The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Eugenius IV (1431-1447)
Consistory of December 16, 1446 (VI)


(24) 1. RAMPINI, Enrico (ca 1390-1450)

Birth. Ca. 1390, Tortona. Of the signori of Sant'Allosio. Second of the five sons of Francesco Rampini. The other siblings were Urbano, Pasino, Torello and Marziano. He is also listed as Henricvs de Allosio or Sancto Allosio. He was called the Cardinal of Milan.

Education. Of extraordinary "... dottrina e prudenza..." (1).

Early life. Entered the ecclesiastical state. Cleric of Tortona.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortona, May 10, 1413. Transferred to the see of Pavia, June 7, 1435. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Milan, August 27, 1443; occupied the see until his death. During a famine, he sold his gold and silver dishes to alleviate the needs of his people. He was called "Father of the Poor". He was a renowned jurisconsult.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1446 with the title of S. Clemente. He was noted absent from the Roman Curia on February 21, 1447. Participated in the conclave of 1447, which elected Pope Nicholas V. Named legate in Lombardy, he left Rome for Milan on September 12, 1447; returned on February 12, 1448; and again on April 4, 1449. Resigned the commendam of the Cistercian monastery of Montolivet d'Aquafrigida, diocese of Como, June 5, 1448. In 1448, he published the constitutions of the hospitals and hospices of Milan.

Death. July 4, 1450, Rome, where he was because of the Jubilee Year. Buried in the church of S. Clemente, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 103; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 205-207; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 924-925; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle;. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 142-143; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 476; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 29, 30, 62, 188 and 212; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, II, 125-126, 131 and 132; Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert. 2 vol. Bearbeitet von Tassilo Blittersdorff ... [et al.], unter Mitarbeit von Hanns Jäger-Sunstenau und Walter Koch ; redigiert von Jörg Garms, Roswitha Juffinger und Bryan Ward-Perkins. Rom : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981-1994. (Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstituts in Rom. 2. Abteilung, Quellen ; 5. Reihe). Contents: 1. Bd. Die Grabplatten und Tafeln -- 2. Bd. Die Monumentalgrdber, I, 68.

Webgraphy. Rampini family and his biography, in Italian, "I Rampini di S'Alosio e Sardigliano", last article in the section, Comune Sardigliano; his tomb, church of S. Clemente, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 103.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Die Mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert, I, 68:

HEV · DECVS · HEV · LVMEN · TI
BI · NVNC · DOMVS · INCLITA · S(AN)CTO
DE ALLOSIO · PERIIT · TVVS
IPSE · COLENDVS · HENRICVS HAC · REQVIESCII HVMO
PRIMVM · QVI · TEMPORE · LONGO ·
PRAESVL · I(N) VRBE · FVIT ER
DONAE · DEHINC · Q(VE) · PAPIE
POST · MEDIOLANI · SACER
ARCHIEPISCOPVS · INDE · PRO · VIRTVTE SVA · RVBEO
FVIT · ECCE · GALERO ·
PER PAPAM · EVGENIVM
DONATVS · I(N) · NORDINE(sic) QUARTVS
HIC · PIVS · HIC · SAPIENS) · HIC
IVSTVS · CASTVS · HONESTVS
SERVORVM · Q(VE) · DEI · PROTECTOR
IN · OMNIBVS · ARDENS
HIC · TESTAMENTVM · RENVIT
SIBI · CONDERE · DIC · ENS(sic)
CVNCTA · FORE · ECCLESIAE
SE CVNCTA · RELIQVERE · CHRISTO ·
QVI · DEDIT · AC · TANDEM · CVM
SEXAGINTA · SVBISSET ·
AN(N)ORVM · AETATEM · IVBILEI
TEMPORE · SANCTI ·
· M° · C° · C° · C° · C° · L° · SVB · AN(N)IS
ATQ(VE) · DIE · I · I · I · I · IVLII · DEVO
TVS · E(T) · ALMVS ·
SPIRITVS · ILLI · SVVS · FELIX
· SVPER · ASTRA · VOLAVIT

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(25) 2. PARENTUCELLI, Tommaso (1397-1455)

Birth. November 15, 1397, Sarzana (1), near La Spezia. Son of Bartolomeo Parentucelli, a physician, and Andreola Tomeo dei Bosi; she married Tommaso Calandrini in second nuptials. Half-brother of Cardinal Filippo Calandrini (1448). He was called the Cardinal of Bologna.

