(21) 1. TREVISANO, Ludovico (1401-1465)
Birth. Mid-November, 1401, Venice (1). Of a family of humble origin. Son of Maestro Biagio Trevisano, a doctor in arts and medicine. His maternal last name may have been Mezzarota. His first name is also listed as Luigi; as Luise; as Ludovicus; and as Alvise; and his last name as Trevisan; as Scarampus; as Scarampi-Mezzarota; and as Mezzarota Scarampi dell'Arena (2). He was called the Cardinal of Aquileia and the Cardinal Camerlengo.
Education. Initial studies of grammar and poetry in Venice; later, in liberal arts; he obtained a doctorate in arts and medicine at the University of Padua on July 9, 1425.
Early life. Initially, he taught medicine; and later, went to Rome, ca, 1430, called by Cardinal Gabrile Condulmer, future Pope Eugenius IV, to be his physician. The new Pope Eugenius IV named him his cubicularius and apostolic letters scriptori. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua. He then entered the ecclesiastical career. He distinguished himself in the final phase of the pacification of Bologna and its surrender to papal authority.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Traù, October 24, 1435; occupied the see until August 6, 1437; he governed the see through a vicar, Niccolò, abbot of the monastery of S. Giovanni Battista in Traù. Consecrated, probably shortly after his election (3) , (no further information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, August 6, 1437; occupied the see until December 18, 1439. On January 23, 1438, he was with the pope in Ferrara. He subscribed the bull of union with the Greeks issued by Pope Eugenius IV on July 4, 1439. Promoted to the patriarchate of Aquileia, December 18, 1439; occupied the see until his death. Named legate in Romagna on April 3, 1440; he was with an army with the charge of recovering the lands of the Church; he left on July 30; returned on November 23; left again on December 10, 1440.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1440, with the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso; his patriarchate was administered by Bishop Fortunato di Pellicanis of Sarsina; he entered Florence on July 12, 1440; on the 20th, the pope finished the ceremonies of his cardinalitial investiture. In the battle of Anghiari in 1440, he fought and defeated Niccolò Piccinino, Milanese condottiero. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, 1440 until his death. Named legate of Marche Anconitana and other provinces of central Italy, September 13, 1442; he left from Florence on September 16; returned on October 24; went to his legation on the following day; he entered Siena on March 28, 1443; went to Rome on May 12; on June 14, he signed a treaty with King Alfonso d'Aragón of Naples, which the pope approved on the following July 6. He helped Pope Eugenius IV to restore the city of Rome. He went to Siena on August 30, 1443; he left Rome for Viterbo on November 23; and returned the following December 13, 1443. Administrator of the see of Bologna, 1443; occupied the post until 1444. Named legate in Siena, he left on January 27, 1444; he returned to Rome and on July 14, he went to see King Alfonso d'Aragón; returned to Rome on July 26; left for Perugia on September 2, 1444. Elected also bishop of Cava, September 3, 1444; occupied the see until his death. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of S. Pastore, diocese of Rieti, 1445 until June 4, 1456. On April 10, 1446, he was inscribed in the Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit in Rome. He left Rome for Marche on May 31, 1446; returned on November 30. He was noted in the Roman Curia on February 21, 1447; and at the command of all the fortified points in the city of Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1447, which elected Pope Nicholas V. The day following the election of the new Pope Nicholas V, he was sent by the pontiff, with Cardinal Francesco Condulmer, to the king of Naples. He was absent from Rome from October 27, 1451 until November 27, when he returned from Venice. On November 23, 1452, he was charged by the pope with the visitation of the churches of Rome. He frustrated the conspiracy of Stefano Procaro against the pope in January 1453. In July 1453, he was in Albano. Participated in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III. He wrote the ordinances for public health and road maintenance of Rome, June 16, 1455 and May 24, 1456. Named admiral of the papal fleet on December 17, 1455. On April 30, 1456, he left Rome for Ostia. Named, on June 1, 1456, legate of the Mediterranean coasts and islands; and also, governor of all the lands that he would conquer; he was assisted by a commission of cardinals for the organizing of the fleet. On July 9, 1456, he was charged with pursuing the Treaties of Urrea and of Olzina. He left Naples on August 6, 1456, after the pope had complained about the time he had taken to start his mission. He went to Rhodes and dispersed the Turkish fleet; in 1457, he took the islands of Lemnos, Samothracia and Thasos; returned to Rhodes; reentered Rome in February 1459 with a large booty. Did not participate in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. He went to Siena, where Pope Pius II was, on March 16, 1459; he subscribed a papal bull dated the following April 18. He followed the pope to Mantua although he opposed the congress that the pontiff held in that city. He was in Rome on October 8, 1460; and in Montefiascone on May 25, 1462. Named citizen and patrician of Venice in 1462. Escaping from the plague, he sought refuge in Florence in October 1463; and later in Prato the following month of December. He entered Siena on March 6, 1464; went to Florence and Venice and returned on April 10 to go to Rome. He was then opposed to the crusade against the Turks. Participated in the conclave of 1464, which elected Pope Paul II. In October 1464, sought refuge from the plague in Albano. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano on January 7, 1465; retained in commendam the sees of Aquileia and Cava. He repaired the cathedral of Aquileia and his titular church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso; he also aqueducts built. He was more a military than an ecclesiastic. He was famous for his fortune, luxury and splendor. He left his wealth to the Church, his works and his nephews.
