The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Antipope Felix V (1430-1447)
Consistory of October 2, 1440 (II)


(5) 1. MAZOWIECKI, Aleksander (1400-1444)

Birth. 1400, Płock, Poland. Son of Prince Ziemowit IV of Płock and Kujavia, and Alexandra of Lithuania. He had four brothers and seven sisters. His uncle Henryk was bishop of Płock (1390-1392). Nephew of King Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. Uncle of Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III. Related to Cardinal Fryderyk Jagiellończyk (1493). His last name is also listed as Ziemowit, Zamowitz, Piastowicz, Plocki and Masovia.

Education. Studied at the University of Kraków from 1417 (earned no degree).

Early life. He spent much of his boyhood at the court of his uncle the king of Poland. In 1414, he received a benefice at the cathedral of Gniezno. Elected rector of the University of Kraków in 1422. Provost of Sankt Stefan, Vienna.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Trent, October 20, 1423; confirmed on March 24, 1424; the position had the title of prince; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated, September 29, 1425, in Trent, by Enrico Scarampi, bishop of Belluno. The prince-bishop was successful in several encounters with Frederick IV Tascavuota, count of Tyrol, concerning their own spheres of power. He also had controversial exchanges with Giovanni da Capistrano, O.F.M., future saint, and Enea Silvio Piccolomini, future Pope Pius II. He attended the Council of Basel sporadically during the 1430s. On May 15, 1436, the citizens of Trent drew up a document, the Act of Accusation, against the prince-bishop; it contained twenty-three points of accusation (1); the complaints were presented to Count Frederick IV Tascavuota, when Bishop Mazowiecki was at the Council of Basel; the Tridentines asked the count not to allow the prince-bishop to return to his see but the count was not able to achieve that; but the complaint made the situation in Trent somewhat unpleasant for the prince-bishop, who returned to his see only for a brief time.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in the consistory of October 2, 1440; also, named patriarch of Aquileia. In 1443, he was legate of the antipope in Austria, Poland and Hungary against Pope Eugenius IV (2). With the help of his nephew, Emperor Friedrich III, the prince-bishop obtained a canonship in the cathedral of Sankt Stefan in Vienna.

Death. June 2, 1444, Vienna. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stefan, Vienna.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 939-940; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 144; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 498; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 92 and 256; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 33-42; Wos, Jan Wladyslaw. Alessandro di Masovia. Vescovo-Principe di Trento (1423-1444). Pisa : Giardini Editori, 1994.

Links. Review of the book Alessandro di Masovia, in English; biographical data, in Polish; his genealogy, A4 B4 F2 G2; brief biographical data, in Polish; his effigy on his tomb and biographical data, in Italian.

(1) According the book review, linked above, "Alexander did not respect the customs of the citizens of Trent. He placed Poles in all of the positions of power and influence in the city. He did not punish any crimes committed by his fellow Poles. He raised the percentage of interest that could be charged by the Jewish moneylenders, reserving a part to himself. He lived in open concubinage in the Castello del Buonconsiglio. He caused the death of at least 500 men of Trent in his futile wars against the Duchy of Milan, the Republic of Venice, and the Count of the Tyrol. He tortured a certain rich man named Giustiniano until the poor man committed suicide, at which point the bishop appropriated his worldly goods. He swindled others in less colorful ways. He ran games of chance, from which he profited greatly. Perhaps the most outrageous accusation is the sixth, which describes how Alexander victimized a man and woman passing through Trent from an unspecified northern city, on pilgrimage to Rome. Hearing of the beauty of the woman, Alexander had her brought to the castle and the husband thrown in prison. When the citizens of Trent prevailed upon him to release the man, Alexander nevertheless kept all of his worldly goods, and forced him to return home for written proof of his marriage before he would allow the wife to leave with her husband.
(2) According to Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. 140, he resigned the cardinalate on November 8, 1448. Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 317; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 498, he died on June 22, 1444, which contradicts the date of resignation to the promotion given by Cristofori.

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(6) 2. MONCADA I DE LUNA, Otón de (1390-1473)

Birth. 1390, Serós, diocese of Lérida, Spain. Of a noble family. Son of Otis III de Montcada señor of Serós, of Castellnou and of Villamarxant, and Maça de Liçana. His first name is also listed as Ot and Otis and his last name as Montcada.