Early life. His father died in 1401, when he was four years old. His mother married in second nuptials Tommaso Calandrini; he did not have a good rapport with his stepson; young Tommaso he had three half-siblings: Filippo, Federico e Caterina. When he was a young child, he became ill and his mother, while praying at night, said that she had a vision in which his son would be cured and that he would be pontiff some day.

Education. Initial studies in Sarzana; at sixteen, he already had good knowledge of grammar and Latin and started studying logic to prepare for his studies in philosophy and theology; went to study at the University of Bologna in 1417 (logic, philosophy and the seven liberal arts); taught for a short while in Bologna but because the pay was not sufficient, he returned to Sarzana; he then went to Florence and for four years was the teacher of the children of Rinaldo degli Albizi, and later of Palla di Onofrio Strozzi, as preceptor of these noble families, he had the opportunity of meeting the leading Florentine figures in art and culture; returned to Bologna and obtained a magister degree in theology 1422. In 1420, he became professor of natural philosophy at the University of Bologna. Around this latter year, he met the bishop of that diocese, who entrusted him the administration of his household and made him his secretary.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1422 by Niccolò Albergati, O.Carth., bishop of Bologna, future cardinal and blessed. He stayed in the bishop's service for twenty years, accompanying him in all his mission of peace both in Italy and abroad. In 1422, he accompanied Bishop Albergati in a mission to France that lasted eighteen months; the mission, charged by Pope Martin V had the purpose of mediating between the kings of France and England in or to end the One-hundred Year War. He was named canon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna and of S. Maria Maggiore di Pieve di Cento, of which, on January 14, 1425, he was named archpriest. He went with the cardinal to Rome in 1426, after his promotion to the cardinalate; and to Florence in 1434, where the papal court had sought refuge after the rebellion of the Romans. In 1427, he went to Venice for the treaty between Florence, Venice, Amedeo VIII of Savoie, and Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan. In 1433, he was sent to the Council of Basel, which he strongly criticized. In 1434-1435, he accompanied the cardinal in another mission to France and England. In 1438, he participated in the council of Ferrara-Florence. He took part in the negotiations for the union with the Armenians, the Jacobites and the Ethiopians. After the death of Cardinal Albergati, Pope Eugenius IV named him apostolic deacon and on March 12, 1443, vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. On September 29, 1443, the pope sent him as ambassador to Florence for an important mission. Later, he was sent as ambassador before King Alfonso I in Naples; after finishing his mission, he returned to Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bologna, November 27, 1444; he could not take possession immediately because the city was in revolt; occupied the see until his election to the papacy. Legate in France and in Germany to the Diet of Frankfurt, together with Juan de Carvajal, in September 1446; they were very successful.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1446; entered Rome on December 16, 1446 and received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna on that same day. He was absent from Rome on February 21, 1447. Returned to Rome and participated in the conclave of 1447 and was elected pope after having resisted the election; he was charged with delivering the funeral oration for the late Pope Eugenius IV; the election took place in the sacristy of S. Maria sopra Minerva because the Vatican Palace was considered insecure.

Papacy. Elected pope on March 6, 1447. Took the name Nicholas V, out of regard for Cardinal Albergati, his old patron. Consecrated bishop of Rome, March 17, 1447, patriarchal Vatican basilica, probably by Cardinal Francesco Condulmer, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina. He was crowned in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on March 19, 1447, by Cardinal Prospero Colonna, protodeacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro. During his pontificate, he created eleven cardinals in four consistories. He established the Apostolic Vatican Library (2).

Death. March 24, 1455 Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, next to the tomb of Pope Eugenius IV, until the construction of the new basilica in the17th century; on September 11, 1606, the sarcophagus with the deathbed image of the pope was relocated to the grotto of the basilica; fragments of the rich mausoleum that Cardinal Calandrini had erected in his memory were also moved to the grotto; Cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini, future Pope Pius II, composed his epitaph in Latin; it was the last epitaph in verse composed for a pope.

