The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Antipope Felix V (1430-1447)
Consistory of April 12, 1440 (I)


(1) 1. LA PALUD, O.S.B., Louis de (?-1451)

Birth. (No date found), Châtillon La Palud (?). Son of Aymé de La Palud, seigneur of Varambon, and Alix de Corgenon. His last name is also listed as La Palu de Varambon. He was called the Cardinal of Varambon or of Maurienne.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in La Sorbonne University, Paris. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) in Tournus, diocese of Châlons-sur-Saône.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of Ambronnay, 1404. Abbot of Tournus, 1413. Attended the Council of Constance. Guardian of the conclave of 1417. Deputy to the Council of Sienna of 1423. Deputy to the Council of Basel, where he was elected bishop of Lausanne.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lausanne, June 6, 1431, in the Council of Basel. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Avignon, November 4, 1433. Sent by the council before Pope Eugenius IV. Went to Greece to promote the union with the Greek Orthodox. Returned to Basel and adhered himself to Antipope Felix V.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest by Antipope Felix V on April 12, 1440 in Thonon with the title of S. Cecilia. Transferred to the see of Maurienne, toward July 1441; occupied the see until his death. Prior commendatario of Aiton from 1445. Submitted himself to Pope Nicholas V. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1449; published the following day; received the title of S. Anastasia on January 12, 1450; entered Rome on December 11, 1450; received the red hat the following day; the final ceremonies of his cardinalitial creation took place on December 15, 1450. Named papal legate.

Death. September 21, 1451, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 122; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 938 and 977; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 11, 30, 61, 100, 173, and 187-188.

Links. Biography, in French; brief biographical entry, in French; and his arms, first one on the third row, no. 43.

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(2) 2. AICARDI VISCONTI, Bartolomeo (1402-1457)

Birth. 1402, San Giorgio Lomellina, Milan. Son of Domenico Aicardi, who in 1415 was authorized to add Visconti to his last name after having denounced a conspiracy against the duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti. Brother of Scaramuccia Visconti, counselor of the duke Milan. His last name is also listed as Visconti only.

Education. Studied at the University of Pavia (obtained a doctorate in civil law in 1426).

Early life. Cleric of the diocese of Pavia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Novara, November 4, 1429. Consecrated (no information found). Enea Silvio Piccolomini, future Pope Pius II, was his secretary. He was charged with several embassies by the Viscontis. He conspired against Pope Eugenius IV in Florence in 1435, who deposed him; when the conspiracy failed, he sought refuge in Basel; he adhered himself to the schism in 1440 (and later participated in the consecration of Antipope Felix V).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of April 12, 1440 (1); it is not known which title he received. Participated in the consecration of Antipope Felix V on July 24, 1440. At the death of Duke Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan in 1447, he supported the new Duke Francesco Sforza and became his counselor and secretary on March 11, 1450. He was ambassador of the duke before the Holy See. He was in Rome during the conclave of 1455. Resigned the cardinalate at the request of the duke of Milan in December 1456.

Death. April 28, 1457. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 938-939 and 1002; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 144; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 372; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9 and 205.

Link. Biography, in Italian.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 9; and his biography in Italian, linked above, indicate that he declined the promotion; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 144, says that he seems to have accepted it in private while refusing it in public.

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(3) 3. MOERS, Walram von (1393-1456)

Birth. 1393 (no place found). Son of Count Friedrich III von Moers and Princess Walburg von Särwerden. His brother Dietrich von Moers was since 1414 archbishop of Köln; and his brother Heinrich von Moers since 1424 bishop of Osnabrück and Münster. His first name is also listed as Urban and Walramor; and his last name as Mörs. He was destined to a religious career.

Education. Studied in Heidelberg, from 1401; and at the University of Bologna from 1408.

Early life. Treasurer and dean of the cathedral chapter of Köln in 1413. Dean of Sankt Gereon, Köln. Provost of Sankt Maria ad Gradus, Köln. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Trier.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. With the support of his brother Dietrich, he stood as a candidate for the bishopric of Utrecht on November 9, 1423; he was unsuccessful and Rudolf von Diepholz was selected; in December 1432, Pope Eugenius IV sided with him; only in February 1434, a minority of the Utrecht canons selected him to be the successor of Bishop Zweder von Culemborg. Consecrated (no information found). In June 1435, Bishop Moers went to the Council of Basel; afterwards, he established himself, at least until 1438, in Dordrecht.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest in the consistory of April 12, 1440; he declined the promotion. King Sigismund and the clergy of Holland and Seeland recognized Bishop Moers as the legitimate bishop; nevertheless, he could not succeed against Bishop Diepholz, who was recognized by the cathedral chapter of Utrecht; on January 16, 1449, he formally resigned and reconciled with the chapter; on the following July 5, he even reconciled with Bishop Diepholz. In March 1452, Cardinal Legate Nikolaus von Cusa revised a compensation regulation for Bishop Moers, but it remained to a large extent ineffective. Elected bishop of Münster by the majority of the cathedral chapter, July 15, 1450; confirmed by the pope on October 14, 1450; invested on July 9, 1451; the city and a minority of the cathedral chapter demanded the election of Eric von Hoya, brother of Count Johann von Hoya; open war for the possession of the see broke out, and Bishop Moers was unable to obtain possession of the city of Münster; he went to Anhänger, under the protection of its friendly Duke Johann.

Death. October 3, 1456, Anhänger. Buried (No information found).

Bibliography.Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 939; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 144; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 194 and 253, note 2; Kohl, Wilhelm. Das Bistum Münster. Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte. Münster : Walter de Gruyter, 1968-2004, I. 485-489. (Germania sacra, n.F., 3, 5, 10; Die Bistümer der Kirchenprovinz Köln; Variation: Germania sacra, n. F., 3). Contents: 1. Die Schwesternhäuser nach der Augustinerregel.2. Die Klöster der Augustiner-Chorherren; Schröder, Alois. "Moers, Walram Graf von." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 485-487.