Education. Bachiller in decrees (law).

Early life. Provost of Valencia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortosa by Antipope Benedict XIII, December 18, 1415. Consecrated (no information found). In the same day, Antipope Benedict XIII sent a letter of recommendation in his favor to King Fernando of Aragón. He attended the provincial council Barcelona, which unsuccessfully tried that King Alfonso V restored his obedience to Antipope Benedict XIII on July 15, 1416. He was still bishop-elect on November 13, 1416, the date on which several Catalano-Aragonese prelates met to study the way to finish the schism; a commission, designated to that effect, protested against the Aragonese ambassadors sent to the Council of Constanza, who abrogated the representation of the prelates of the crown of Aragón; these declared themselves obedient to Antipope Benedict XIII on December 6, 1416. After the election of Pope Martin V, King Alfonso V invited Antipope Benedict XIII to resign; before giving a definitive answer, the antipope wanted to consult with prelates and doctors of his obedience; the monarch authorized five prelates, among them the one of Tortosa, and soon several more, to go to Benicarló, a village located near Peñíscola, where the antipope was to advise him; and in case it was necessary, also to enter the castle. On December 21, 1417, they entered in Peñíscola and, both orally as in writing, requested the resignation of the antipope; Benedict XIII delayed his answer; the king became impatient and at the end of the same month ordered to them to leave; finally, on January 5, 1418, Antipope Benedict XIII gave his answer, which, naturally, was negative; that same evening four pseudocardinals and the prelates left Peñíscola not to return again, thus Otón de Moncada left the antipope who had made him bishop. Three weeks later, the four fugitive pseudocardinals addressed a letter to King Alfonso V by means of the bishop of Tortosa, to communicate their decision and request the support of the king so that they were recognized by the new Pope Martin V. Bishop Moncada was not contented with the simple recognition of his dignity; on December 6, 1419, he appeared before the pope in Florence begging him to alleviated the excessive expenses of the episcopal mensa; the pope granted his request. In 1429, Bishop Moncada participated in the Council of Tortosa, presided over by Cardinal Pierre de Foix, legate of Pope Martin V, to extinguish the remnants of the schism and to restore the ecclesiastical discipline; the bishop completed the legislation in two diocesan synods (1432-1433). Transferred to the see of Tarragona, January 13, 1434; replaced by Jordi d'Ornos, bishop of Vich; the transference did not take place.

In 1437, King Alfonso V ordered that all the bishops of the kingdom of Aragón to go to the Council of Basel, under the threat of loss of the temporalities if they did not obey. The bishop of Tortosa was named to the reform commission and was very active. Throughout the year 1439, he was chosen four times as collator beneficiorum and two more times in 1440; he carried out three times in 1439 the office of grand penitenciary and one time on the following year; besides, in 1439, he was elected to the position of camerarius or head of the ministry of finances of the council, judge for criminal causes; and in 1440, he was one of the advisers to the auditor of the camera on coercive jurisdiction. He did not flee from Basel during the plague and took part in the tumultuous congregation of April 24, 1439 on the "new truths", relying on the directives of his king; but, disobeying his orders, he celebrated the mass and presided over the session in which Eugene IV was deposed. He celebrated the mass in the session of the November 17, 1439 in which the council approved the election of Antipope Felix V; he was one of the electors of the antipope; and was part of the entourage that went to communicate the good news one to the newly elected; as legate a latere, along with Cardinal Louis Alaman, he accompanied Antipope Felix V when he went to Basel; and when the antipope celebrated mass for the first time, he celebrated as deacon; to compensate him, the antipope promoted Bishop Moncada to pseudocardinal.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Pudenziana in the consistory of October 2, 1440. In 1441, he presided over two general congregations of the council. When King Alfonso V ordered the Aragonese bishops to leave Basel, on August 4, 1443, he returned directly to his diocese; with this, he saved his miter but not his pseudocardinalitial dignity; upon the Treaty of Terracina, King Alfonso V agreed not to recognize as cardinals the three who had been promoted by Antipope Felix V; in fact, Bishop Moncada did not participate in any conclave. Resigned the cardinalate before Pope Eugenius on April 13, 1445.