Bibliography. Angelico, fra, ca. 1400-1455 ; Venchi, Innocenzo ; Bonatti, Franco ; Manfredi, Antonio. Niccolò V nel sesto centenario della nascita : atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Sarzana, 8-10 ottobre 1998. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana, 2000. (Studi e testi ; 397; Variation: Studi e testi (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana) ; 397). Contents: I. NICCOLÒ V E LA BIBLIOTECA PAPALE DEL SEC. XV -- Niccolò V fondatore della Biblioteca Vaticana / L.E. Boyle -- Biblioteche pubbliche in Italia nel secolo XV / L. Gargan -- Seneca nella Biblioteca Vaticana di Niccolò V / C.M. Monti -- Note preliminari sulla sezione greca nella Biblioteca Vaticana di Niccolò V / A. Manfredi -- Copisti alla corte di Niccolò V / E. Caldelli -- Per la miniatura a Roma alla metà del Quattrocento: il Miniatore di Niccolò V / F. Pasut -- Cultura grafica a Roma all'epoca di Niccolò V / P. Cherubini -- II. IL PAPA TRA GLI UMANISTI DEL SUO TEMPO -- Lettera di F. Barbaro a L. Monaci. Prodromi del progetto di traduzioni dal greco di Niccolò V / C. Griggio -- Lettera a Lorenzo Monaci [Venezia, 1415] a c. di C. Griggio / F. Barbaro -- Apologia dei greci di Francesco Barbaro: un episodio della varia fortuna di Petrarca nella cultura veneziana / M. Venier -- Parentucelli e l'ambiente fiorentino: Niccoli e Traversari / S. Gentile -- Fortuna della traduzione di Tucidide di Lorenzo Valla con una edizione delle postille al testo / M. Pade -- Pontificis Nicolai tempore aggressus: nuove committenze crisostomiche di Niccolò V / L. Lorini -- Niccolò V visto da un umanista pontremolese: i dispacci di Nicodemo Tranchedini a Milano / P. Sverzellati -- Niccolò V litterarum et religiosorum parens nell'opera di Timoteo Maffei / P. De Corso -- III. ARTE FRA ROMA E LA LUNIGIANA DURANTE IL PONTIFICATO -- Aspetti della pittura a Roma al tempo di Niccolò V / A. Cavallaro -- Riflessi del soggiorno romano sotto Niccolò V nell'arte di Jean Fouquet e dei suoi seguaci / A. Cianfarini -- Niccolò V e il Palazzo vaticano / F. Cantatore -- Committenze non romane di Niccolò V / M.G. Aurigemma -- Scultura in marmo nella Lunigiana del Quattrocento: tessuto connettivo ed emergenze / P. Donati -- Realizzazioni architettoniche in Liguria e nel Mediterraneo orientale connesse con l'attività di Niccolò V / G. Rossini -- IV. DIOCESI, LA CITTÀ, LA FAMIGLIA -- Ambiente culturale a Sarzana / G. Petti Balbi -- Diocesi di Luni-Sarzana nel XV secolo / F. Bonatti -- Lettere e brevi di Niccolò V per il Capitolo Lunense / E.M. Vecchi -- Famiglie Parentucelli, Calandrini e Tomeo della Verrucola Bosi a Sarzana fra il XIV e il XV secolo / N. Pizzuto, M. Marchini -- Proposte per la licenza in medicina di Bartolomeo di Parentucello e per la biografia sarzanese del figlio Tommaso / A. Manfredi -- Filippo Calandrini e le sue lettere al Capitolo di Luni-Sarzana / C. Artizzu, C. Baldacci, G. Rangoni; Bracchetti, Alessandro. Fra Angelico and the Chapel of Nicholas V. Vatican City State : Edizioni Musei Vaticani, 1999. (Recent restorations of the Vatican Museums ; v. 3); Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 100-103; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 924 and 949-978; Del Re, Niccolò. "Niccolò V." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, pp. 732-734; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle;. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 143; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 29, 65 and 108; Face, Alice Collins Rolph. The chapel of Nicholas V in the Vatican : Fra Angelico's program in context. Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--Wayne State University, 1991; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 244-245; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 293-300; Miglio, Massimo. "Niccolò V." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 644-658; Niccolò V nel sesto centenario della nascita : atti del Convegno internazionale di studi, Sarzana, 8-10 ottobre 1998. A cura di Franco Bonatti e Antonio Manfredi. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana, 2000. (Studi e testi ; 397; Variation: Studi e testi (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana) ; 397). Contents: I. NICCOLÒ V E LA BIBLIOTECA PAPALE DEL SEC. XV -- Niccolò V fondatore della Biblioteca Vaticana / L.E. Boyle -- Biblioteche pubbliche in Italia nel secolo XV / L. Gargan -- Seneca nella Biblioteca Vaticana di Niccolò V / C.M. Monti -- Note preliminari sulla sezione greca nella Biblioteca Vaticana di Niccolò V / A. Manfredi -- Copisti alla corte di Niccolò V / E. Caldelli -- Per la miniatura a Roma alla metà del Quattrocento: il Miniatore di Niccolò V / F. Pasut -- Cultura grafica a Roma all'epoca di Niccolò V / P. Cherubini -- II. IL PAPA TRA GLI UMANISTI DEL SUO TEMPO -- Lettera di F. Barbaro a L. Monaci. Prodromi del progetto di traduzioni dal greco di Niccolò V / C. Griggio -- Lettera a Lorenzo Monaci [Venezia, 1415] a c. di C. Griggio / F. Barbaro -- Apologia dei greci di Francesco Barbaro: un episodio della varia fortuna di Petrarca