Death. March 22, 1465 (4), at 3 a.m., of dropsy, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (5), Rome (6).
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 95-98; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 919-923 and 1117-1118; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 140-141; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 8, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 59, 63, 92, 154 and 253; Paschini, Pio. Lodovico cardinale camerlengo. Rome : Facultas Theologica Pontificii Athenaei Lateranensis, 1939.
Webgraphy. Biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedie on line, Treccani; brief biographical data, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico Friulano; brief biographical entry, in Italian, Sapere.it; his portrait by Andrea Mantegna, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Germany, Olga's Gallery; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna, Italy; his arms, Fontanina del "Cappello Cardinalizio", Piazza della Cancelleria, Rome, Roma e le sue bellezze, Gianfranco Franci; his tomb, church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait and arms, 19th century (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).
(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 140; his brief biographical data in Italian, linked above; and his biographical entry in Italian, also linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 95 says that he was born in Padua.
(2) According to Paschini, Lodovico cardinale camerlengo, he was known to historians since the 16th century by the last name of Scarampi-Mezzarota, attributed to him by mistake.
(3) According to Paschini, Lodovico cardinale camerlengo, p. 22, this is indicated by the fact that on November 16, 1436, Bishop Trevisano conferred, in the papal palace of Bologna, the ecclesiastical tonsure to two clerics, Antonio Benedetti of Lucca and Gianfrancesco, from Padua.
(4) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 141; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 8, 34, 59 and 92; and Paschini, Lodovico cardinale camerlengo, p. 207; his epitaph, transcribed in nore 4 and also linked above, indicates that he died on XII Kl. Aprileis, which is March 21 and not 22.
(5) According to Paschini, Lodovico cardinale camerlengo, p. 211, Antonio di Tocco, who had been named canon of S. Lorenzo in Damaso by the cardinal, removed the miter, vestments and rings from the body of the cardinal; later, afraid of being discovered, he dressed the body again with the vestments that he had stolen; other canons were also accused and brought to trial; Pope Paul II only deprived di Tocco of his canonship; the complicity of the other canons was not clearly established.
(6) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed from Paschini, Lodovico cardinale camerlengo, p. 213:
(22) 2. BARBO, Pietro (1417-1471)
Birth. February 23, 1417 (1), Venice. Of a rich merchant and patrician family. Son of Nicola Barbo and Polissena Condulmer. He was intended for a merchant career but entered the church when his uncle was elected to the papacy. Nephew of Pope Eugenius IV on his mother's side. Uncle of Cardinals Marco Barbo (1467), Giovanni Battista Zeno (1468) and Giovanni Michiel (1468). He was called the Cardinal of S. Maria Nuova, or of S. Marco, or of Venice.
Education. Studied in the papal court under the care of his uncle the pope; his studies commenced somewhat late and he did not acquire a particularly high level.
