The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
[Antipope] Clement VIII (1423-1429)
Consistory of July 29, 1429


(2) 1. ROVIRA Y ESCUDER, Francisco (a. 1375-1450)

Birth. Ca. 1375, Morella, Castellón, Kingdom of Valencia. Son of Francisco Rovira, senior, and his wife, whose first name is not known and her last name was Escuder. They had three sons, Bartolomé, Juan and Francisco; and a daughter, Francisca. His last name is also listed as La Rovère and as Rouera.

Education. Initial studies at the convent of San Francisco, Morella, where his uncle, Fr. Bartolomé Rovira, was the guardian of the convent; studied grammar and logic at Studi de la Vila de Morella, which depended of Studis generals de Lleiva; ecclesiastical studies at the cathedral cloister of Tortosa; in 1394, he went to the University of Montpellier to study Decrees (canon law) and obtained a bachelor's; in 1410/411, obtained a doctorate in Decrees at the University of Perpginan; Pseudocardinal Juan Martínez de Murillo, O.Cis., imposed on him the doctoral insignias.

Early life. Promoter of affairs at the court of Aragón. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Mallorca. Secretary of Antipope Benedict XIII. Confidential agent of King Alfonso V, el Magnánimo, of Aragón.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Clemente in the consistory of July 26, 1429. On that same day, Antipope Clement VIII revoked all condemnations he had issued against Pope Martin V and rehabilitated him to be elected pope. Immediately after, the antipope abdicated and asked the three pseudocardinals present (Julián Lobera y Valtierra, Gil Sánchez Muñoz, el joven, and Rovira) to elect a pastor acceptable to God and the Christian people (1). The pseudocardinals asked for a place to hold the conclave; after hearing the mass of the Holy Spirit, they unanimously elected Cardinal Oddone Colonna, whom they called Martin V. This is because the antipope and the pseudocardinals did not accept the 1417 election of Cardinal Oddone Colonna, who had taken the name Martin V. On August 14, 1429, the former antipope and three pseudocardinals took the oath of obedience to the pope and were absolved and admitted into the church by Cardinal Legate Pierre de Foix, O.F.M. On the following day, the three pseudocardinals presented their resignation to their dignity.

Death. November 22, 1450, Valencia assisted by his nephew Gabriel. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 749-750; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Gran Schisme (1378-1417)e siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 158; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Clemente VIII." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), I, 158-162; Milian Boix, Manuel. "Francisco Rovira Escuder, secretario de Benedicto XIII el Papa Luna y agente confidencial de Alfonso V el Magnánimo (1375-1450)", IX Congresso di Storia della Corona d'Aragona. Napoli, 11-15 Aprile 1973, sul tema "La Corona d'Aragona e il Mediterraneo : aspetti e problemi comuni da Alfonso il Magnanimo e Ferdinando il Cattolico (1416-1516). 3 vols. Volume terzo : Communicazioni. Palermo : Accademia di Science, Lettere e Arti, 1984, III, 187-213. At head of title: Comisión Permanente de los Congresos de Historia de la Corona de Aragón en Barcelona.

(1) To resign, the antipope placed as conditions sine qua non, the promotion of Rovira to the cardinalate and the election of Pope Martin V by the pseudocardinals.

Cool Archive

(2) 2. SÁNCHEZ MUÑOZ, el joven, Gil (toward the end of the 15th century-1471)

Birth. Toward the end of the 15th century (no place found), Spain. Nephew of Antipope Clement VIII.

Education. Obtained a baccalaureate in law.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Valencia; took possession on January 3, 1422. Praecentor and canon of the chapter of the cathedral of Gerona.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin in the consistory of July 26, 1429. On that same day, Antipope Clement VIII revoked all condemnations he had issued against Pope Martin V and rehabilitated him to be elected pope. Immediately after, the antipope abdicated and asked the three pseudocardinals present (Julián Lobera y Valtierra, Francisco Rovira and Sánchez Muñoz, el joven) to elect a pastor acceptable to God and the Christian people (1). The pseudocardinals asked for a place to hold the conclave; after hearing the mass of the Holy Spirit, they unanimously elected Cardinal Oddone Colonna, whom they called Martin V. This is because the antipope and the pseudocardinals did not accept the 1417 election of Cardinal Oddone Colonna, who had taken the name Martin V. On August 14, 1429, the former antipope and three pseudocardinals took the oath of obedience to the pope and were absolved and admitted into the church by Cardinal Legate Pierre de Foix, O.F.M. On August 16, the three pseudocardinals presented their resignation to their dignity. After the abdication of his uncle, he made his submission to Pope Martin V. Resigned the promotion on August 15, 1429, keeping his previous benefices. In 1430, he was the sindico of the cathedral chapter of Valencia.

Death. September 1, 1471 (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 750; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux.VI. Les cardinaux du Gran Schisme (1378-1417)e siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 158; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Clemente VIII." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), I, 158-162.

(1) To resign, the antipope placed as conditions sine qua non, the promotion of Rovira to the cardinalate and the election of Pope Martin V by the pseudocardinals.

Top Consistories Catalogs Home

©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.