nella cultura veneziana / M. Venier -- Parentucelli e l'ambiente fiorentino: Niccoli e Traversari / S. Gentile -- Fortuna della traduzione di Tucidide di Lorenzo Valla con una edizione delle postille al testo / M. Pade -- Pontificis Nicolai tempore aggressus: nuove committenze crisostomiche di Niccolr V / L. Lorini -- Niccolò V visto da un umanista pontremolese: i dispacci di Nicodemo Tranchedini a Milano / P. Sverzellati -- Niccolò V litterarum et religiosorum parens nell'opera di Timoteo Maffei / P. De Corso -- III. ARTE FRA ROMA E LA LUNIGIANA DURANTE IL PONTIFICATO -- Aspetti della pittura a Roma al tempo di Niccolò V / A. Cavallaro -- Riflessi del soggiorno romano sotto Niccolò V nell'arte di Jean Fouquet e dei suoi seguaci / A. Cianfarini -- Niccolò V e il Palazzo vaticano / F. Cantatore -- Committenze non romane di Niccolò V / M.G. Aurigemma -- Scultura in marmo nella Lunigiana del Quattrocento: tessuto connettivo ed emergenze / P. Donati -- Realizzazioni architettoniche in Liguria e nel Mediterraneo orientale connesse con l'attività di Niccolò V / G. Rossini -- IV. DIOCESI, LA CITTÀ, LA FAMIGLIA -- Ambiente culturale a Sarzana / G. Petti Balbi -- Diocesi di Luni-Sarzana nel XV secolo / F. Bonatti -- Lettere e brevi di Niccolò V per il Capitolo Lunense / E.M. Vecchi -- Famiglie Parentucelli, Calandrini e Tomeo della Verrucola Bosi a Sarzana fra il XIV e il XV secolo / N. Pizzuto, M. Marchini -- Proposte per la licenza in medicina di Bartolomeo di Parentucello e per la biografia sarzanese del figlio Tommaso / A. Manfredi -- Filippo Calandrini e le sue lettere al Capitolo di Luni-Sarzana / C. Artizzu, C. Baldacci, G. Rangoni; Papato, stati regionali e Lunigiana nell'et` di Niccolò V : atti delle giornate di studio, La Spezia, Sarzana, Pontremoli, Bagnone, 25-28 Maggio 2000. A cura di Eliana M. Vecchi. La Spezia : Accademia lunigianese di scienze Giovanni Capellini, 2004. (Memorie della Accademia lunigianese di scienze Giovanni Capellini ; 73); Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 153-155; Sabatine, Barbara. Pope Nicholas V's Chapel of Saints Stephen and Lawrence by Fra Angelico : an historical interpretation. Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Oregon, 1982; Salatino, Kevin. The frescoes of Fra Angelico for the Chapel of Nicholas V : art and ideology in Renaissance Rome. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Pennsylvania, 1992; Westfall, Carroll William. In this most perfect paradise; Alberti, Nicholas V, and the invention of conscious urban planning in Rome, 1447-55. University Park : Pennsylvania State University Press, 1974.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in German; biography by Massimo Miglio, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; biography, in Italian; engraving in color and biography, in Italian; his engraving, arms and biographical data, in English; stamps and biographical data, in Italian; his image crowning Emperor Firedrich III; another image of the emperor's coronation; his image, receiving Antipope Felix V; his image on a mural in the chapel named after him at the Vatican; his engraving by an anonymous artist of the 19th century; his effigy on a medal by Guaccialotti, Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France; his effigy on six medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; three coins of his pontificate, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; his portrait and arms on commemorative staps of the 1450 Jubilee Year, Vatican City; his tomb; detail of his jacent statue on his tomb, grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; and more images of his tomb.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 293, that says he was born in Pisa but that because of civil unrest his father was confined and the family moved to Sarazana; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle;. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 143, says that he was born in Sarzana and specifies that it was not in Pisa.
(2) According to the Vatican Information Service (VIS), May 8, 2007, "The library was established by Pope Nicholas V who, in 1448, transferred around 350 Greek, Latin and Hebrew codices acquired by his predecessors to the Vatican. In earlier times, collections had been kept at the Lateran Palace in Rome (until the end of the 13th century) and at Avignon (during the years Popes resided in that French city). Between 1370, when the papacy returned to Rome, and 1447, the collections were dispersed, with parts in Rome and others in Avignon and elsewhere. The real foundation of the library, however, is due to Pope Sixtus IV. On June 14 1475, with the Bull "Ad decorem militantis Ecclesiae," he assigned a budget to the institution and appointed as librarian Bartolomeo Platina, who drew up the first catalogue in 1481. At that time, the library possessed 3,500 manuscripts and was the largest in the western world. Around the year 1587, Pope Sixtus V commissioned the architect Domenico Fontana to construct a new building to house the library, which is where it is still located today.