Death. February 20, 1473, Tortosa. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 940; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 144; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 223; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9 and 143; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Moncada, Otón de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), suppl., 512-513.

Links. Biography, in English; his genealogy, in pink as Ot IV de Moncada i de Luna (17); click on it to go to his biography in Catalan; catalog of the bishops of Tortosa.

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(7) 3. ORNOS, Jordi d' (ca. 1380-1452)

Birth. Ca. 1380, Perpignan. His last name is also listed as Ornós.

Education. Studied arts at the University Perpignan from 1394; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Prior of the monastery of Sant Pere in Casserres. Archdeacon of Elne. In 1417, he was named chancellor and procurator of King Alfonso el Magnánimo before the new Pope Martin V to obtain the revocation of the graces granted to the Aragonese and the compensation to the king for the expenses of the schism. On March 5, 1418, he was received by the pope and by the Council of Constanza, where he pronounced a discourse of congratulations for the restoration of the unity of the church and presented his credentials that accredited him before the pontiff. Named archdeacon major of Barcelona. Later, he was named protonotary apostolic and archdeacon of Mallorca. In 1423, the pope delegated him to resolve the effects of the schism.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vich, June 4, 1423. Consecrated (no information found). He participated in the Council of Tortosa in 1429, where the schism was finally ended. He also participated in the synod of the diocese of Manresa in 1433. Transferred to the see of Tortosa, January 18, 1434; the transfer did not take place. Attended the Council of Basel from 1437 and the election of Antipope Felix V.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Anastasia in the consistory of October 2, 1440; later, before February 4, 1441, he opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere. Pope Eugenius IV deprived him of his diocese on May 28, 1445. He reconciled with Pope Nicholas V, who transferred him to the see of Carpentras on July 21, 1449.

Death. 1452 (1), Carpentras, Provença. Buried (no information found). In his will, prepared on November 4, 1452, he left his library to the diocese of Carpentras to be sold and obtain funds for the construction of a new cathedral; part of the books were sold and the rest formed the basis of the public library.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 940; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 144-145; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 526; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 143 and 267; Goñi Gaztambide, José. Los españoles en el Concilio de Constanza. R118, 15 (1962), 367-372; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Ornos, Jorge de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), III, 1840-1841.

Links. Biography, in English; bibliography and biography, in Catalan.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 145; and his biography in Catalan, linked above; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 526, says that he died in 1445. He prepared his testament in 1452 and his successor was named in that same year.

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(8) 4. MEEZ, O.S.B., François de (?-1444)

Birth. (No date and place found), France. His last name is also listed as Metz.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines). (No further educational information found)

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Oyen (Saint-Claude), archdiocese of Lyon, 1412.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Genève, March 4, 1426; took possession, June 23, 1427. Consecrated (no information found). Attended the Council of Basel; he was one of the electors of Antipope Felix V on November 5, 1439.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of October 2, 1440.

Death. March 7, 1444 (no place found). Buried (no information found). Antipope Felix V succeeded him in the see of Genève shortly after his death.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 940; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 145; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 261; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9 and 158.

Links. St. Peter Presenting Cardinal of Metz to the Virgin by Konrad Witz, Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, Genève, Switzerland; and another view of the same painting.

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(9) 5. LA PLANCHE, O.S.B., Bernard de (?-ca. 1448-1449)

Birth. (No date and place found), France. His last name is also listed as La Planca and La Plaigne.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at a young age.

Early life. Obtained a doctorate in decrees (law).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Marie de Soulac, diocese of Bordeaux, 1414. Attended the Council of Constance in 1415.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dax, February 26, 1427. Consecrated (no information found). Attended the Council of Basel as ambassador of King Henry VI of England; after declarations made against him in the Councils of Ferrara and Florence, Pope Eugenius IV deprived him of his diocese on September 9, 1439; he participated in the election of Antipope Felix V but became ill and was replaced by Louis de Glandeves, bishop of Marseille.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo in the consistory of October 2, 1440; before February 4, 1441, he received the title of Ss. IV Coronati.

Death. Ca. 1448-1449 (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 940; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 145; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 97; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9 and 91.

