetuo of Nicosia, July 8, 1411. Elected archbishop of Nicosia by Pope Martin V on March 5, 1421. Consecrated (no information found). Named titular patriarch of Jerusalem in 1424.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1426; received the deaconry of S. Adriano on May 27, 1426; it is not known when the pope finished the ceremonies of his investiture and sent him the red hat. Regent of Cyprus during the captivity of his brother King Jano II from July 1426 until May 1427. Did not participate in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV (1). Opted for the title of S. Clemente on March 11, 1431. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, April 20, 1431. Legate in the province of Marittima e Campagna. Received in commendam the Benedictine monastery of S. Maria de Pignerol, diocese of Turin, September 16, 1433. Abbot in commendam of the monastery of Montevergine. Resigned the commendam of the monastery of S. Severino, which he had received shortly before. He had a disagreement with the pope before 1435, which provoked a rupture between them; later, they reconciled. He was noted in the Roman Curia on February 26, 1435. Sent by the council, he took part in the negotiations of the Treaty of Arras of 1435 between King Charles VII of France and Duke Philippe le Bon of Bourgogne. Named bishop of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 27, 1436. Named legate in Campagna e Marittima. He attended the Council of Basel and adhered himself to Antipope Felix V in 1439 (2); for this reason, he was deposed from the cardinalate and the episcopate by Pope Eugenius IV on April 11, 1440.

Death. Probably on August 5, 1442, in Genève. His death was announced in Rome on the following August 24. Buried in the Franciscan (Cordeliers) church of Rive. Shortly after, Anne de Savoie built a familial chapel in which, probably, the remains of the cardinal were deposited. The church as well as all the documents concerning the convent were destroyed during the Reformation.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 50-51; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 860; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 129-130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 34, 37, 41, 48 and 366; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 27, 60, 61, 62, 66 and 202; Riidt de Collenberg, Weyprecht H. "Les Cardinaux de Chypre Hugues et Lancelot de Lusignan" in Archivum historiae pontificiae, XX (1982), 83-128.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biography, in French, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A5 B5, Genealogy EU; Le royaume et l'Église de Chypre face au Grand Schisme (1378-1417) d'après les Registres des Archives du Vatican by Wipertus Rudt de Collenberg. Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes, Volume 94 (1982), Issue 94-2, pp. 621-701, Persée, Ministry of State for Higher Education and Research.

(1) This is according to the notes on that conclave by Dr. Frank Burkle-Young. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 129, says that he participated in the conclave of 1431.
(2) The cardinal had arranged the marriage of his niece, Anna de Lusignan, to Louis de Savoie, son and successor of Duke Amedeo VIII of Savoy, future Antipope Felix V.

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(14) 11. COLONNA, Prospero (ca. 1410-1463)

Birth. Ca. 1410, Rome. Fifth child of Count Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna of Alba and Sveva Caetani,of the signori of Sermoneta. Nephew of Pope Martin V, on his father's side. Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Colonna (1480). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili. He was called the Cardinal Colonna.

Education. "... cultivatore delle lettere..." (1).

Early life. Apostolic notary. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Saint Lambert, Liège, 1421; he had to yield the title; and received it again in 1426. Archdeacon of Canterbury from June 1424 to December 1434.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in secret in the consistory of May 24, 1426; published in the consistory of November 8, 1430; received the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro. Abbot commendatario of Casamri from 1430. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. Deposed by Pope Eugenius IV on October 9, 1433 for having left from Rome clandestinely during the night and for having joined the party of the enemies of the pope; he was reinstated shortly after. He was noted in the Roman Curia on February 20, 1435. Cardinal protodeacon in September 1437. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals for the year 1439. He was very interested in archeology and in 1446, he tried unsuccessfully to refloat the naves sunken in the lake of Nemi. Participated in the conclave of 1447, which elected Pope Nicholas V; he announced the election of the new Pope Nicholas V on March 6, 1447 and crowned him the following March 19. He followed the pope to Spoleto in 1449 because of the plague; he returned on June 13 via Montefalco. He accompanied Emperor Friedrich IV to the frontier of the States of the Church in his trip from Rome to Naples on March 24, 1452. Participated in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III; he crowned the new pope on April 20, 1455. Participated in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II; he was the candidate of the duke of Milan; his vote was decisive in the election of Cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini; he crowned the new pope on September 3, 1458 before the doors of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. He accompanied the pope to Mantua on January 22, 1459; he attended the Congress of Mantua, which was opened on January 16, 1460; he left on January 16, 1460. He countersigned a papal bull in Siena on April 18, 1459. Together with Cardinal Bessarion, he ordered on May 19, 1459 the introduction of the cause of S. Catarina di Siena. He was noted in the Roman Curia on February 3, 1462. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. He was a protector of humanists, such as Leone Battista Alberti; and possessed a large and rich library.