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(26) 3. CARVAJAL, Juan de (ca. 1399/1400-1469)

Birth. Ca. 1399/1400, Trujillo, Extremadura, Spain. Of an illustrious family. Related to Cardinal Bernardino López de Carvajal (1493). His last name is also listed as Carvagial. He was called the Cardinal of S. Angelo or of Plasencia.

Education. Studied at the University of Salamanca; obtained a bachelor's in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1430; licentiate in 1436.

Early life. Cleric of the diocese of Ávila. Obtained canonships in churches of the dioceses of Ávila and Salamanca. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Astorga in 1433. Abbot of the collegiate church of Santa Marí de Husillos, Plasencia on May 2, 1436. On January 2, 1438, Pope Eugenius IV granted him special benefices in the dioceses of León and Palencia. A few months later, he entered the Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota as auditor of the Apostolic Palace. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Governor of Rome. Legate of Pope Eugenius IV to the Council of Basel. Legate to the Diet of Mainz in 1440. His diplomatic career started with embassies to Florence in 1438, Venice in 1439 and Siena in 1440. As legate of Pope Eugenius IV and presiding the papal mission against the Council of Basel, he attended the German Diets in Mainz of February 2, 1441; Frankfurt November 1, 1441 and April 15, 1442; Nüremberg, August 1, 1444; Frankfurt again, June 24, 1445 and September 14, 1446, where he went with Tommaso Parentucelli and they were very successful.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Coria, October 11, 1443; did not take possession of the see. Consecrated (no information found). Named General auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, December 20, 1445. Transferred to the see of Plasencia, August 10, 1446; occupied the see until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1446; he entered Rome on December 16, 1446 and received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria on that same day (1). He was absent from Rome on February 21, 1447. Participated in the conclave of 1447, which elected Pope Nicholas V. Attended the coronation of the new pope on March 9, 1447. Named legate in Germany and Bohemia on March 27, 1447; he left Rome on the following September 15; he was in Vienna on January 19, 1448; on February 17, he signed the Concordat of Vienna with King Friedrich IV that the pope ratified on the following March 19. On April 5, 1448, he went to Bohemia as legate for reconciliation but he was not successful. On June 6, 1448, he went back to Hungary as legate. He mediated between the archbishop of Cologne and the duke of Clèves in 1448-1449. He returned to Rome in April 1449. The pope himself granted him the commendam of the Cistercian monastery of Monreruela, diocese of Zamora, on June 16, 1449; occupied the post until his death. During his stay in Rome from 1450 to 1454, he was sent to Florence, Venice and Milan to activate the crusade against the Turks. Attended the secret consistory of October 27, 1451 in Rome. On January 17, 1452, Pope Nicholas V chose him and Cardinal Filippo Calandrini to go to Florence to greet Emperor Friedrich IV; met the emperor on February 4; attended the coronation of the emperor in Rome by the pope on March 19, 1452; accompanied the emperor to the frontier of the Papal States on the following April 26. Named legate before the duke of Milan; he left Rome on July 20, 1453. Participated in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III. Named legate in Germany, Hungary and Poland by the new Pope Callistus III, who gave him the legatine cross in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on September 8, 1455; he left Rome on September 25, after a secret consistory; arrived in Wiener-Neustadt in November; then, he went to Vienna and Budapest, where he celebrated the Hungarian diet in February 6, 1456; he contributed to the victory of Belgrade over the Turks on July 22, 1456; he went to Bosnia in June 1457; he was in Frankfurt on August 1 and defended the pope; on August 12, he received the felicitations of the Republic of Venice; he returned to Hungary, where the pope wrote him in November 1457; on March 20, 1458, from Ofen, he wrote to congratulate the new king of Bohemia, Jiří z Poděbrad (George of Kunštát and Podebrady), whom he made be sacred and crowned by two Hungarian bishops on May 6, 1458. Did not participate in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. He was a friend of the new Pope Pius II, who confirmed him in his legation and wrote to him on January 26, 1459 and on the following June 11; he reentered Rome on September 30, 1461, after six years of defending the faith. Named bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina on October 26, 1461; he kept his deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria in commendam until his death. Attended, with the pope, the feast of Corpus Christi in Viterbo in 1462. Named again legate in Hungary; had the treaty of Wierner-Neustadt signed on July 24, 1463 in favor of King Mattias Corvin and the Hapsburgs. Supported Pope Pius II's projects for a crusade against the Turks. He was given the title of Protector of the Hungarians. Sent by the pope to Ancona in June 1464 to supervise the embarkment of the crusaders; the pope died on August 14, 1464. Participated in the conclave of 1464, which elected Pope Paul II. Named one of the general commissaries of the crusade in November 1464. In August 1465, he was named member of the commission charged with judging the heretic King Jiří z Poděbrad of Bohemia; in September 1466, he refuted a manifest published in favor of the king; the pope condemned the king on December 23. Named legate in Venice on July 30, 1466; left from Rome on August 20, after the celebration of a consistory; returned to the city on September 17, 1467, after successfully accomplished his mission of forming a league of Italian states to cover the expenses of a crusade. Administrator of the see of Zamora, October 30, 1467; occupied the post until 1468. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 11, 1469 until his death. He founded a school in Salamanca and had a bridge built over the Tajo river near Plasencia. He was called infatigable e incorruptible.