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(10) 6. RAGUSA, O.P., Giovanni di (ca. 1395-1443)

Birth. Ca. 1395 (1), Ragusa (now Dubrovnik), Dalmatia. His last name is also listed as Raguse and Ragusio. He is also listed as Johannes Stoyci.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in Dubrovnik. He studied theology in Dubrovnik and the the University of Padua from 1414 to 1417, obtaining a baccalaureate; he also studied Sacred Scriptures, and Oriental languages; obtained a doctorate at La Sorbonne University, Paris, in 1420; among his classmates were Heinrich Kalteisen and Juan de Torquemada, O.P, future cardinal; on his way to Paris, he had stopped for a while at the Council of Constanza and was appointed imperial chaplain by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund; there, he became acquainted with Jean de Charlier de Gerson, mysthical theologian and orator.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). He was assigned by Pope Martin V to deliver the opening lecture on April 23,1423 at the Council of Pavia; after the council was moved to Siena because of the plague, he delivered a strong lecture there in October 1423, in which he demanded the reform of the church and the solution of the problem of the Bohemian Hussites; he accused some of the council participants, and even the pope, of inactivity. After the adjournment of the Council of Siena on March 7, 1424, Fr. Ragusa visited his birth city and later, taught theology at the University of Bologna. Elected procurator general of his order in 1426; he went to live in Rome. He persuaded Pope Martin V to convoke a council in Basel; he was named papal theologian for the general council. In May 1431, he participated in the peace negotiations with the Bohmians in Eger-Chebteil; these failed however, since it was required unyieldingly and complete subjection of the Hussites to the teachings of the church under the decision of the council. Cardinal Cesarini was busy organizing a campaign against the Bohemians and assigned Fr. Ragusa the opening of the council in Basel; he opened the council on July 23, 1431 and took the office of secretary-general; in February 1433, he exonerated the absent cardinals from the charge of contempt; he preached the heretical tenents of the Hussites. After the defeat of the crusade against the Utraquisten on August 14 , 1431, Fr. Ragusa supported peaceful negotiations with the Bohemians and their participation in the council. In the disputes with the Bohemian envoys over their four articles (2) from January to April 1433, Fr. Ragusa defended against his opponent, Johannes Rokycana, who defended the reception of holy communion under both kinds and the right of the church to determine communion by laymen only under the kind of bread. By the violence of its attacks against the Bohemian teachings, the negotiations were threatened to fail. Fr. Ragusa, who represented the sovereignty of the pope over the council in his earlier speeches, found himself within the tensions between the Council of Basel and Pope Eugenius IV on the side of the Conciliarists and defended in September 1434 in the Diet of Frankfurt and before Emperor Sigismund the thesis that the pope is subordinated to the council in everything. He had already represented this thesis in his speeches in February and April 1434. On 14 May 1435, he was sent as legat of the Council of Basel to Constantinople in order to induce the Eastern churches to participate in the council and to achieve the unity of the church. After long negotiations, he convinced Emperor Johannes VIII Paleologus and Patriarch Joseph II in 1437 to send an embassy to the council. He returned to Bologna, as a member of a commisssion, to obtain from Pope Eugenius IV an assurance that the pope would be present at the council; the pope acceded to this request and asked Fr. Ragusa to bring a document to the Greek emperor, dated July 15, 1437, in which the pontiff invited the emperor to a meeting of the council to be held in some Italian city; the treaty which they made with Pope Eugenius IV was broken by the Greeks. Pope Eugenius IV moved the council from Basel to Ferrara and then later, to Florence. After his return from Constantinople, Fr, Ragusa went to Basel on January 19, 1438; he dedicated his whole strength to the council's matters. At the beginning of May 1438, he defended the legitimacy of the council against the pope before King Albert in Vienna. On the return journey to Basel, he was for a short time in the field camp of the king, who besieged the city Tabor in Suedboehmen. At the Diet of Nuernberg in October 1438, and then in Mainz in April 1439, he defended again the superiority of the council over the pope. In July 1439, he was sent again to the King Albert in Vienna; he waited until October in in vain in Vienna for the king had died in Hungary. Fr. Ragusa then returned to Basel.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ardjisch (Venezia Argos), Peloponnesus, Greece, October 10, 1438, by the Council of Basel. Consecrated, February 8, 1439 (no further information found). Magistri supplicationum. On June 25, 1439, after the bull of Pope Eugenius IV indicating that he was going to be absent from the council was read , Bishop Ragusa supported the choice of Duke Amedeof de Savoie as Antipope Felix V on 5 November 1439; he was already the duke's personal advisor. In February 1440, Bishop Ragusa justified the change of allegiance from Pope Eugenius IV and the choice Antipope Felix V at the Diet of Frankfurt. In March 1440, he was sent by the antipope and the council to Prince Heinrich of Bavaria and to the newly elected King of the Romans Friedrich in Vienna Neustadt in order to defend the matters of the council before them; and then before the German princes in Vienna. He was a brilliant speaker, zealous for the reform of the church, one of the most important conciliarist theologians, very knowledgeable of Patristic and Medieval literature. He was a humanist, who possessed a large library and brought from Constantinople to Basel many valuable Greek manuscripts; Johan Reuchlin and Desiderius Erasmus availed themselves of his manuscripts.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Sisto in the consistory of October 2, 1440. When Antipope Felix V left the council and the city Basel on November 17, 1442, Pseudocardinal Ragusa went with him to Lausanne and died there less than a year later.