Links. Biography, in German; biography, in German, pp. 485-488; his genealogy, no. 10; and Münster Stift Feud, 1450-1457, in English.

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(4) 4. CARRILLO DE ACUÑA, el joven, Alfonso (1413-1482)

Birth. August 11, 1413 (1), Cuenca, Spain. Fourth child of Lope Vázquez de Acuña, first Señor de Buendía y Azañón, ricohombre of Castilla, and Teresa Carrillo de Albornoz, señora de Paredes, Portilla and Valtablado (2). Nephew of Pseudocardinal Alfonso Carrillo de Albornoz (1408), on his mother's side. Relative of Cardinal Gil Álvarez de Albornoz (1350). His last name Acuña (da Cunha) is of Portuguese origin. His first name is also listed as Alonso and his last name as Acuña de Carrillo.

Education. Educated by his uncle, the pseudocardinal, from the age of eleven; at the death of his uncle in 1434, he remained at the side of Pope Eugenius IV.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. He had two illegitimate children, Troylos Or Zoilio) Carrillo, later count of Agosta; and Lope Vázquez de Acuña.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Sigüenza, July 6, 1435; named bishop of the see, May 9, 1440. Consecrated (no information found); after the consecration, he returned to Castilla in 1436, from which he had been absent since 1420; in his salutation to King Juan II of Castilla, the bishop expressed his desire for the unity of the peninsula and the greatness of the hispanic nation.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in the consistory of April 12, 1440; he declined the promotion. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, August 10, 1446; he occupied a very important position in the complex political situation of Castilla, directing the pro-Aragonese sympathizers. He was a minister and privado of King Enrique IV of Castilla, son of King Juan II; later, the archbishop switched bands and supported the king of Aragón and participated in so called "farsa de Ávila" (1465), in which King Enrique was deposed in effigy and his brother, Infante Don Alfonso, was proclaimed king in Ávila on June 5, 1465; when King Alfonso died on July 5, 1468, Archbishop Carrillo defended the candidacy of Princess Isabel to the throne of Castilla; he had a decisive role in arranging her marriage to Prince Fernando of Aragón; he officiated in their wedding on October 19, 1469; they were the future Catholic Monarchs of a unified Spain. The archbishop became the undisputed privado of the future kings of Castilla-Aragón, but the disagreements began soon; he reacted vividly, because of his Medieval mentality, against the authoritarian political principles of the princes; he separated from them in 1470, deeply embittered in addition for the granting of the red hat, that he had sought, to Bishop D. Pedro González de Mendoza. At the death of King Enrique IV on December 12, 1474, he sided with the king of Portugal and with Da. Juana of Castilla. He took part in the battle of Peleagonzalo (or Toro) on March 1, 1476, in which he faced the followers of his rival, Cardinal González de Mendoza. His cause lost and he obtained a solemn pardon from Queen Isabel of Castilla on September 11, 1476. Shortly after, he retired definitively to his favorite city, Alcalá de Henares, where he founded a Franciscan convent for his interment. There he convoked a meeting of theologians which condemned the erroneous doctrines of Pedro Martínez de Osma; this was the last important event of his long episcopate. He was very interested in alchemy and spent much time and money trying to convert iron into gold (3). He was a turbulent, bellicose and ambitious prelate.

Death. July 1, 1482, Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid. Buried in the church of San Diego, Alcalá de Henares; in 1856, his sepulchre was translated to the collegiate church of San Justo in that city.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 939; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 144; Esteve Barba, Francisco. Alfonso Carrillo de Acuña : autor de la unidad de España. Barcelona : Editorial Amaltea, 1943; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 235 and 252; Gómez Menor, J. "Carrillo de Acuña, Alfonso." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), . , I, p. 361-362; Rivera Recio, Juan Francisco. Los arzobispos de Toledo en la baja Edad Media (s. XII-XV). Toledo : Diputación Provincial, 1969. (Publicaciones del Instituto Provincial de Investigaciones y Estudios Toledanos. Serie segunda ; Vestigios del pasado ; v. 3), pp. 119-122.

Links. Biographical entry, in Spanish, under "Personajes históricos"; his genealogy, VI-4; biography, in Spanish; his statue and biographical entry, in Spanish; another view of his statue; another view of his statue and biographical data, in Spanish; engraving of his tomb, now in the collegiate church of San Justo, Alcalá de Henares, Spain; document concerning the translation of his sepulchre and the date of his death; and his portrait by Juan de Begoña, Sala Capitular, Toledo, Spain.

(1) This date is arrived at by deducting the number of years, months and days that the document concerning the translation of his sepulchre says that the cardinal lived; all the biographies linked above say that he was born in 1410; Gómez Menor, J. "Carrillo de Acuña, Alfonso." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, I, 361; Esteve Barba, Alfonso Carrillo de Acuña : autor de la unidad de España, p. 2; and Rivera Recio, Los arzobispos de Toledo en la baja Edad Media (s. XII-XV), p. 119, say that he was born in 1412.
(2) According to Esteve Barba, Alfonso Carrillo de Acuña : autor de la unidad de España, p. 1, two German knights who were brothers, went to Castilla in the Middle Ages; it was an old custom in Castilla to call brothers "carrillos"; the families of the brothers were known as "Carrillo"; the mother of the cardinal is a descendant of those families.
(3) Rivera Recio, Los arzobispos de Toledo en la baja Edad Media (s. XII-XV), p.120, says that "pensando facer el fierro oro, facía el oro fierro" (thinking of making iron gold, he made gold iron).

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