Death. December 6, 1469, Rome. Buried near his residence, in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, in a marble tomb with an epitaph composed by Cardinal Bessarion (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 104-107; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 925-927; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle;. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 143-144; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 29, 30, 31, 33, 35, 36, 59, 60, 66, 123 and 216; ; Gómez Canedo, Lino. Un español al servicio de la Santa Sede : don Juan de Carvajal, cardenal de Sant'Angelo, legado en Alemania y Hungría, (1399?-1469). Madrid : Instituto Jerónimo Zurita, 1947.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in German; and brief biography, in Hungarian.

(1) He may have received in commendam the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolio in December 1446. He may have received in commendam the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in March 1460.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón,Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 926:

IOANNI. CARVAIALI. GENERE. IBERO.
PONT. PORTVENSI
S. R. E. CARDINALI. PATRVM. SPLENDORE
VIRTVTVM. DECORI. DE. RELIGIONI
ATQVE. OMNI. REIP. BENEMERITO
Q. VIXIT. A. LXX.
BESSARIO. CARD. NICAENVS
COLLEGAE. PINETISSIMO.

Cool Archive

(27) 4. PRIMIS, O.S.B.Cas., Giovanni de (?-1449)

Birth. (No date found), Messina. He was called the Cardinal of S. Sabina or of S. Paolo. He is also listed as Ioannes Siculus. His last name is also listed as de' Primi.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) of the Congregation Cassinese of S. Giustina of Padua in 1422 when he was already an adult.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of S. Giustina of Padua. Abbot of the monastery of S. Paolo fuori le Mura. Definitor of his order for fifteen years. Twice he was elected abbot general of his congregation. He worked with great dedication to obtain the reconciliation between King Alfonso V of Aragón and Count René of Anjou and thus restoring the peace in Italy. In recognition to his effort, the pope promoted him to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1446 with the title of S. Sabina.

Episcopate. He received in commendam the see of Catania on February 3, 1447; on December 2, 1448, he became bishop of that diocese. He founded the University of Catania. Named legate for Sicily. He was absent from Rome on February 27, 1447. Participated in the conclave of 1447, which elected Pope Nicholas V.

Death. January 21, 1449, Naples. Buried in the in the Benedictine Cassinese church of S. Severino, Naples.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 103-104; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 925; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle;. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 144; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 9, 29, 64 and 122.

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