Death. Around October 20, 1443 (3), Basel (4). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 940; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 145; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9 and 94.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in German; and biography, in French, pp. 327-331.

(1) This is according to his biography in German, linked above; his biography in English, linked above, says that he was born ca. 1380; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 145, says that he was born at the end of 1400.
(2) The four articles of the Hussites were: 1. Freedom to preach the Word of God; 2. Celebration of the Lord's Supper in both kinds (bread and wine to priests and laity alike); 3.No profane power for the clergy; and 4. The same law for laity and priests.
(3) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 145, says that he died in 1442.
(4) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 145; his biography in English, linked above, says that he died in Argos, in the Peloponnesus; and his biography in German, linked above, says the he died in Lausanne.

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(11) 7. GRÜNWALDER, Johann (ca. 1390-1452)

Birth. Ca. 1390 (1), München. Illegitimate son of Duke Johann II of Bavaria-München, and Anna Pirsser. Duke Johan had three legitimate children by his wife Katharina von Görz: Ernst, Wilhelm and Sofie. His first name is also listed as Johannes; and as Johannes III.

Education. Studied at the University of Vienna, 1411-1415; at the University of Padua, 1415-1418 (obtained a doctorate in canon law, 1418; and a doctorate in theology).

Early life. Provost of the collegiate church of Isen, 1414-1421; and later, of Innichen im Pustertal, 1420-1446. Pastor of the parish of Sankt Peter of München, 1416-1445. Vicar general of the diocese of Freising, February 14, 1424 until 1440; from 1428, he participated in the inspection of several Benedictine and Augustinian monasteries. Since the beginning of 1432, he was the representative of Freising Bavaria-München at the Council of Basel, where he was considered a valued theologian; he played an important role in the committee for church reform; in the conflict with Pope Eugenius IV, he placed himself on the side of the council.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in the consistory of October 2, 1440; the promotion led to the break between the vicar general and the bishop of Freising, Nikodemus della Scala. Author of several treatises in favor of the antipope.

Episcopate. After the death of Bishop Scala of Freising, he was selected unanimously by the cathedral chapter in September 1443; the council confirmed the choice on November 13, 1444; Pope Eugenius IV elected Heinrich von Schlick, brother of Imperial Chancellor Kaspar von Schlick, as the new bishop; Bishop-elect Schlick administered and used the Feising wealth to influence Austria, while Bishop-elect Grünwalder's influence was limited to Bavaria; the latter's efforts to obtain the episcopal consecration from the archbishop of Salzburg remained unsuccessful; on January 15, 1448, without the opposition of Bishop-elect Schlick, Pope Nicholas V recognized the rights of Bishop-elect Grünwalder on the condition that he resign the cardinalate; he occupied the see until his death.