Death. March 24, 1463, Rome. Buried in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 57-58; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 863 and 1070; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 34 and 50; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33 and 66.

Links. The Colonna family, in English; his arms on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 57.

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(15) 12. CESARINI, seniore, Giuliano (1398-1444)

Birth. 1398, Rome. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore (1493). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Cesarini, seniore (1517). Another cardinal of the family was Alessandro Cesarini, iuniore (1627). He was called the Cardinal of S. Angelo and Cardinal Julian.

Education. Studied at the Universities of Perugia, Bologna and Padua; obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Early life. Professor at the University of Padua, where he had as students future Cardinals Domenico Capranica and Nikolaus von Cusa. Called to Rome by Cardinal Branda Castiglione; he accompanied the cardinal to Bohemia. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1422. Protonotary apostolic. Referendary of the Apostolic Signature. Nuncio in France and later, in England.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in secret in the consistory of May 24, 1426; published in the consistory of November 8, 1430 with the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria. Legate of Pope Martin V in Bohemia, January 1, 1431; his charge was to support the fight against the Hussites. Participated in the conclave of 1431, which elected Pope Eugenius IV. He went to the Council of Basel, opened on July 23, 1431, to preside the assembly in the name of Pope Eugenius IV; he left Basel when the assembly started discussing the deposition of the pope; he joined the pope in Ferrara in March 1438; and later, in Florence, where the pope had moved the council; the union of the Latin and the Greek Churches was accomplished on on July 6, 1439. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of S. Pastore, diocese of Rieti, in 1438. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) in 1438.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Grosseto in February 1439. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1439. He was noted in the Roman Curia on January 22, 1440. On April 18, 1440, he resigned the commendam of the monastery of S. Biagio in Rome, which was incorporated the chapter of St. Peter's. Opted for the title of S. Sabina ca. 1440. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Tarento ca. 1440 until March 7, 1444. Legate a latere in Bohemia, Hungary and Poland; he left Rome on March 14, 1442; returned on October 24, 1442; he was successful in his mission; he left for Hungary before King Ladislas and preached the crusade against the Turks; he accompanied the king in June 1443 to the battle of Varna in Bulgaria; the king lost his life; the legate was wounded and tried to escape but was massacred by the Turks. Named bishop of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 7, 1444; on that same day, he was named grand penitentiary. Consecrated (no information found). Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). He was the author of several theological works, notably on the procession of the Holy Spirit. He was of a remarkable virtue and austerity and had a considerable influence in his time.

Death. November 10, 1444, while escaping from the battle of Varna, Bulgaria. Buried (no information found). The news of his death reached Rome on July 25, 1445; the Sacred College of Cardinals had a funeral service for the deceased cardinal in Rome on the following day.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 861-863; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 34 and 49; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 6, 26, 27, 28, 61, 64, 66, 161 and 246.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in German; biography, in Italian; Cesarini family, in Italian; his portrait, 18th century, Rettorato, Sala del Consiglio, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; his engraving, Archiginnasio di Bologna, Bologna, Italy; his effigy on a memorial medal, drawing representing the cardinal from Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini: Pápa vagy zsinat ?, Magyar Helikon, Budapest, 1980, p 12; same drawing and biography, in English.

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