Early life. Protonotary apostolic and archdeacon of Bologna., 1436. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1440, with the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, while he was in Florence; the pope finished the ceremonies of his cardinalitial investiture on July 4, 1440.
Episcopate. Named, at the same time of his promotion to the cardinalate, administrator of the see of Cervia; occupied the post until June 19, 1451. He was noted in the Roman Curia on October 24, 1442 and February 21, 1447. In August 1445, he was named member of the commission charged with the canonization of Bernardino di Siena. Master general of the Order of Spirito Santo in Sassia and administrator of its hospital, near the Vatican, in 1445. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1445. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, August 13, 1445 until October 7, 1446. Participated in the conclave of 1447, which elected Pope Nicholas V. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marco on June 16, 1451. Elected bishop of Vicenza, June 16, 1451; occupied the see until his election to the papacy; he made the bishop of Padua administrator of his diocese from 1455 to 1458; the bishop of Treviso from 1460. He was absent from Rome from October 27, 1451 until the following December 5, when he returned from Venice. In 1455, he started the reconstruction of his titular church, which belonged to the Venetians, at an immense cost; he also beautified the Palazzo Venezia, where he had collections of coins and precious stones. Participated in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III. He tried to pacify the Papal States and negotiated in Rome an armistice between the Orsinis and the Colonnas. In December 1455, he was named member of the commission of cardinals for the construction of the papal fleet. On July 6, 1456, he was named governor general of Campania. In January 1458, he offered himself to reconcile Pope Callistus III and the king of Naples. In the following month of July, he was named member of the commission charged with maintaining the order in Rome. He was very rich, generous and serviceable; he courageously aided Pedro Borgia, nephew of Pope Callistus III, to escape on August 6, 1458, at the moment of the death of the pope. Participated in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. He accompanied Pope Pius II to Mantua on January 22, 1459. Named bishop of Padua, March 9, 1459; resigned the see before March 26, 1460. He countersigned a papal bull in Siena on April 18, 1459. He was abbot commendatario of four Benedictine monasteries in the dioceses of Padua, Aquila and Verona, which he gave in commendam on December 23, 1467, to his nephews Giovanni Battista Zeno and Giovanni Michiel, future cardinals. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals for the year 1460; and ad interim in 1463. He was in Rome on May 20, 1462; and with Pope Pius II in Ancona in August 1464. He went to Rome after the death of the pope and was ill when he entered the conclave. Participated in the conclave of 1464 and was elected pope.
Papacy. Elected pope on August 30, 1464. Took the name Paul II. He was crowned on September 16, 1464, in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Rodrigo de Borja y Borja, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere, future Pope Alexander VI. During his pontificate, He created ten cardinals in two consistories. He introduced the first printing-press in Rome and decided that the Jubilee Years should be celebrated every twenty-five years beginning in 1475.
Death. July 26, 1471, suddenly of a stroke, Rome. Buried in a monument, sculpted by Mino di Fiesole, situated in the chapel of S. Andrea in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; the remainder of the monument is in the Museum of Saint Peter's basilica.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 98-99; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 923 and 1069-1118; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 141-142; Del Re, Niccolò. Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p.794-795; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 8, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 59, 63, 67, 126, 210 and 267; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 249-250; Modigliani, Anna. "Paolo II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 685-701.
Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); his portrait, arms and biographical data, in English; his portrait by Cristoforo dell'Altissimo; his effigy and arms on a medallion; his statue by Giovanni Ferrari, erected in 1786 in Prato della Valle, Padua, Italy; his bust by Vellano da Padova, Palazzo di Venezia, Rome; his arms, Museo di Palazzo Venezia, Rome; his effigy on thirteen medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; his effigy on five medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; his effigy twelve medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; his effigy, on a medal; his effigy on a medal; his effigy on a medal on the construction of Palazzo San Marco, Rome, 1455; his effigy and arms on a medal, Fundación Lázaro Galdiano, Madrid, Spain; his effigy on a medal by Cristoforo di Geremia, Fundación Lázaro Galdiano, Madrid, Spain; his tomb, grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; another view of his tomb; and his epitaph.
(1) This is according to all the sources consulted but the mathematical deduction from the information on his epitaph, linked above, and the date of his death, concludes that he should have been born in 1418.
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