Death. December 2, 1452, Vienna (2). Buried in the cathedral of Freising; his monument, which he had commissioned to Viennese sculptor Jakob Kaschauer, was to be situated in the central nave of the cathedral but the chapter protested and it is today in the entrance hall of the cathedral.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 941; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 145; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9; Greipl, Egon Johannes. "Grünwalder, Johann." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 246-247; Königer, August. Johann III : Grünwalder, Bischof von Freising. [s.l.] : [s.n.], 1914. (Jahresbericht / Königliches Wittelsbacher-Gymnasium in München ; 1913/14, Progr.); Meuthen, Erich. "Der Freisinger Bischof und Kardinal Johannes Grünwalder (+ 1452)" in Georg Schwaiger, Christenleben im Wandel der Zeit. Lebensbilder aus der Geschichte des Erzbistums München und Freising. Wewel, München : Wevel, 1987, I, 92102; Müller, Werner, "Herzog Wilhelm III. von Bayern-M|nchen und Johann Grünwalder am Konzil von Basel (1431-1449)" in: Oberbayerisches Archiv, 129 (2005), 153-188.

Links. Der Freisinger bischof Johannes Grünwalder by Markus Wesche, in Akademie Aktuell. Zeitschrift der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Ausgabe 02/2010; portrait, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in German, Deutsche Biographie, his genealogy, A2 B3 C4, Genealogy.EU; Konzil von Basel, 1431-1449, Historisches Lexikon Bayerns; Bishops of Freising and Archbishops of Munich and Freising, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to his second biography in German, linked above; his first biography in German, linked above, says that he was born after January 1390; his genealogy, also linked above, says that he was born in 1393; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 145, says that he was born ca. 1380.
(2) This is according to his first biography in German, linked above; the second one, also lnked above, says that he died in Freising.

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(12) 8. SEGOVIA, Juan de (ca. 1395-1458)

Birth. Ca. 1395, Segovia, Spain. His baptismal name was Juan Alfonso. Some sources call him Juan González, indicating that the last name Segovia, by which he is widely known, is for the city where he was born. He signed official documents with the name Joannes Alfonsi. He spent the first ten years of his life in Segovia.

Education. Towards 1407 he started studying grammar at the University of Salamanca; there, he obtained a bachelor's in arts ca. 1413; and in theology, ca. 1418; finally, at the beginning of 1422, he became maestro in theology.

Early life. He was a professor of theology at the University of Salamanca for 12 years; resigned the post by letter during his stay in Basel. Archdeacon of Villaviciosa, Oviedo. He entered the court of King Juan II of Castilla. Years later, he was named canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Toledo. The university charged him with several important missions; in 1421-1422, together with jurist Ibo Moro, he went to the Roman Curia to obtain the ratification of the new constitutions of the university; Pope Martin V approved them on November 21, 1422; again, at the end of 1431, he was sent to Rome, this time with Doctor Pedro Martínez de Covarrubias, to request from Pope Eugenius IV support for the constitutions of 1422 against the impugnations of the archbishop. In these visits to Rome, he obtained several ecclesiastical benefices; in 1428, he was named papal referendary; in 1430-1431, he debated with the Muslins in Córdoba; his last stay in Rome lasted from December 1431 until March 1433; from Rome, he went to Basel in the spring of 1433 to represent the University of Salamanca at the council as its unicus orator accredited; he indicates, with great satisfaction how the council gave him the post next to the envoys of the University of Paris. He had a very active participation in the council: collaborated with Cardinal Juan de Cervantes, of whom he was a familiar, in the task of iudex fidei of the assembly; he was part during the entire duration of the council of the Depuratmo Fidei and at times, he was its president; he was deputy of the council to study the delivate matter of the admission of the presidents named by Pope Eugenius IV on February 17, 1434; he wrote a Relatio about those negotiations, which he presented before the Depuratio Fidei on March 3, 1434; he was deputy of the council for the study of simony. From May to June 1434. From September 1434 to March 1436, he accompany Cardinal Cervantes to negotiate with Pope Eugenius IV. On his return, he was commissioned by the council to defend the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady against Dominicans Juan de Montenegro and Juan de Torquemada, 1436 and 1438; and also for the study of the subject of the processio Spiritus Sancti, which was going to be discussed with the Greeks in January 1437; in July of that same year, he gave instructions at the council about the latter topic to prepare the members of the assembly for future discussions; he was also charged with the study of the subject of the communio sub utroque specie and to deal with the Hussites on the same subject in the fall of 1437.

In the process against Pope Eugenius IV, he played a very important role, above all, from the suspension of the pope by the council on January 24, 1438. On January 31, 1438, Fr. Segovia was named a member of the commission charged with the difficult task of administering, during the papal suspension, of totius temporalitatis, Romanae Ecclesiae; he was a strong supporter of the doctrine of conciliarism, which affirmed that the council was the genuine representation of the church that only had above it Christ himself; the discussions in the council culminated with the declaration of heresy on the part of the pope and his deposition; Fr. Segovma always maintained that the process had to be pursued until the end; as one of the council members most familiar with the different phases of the process, he was included in June 1439 in the cmomission the prepared, for the entire council, the steps of the process and to propose the course of action to be followed: the work of the commission led to the actual deposition of of the pope on June 25, 1439; he was a contributor to the redaction of the decree of deposition. In the election of the antipope, he played an even more preponderant role; he was one of the three persons commissioned by the council in October 1439, to name the electors (1) of the antipope and to prepare the conclave; Duke Amedeo di Savoie was elected in the third scrutiny on November 5, 1439 and took the name Felix V; in the first scrutiny, Fr. Segovia had obtained the largest number of votes after Duke Amedeo. He received important charges from the council; he was named conciliar ambassador to most of the imperial diets to try to reach an agreement with the emperor, the German princes and the pope: Nuremberg (July 1438); Nuremberg, again (October-November 1438); Mainz (March-April 1439); Mainz, again (August 1439); Nuremberg)-Mainz (November 1440 to March 1441); and Frankfurt-Mainz (May to August 1442). He also represented the council in the Diet of Bourges (February-September 1440) and in the Convention of Genève (November-December 1447). From the end of 1440 to February 1442, he worked in the revision for an edition approved by the Council of Basel, of the acts and decrees of the Council of Constance.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere in the consistory of October 2, 1440. The antipope charged him with the administration of his finances in the council; likewise, he was placed in charge of the finances of the council when, in November 1442, he was named regent of the Apostolic Chamber, function that he performed for four years. By 1444 he had made his submission to Pope Nicholas V, who did not recognize his promotion.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint Paul-Trois-Châteaux, July 24, 1449; retaining all his benefices in Savoy as well as the priory of Vicenoble, dependent of the monastery of Grandieu, diocese of Nîmes, his election was revoked. Elected bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, October 13, 1451; he was removed and promoted to the titular see of Cesarea di Palestina, January 20, 1453. Consecrated (no information found). Retired at the pirory of Ayton, near Aiguebelle, Savoy, he dedicated his last years to writing. He wrote a history of the Council of Basel (Historia gestorum generalis synodi Basiliensis universalem Ecclesiam repraesentantis); also, Liber de substantia ecclesiae; and De gladio divini spiritus mittendo in corda Saracenorum; he offered the city of Basel five luxury copies of his principal works; and corresponded with humanists such as Nikolaus von Cusa, Jean Germain and Enea Silvio Piccolomini, future Pope Pius II. After the fall of Constantinople, he asked for a mutual understanding between Christians and Muslims; in 1456, he made the mufti of Segovia, Yça ibn Jabir (Isa de Gebin) go to Ayton with the purpose of translatin the Koran into Spanish and Latin. Shortly before his death, he left his valuable library to the University of Salamanca.

Death. May 24, 1458 in the priory of Aiton. Buried next to the choir of the church of the priory of Aiton.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 941; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 145; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9; 188, n. 2; and 255, n. 3; Hernández, B. "Segovia, Juan Alfonso de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), IV, 2401-2403; Mann, Jesse D. "Truth and consequences: Juan de Segovia on Islam and Conciliarism." Medieval Encounters, Volume 8, Number 1, 2002, pp. 79-90; Wolf, Anne Marie. "Precedents and paradigms: Juan de Segovia on the Bilble, the Church and the Ottoman Threat", in Thomas J. Heffernan, Thomas E. Burman, Scripture and Pluralism: Reading the Bible in the Religiously Plural Worlds of the Middle Ages. Leiden ; Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2005. (Studies in the history of Christian tradition), pp. 147-160.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in German; biography, in French; biography, in Spanish; La Fuente de la Gracia, attributed to Jan van Eyck (the theologian is probably Juan de Segovia); and a larger image of the same painting; "Precedents and paradigms: Juan de Segovia on the Bilble, the Church and the Ottoman Threat" by Anne Marie Wolf.

(1) This the list of electors arranged by nations, taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 930-931:

NOMINA ELECTORVM XXXIII.
Qui Felicem Antipapam IV. vocatum V. creaverunt.
MARTINI PAPAE III
Ludouicus Alemandus, Gallus, Presbyter Cardinalis titulus Sanctae Caeciliae.
Arelatensis vulgo dictus, qui non Triumvirali lectione, sed iure, quo in electione Romani Pontificis Cardinales habent Conclaue ingressus est.

ELECTORES VIII. NATIONIS ITALICAE.
Guillelmus Gallus, Episcopus Vercellensis.
Georgius Marchionibus Sallutij, Episcopus Augustanus.
Ioannes Episcopus Eporediensis.
Ludouicus Episcopus Augustae Praetoriae Taurinorum.
Frater Alerannus de Carreca Genunesis, Abbas Monasterij sancti Benigni, Fructuariensis, Eporedientis Dioecesis.
Fr. Iacobus de Segusia, Abbas S. Benedicti, Tausinensis Dioecesis.
Fr. Ioannes de monte Comito, Decretorum Doctor, Praecepto domus Sancti Antonij de Reucrmo, Tauriniensis Dioecesis.
Fr. Bartholomaeus de Prouanis, Praeceptor domus sancti Antonij de Clanasio, Eporediensis Dioecesis Decretorum Doctor.

ELECTORES VIII. NATIONIS GALLICAE.
Ioannes Arius de Artus, Gallus, Archiepiscopus Tarentasiensis.
Franciscus. Episcopus Gebennensis.
Bernardus Episcopus Aquensis ; cui podagra laboranti suffectus est Ludouicus Episcopus Massiliensis.
Fr. Raymundus Abbas Conchensis, Rutheriensis Dioecesis.
Nicolaus Thibouth Northmandus Poenitentiarius Constantiensis Theologus.
Ioannes de Valle Britto, Rector paroecialis Ecclesiae de Plenior, Dioecesis Lugdunensis Theologus.
Thomas Corcellus, Canonicus Ambianensis Theologus.
Guillelmus Hugonis de Stagno, Virdunensis, Archidiaconus Metensis Vtriusque Iuris Doctor.

ELECTORES VIII. NATIONIS GERMANICAE.
Friedericus Episcopus Basileensis.
Fr. Chunradus, Abbas de Lucellia, Theologus ordinis Citerciensis, Dioecesis Basileensis.
Fr, Thomas de Donduno, Scotus, Abbas ordinis Cisterciensis, Dioecesis Calaed candidate, Theologus.
Detzelaus, Polonus, Archidiac. Cracouiensis Decretorum Doctor.
Ioannes Vviler, Decanus Badileensis, Decretorum Doctor.
Henricus Indaeus, Colonicensis Legum Doctor.
Iacobus Saltzburgensis, Licenciatus in lure Canonico, Canonicus Ratisponensis.
Christianus de Gretz Reginae, Praepositus Ecclesiae S. Petri in Bramia, OIomucensis Dioecesis, Magister in Theologia.

ELECTORES VIII. NATIONIS HISPANAE.
Ortho Episcopum Dertusensis.
Georgius Episcopus Vicensis, Legatus Regis Aragonum.
Ludovicus Portugallensis, Episcopus Visensis Legatus Regis Portugalliae.
Fr, Petrus Abbas S. Cucuphatis, Barchinonensis Dioecesis.
Fr. Antonius Abbas Arularum Eluensis Dioecesis.
Ioannes de Villa Vizosa, Segobiensis, Archidiaconus Ouetensis, Theologus.
Bernardus Busco, Canonicus Ilerdensis Decretorum Doctor.
Raymundus Allioli, Canonicus Tirasonensis, Decretorum Doctor.

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