The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Nicholas V (1447-1455)
Consistory of December 20, 1448 (II)


(2) 1. AGNESI, Astorgio (1391-1451)

Birth. 1391, Naples. Of a noble family. His first name is also listed as Astorre; and his last name is also listed as Agnese; and sometimes he is called Spantifaccia.

Education. " ... uomo di molta dottrina fornito, e di pari prudenza, e destrezza ne' maneggi ... " (1)

Sacred orders. Cleric of Naples.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mileto, September 15 (or 18), 1411; obligavit se personaliter, August 11, 1412. Transferred to the see of Ravello, February 15, 1413. Transferred to the see of Melfi, January 25, 1418. Consecration (no information found). Transferred to the see of Ancona, March 6, 1419. Transferred to the see of Ascoli Puglia, August 22 (or 26), 1422; he declined the transfer (2); on October 19, 1422, the see of Umana was united to that of Ancona. From June 1424, he undertook the work of reconquest and reorganization of the Marches, ordered by Pope Martin V, holding the position of apostolic treasurer, next to Governor Pietro Emigli, abbot of Rosazzo. Taking advantage of the rebellion of the Marches against Braccio da Montone, after the battle of the Aquila, June 2 , 1424, he was able to recover Roccacontrada and Staffolo and later, in that same year, Cingoli and Jesi. After the death of Governor Emigli on September 24, 1426, he was appointed, on April 30, 1427, deputy for the March of Ancona, Massa Trabaria and the Presidato Farfense. Continuing the military action of his predecessor, he cut down the resistance of Obizzo da Carrara in the castle Macchie, near S. Ginesio; crushed uprisings in S. Severino and Montefiore; and demanded that the various lords of the Marche did not have armed personnel at their disposal (March 1428). Papal delegate, together with the master general of the Dominicans, against the heretics of the Fraticelli (3) in the diocese of Iesi. Governor of Romagna in 1435. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Benevento, February 8 (or 18), 1436; occupied the see until his death. On March 26, 1442, Pope Eugenius IV named him his vicar in spiritualibus and governor of Rome; occupied the latter post probably until 1447. Administrator of the see of Canne, June 16, 1445; resigned the post on May 25, 1449. Governor of Bologna, September 1447; he left Bologna in 1449 because of the disorders and the plague. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church in the pontificate of Pope Eugenius IV. He served in several nunciatures in the pontificates of Popes Martin V, Eugenius IV and Nicholas V.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1448; received the title of S. Eusebio, January 3, 1449; and the red hat on January 6, 1449. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, October 27, 1449 until 1450. He was in Rome in May 1450, attending the ceremonies of the Holy Year.

Death. October 10, 1451, Rome. Buried in a magnificent monument in the cloister of the Dominican basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 109-110; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 970; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 61-61; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 146; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 88, 335, 341 and 414; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10, 30, 59, 62, 87, 104 and 117.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 1 (1960), Treccani; his arms, first one on the first row, no. 37, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 109.
(2) It was at that time that it was established the principle that, in the case of a refusal of a prelate to be transferred from one see to another, the prelate already chosen to succeed him in the first see was appointed to the second one.
(3) The Fraticelli ("Little Brethren") or Spiritual Franciscans were extreme proponents of the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi, especially with regard to poverty, and regarded the wealth of the Church as scandalous, and that of individual churchmen as invalidating their status. They were thus forced into open revolt against the whole authority of the Church and were declared heretical in 1296 by Pope Boniface VIII.
(4) This is the inscription in his tomb taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 970:

Astorgio · Agnesi · patria · Neap · TT · S · Eusebii · Presby.
Card · Beneventano · cuius · pro · Ro · Ec · virtus · &
Omnis · vita · semper · in · actione · fuit · & · qui · rebus
Et Legationibus · maximi · sedentibus · Martino
Eugenio · & · Nicolao · Ro · Pont · bene
Gestis · Romæ · obiit · Anno salutis · M · CCCCLI.
Et · vixit · An · LX.
Galeoctus · eiusdem · familiæ · Vir · insignis
Et · Doctor · Patruo · benemerenti · construi
Et · se · prope · poni · mandavit.

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(3) 2. ORSINI, Latino (ca. 1410-1477)

Birth. Ca. 1410 (1), Rome. Of a noble family. Fourth child of Carlo Orsini and Paola Gironima Orsini. Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483). The family also gave the church several popes and cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Nicholas III (1277-1280); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743). He was called Cardinal Orsini. His last name is also listed as Ursino.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. In his youth, he had a natural son, Paolo; the pope allowed him to inherit his father's great wealth. Apostolic subdeacon.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Conza, March 10, 1438. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the metropolitan see of Trani, November 21, 1438; confirmed by the pope on June 8, 1439; resigned the see on December 23, 1450.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1448; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, January 3, 1449. Transferred to the see of Urbino, December 23, 1450; at the same time, obtained the commendam of the abbey nullius of Farfa; his brother Giovanni Orsini, until then abbot of Farfa, succeeded him in the metropolitan see of Trani. Attended the secret consistory of October 27, 1451. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1451; and again, from November 13, 1469 until January 19, 1471. Resigned the see of Urbino on September 11, 1452. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Bari, December 4, 1454 until November 6, 1472. Participated in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III. After the election of the new Pope Callistus III, he helped maintain the order in the city of Rome. Together with Cardinal Johannes Bessarion, he was named member of the commission for the papal fleet in December 1455. He left Rome in July 1457. Participated in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. On December 8, 1458, he was named by the new Pope Pius II legate a latere to receive the oath of the new King Ferdinando of Naples, whom he crowned in Barletta. He countersigned a papal bull in Siena on April 18, 1459. He left Mantua on January 16, 1460, after the celebration of the congress convoked by the pope. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in 1463. Participated in the conclave of 1464, which elected Pope Paul II. On October 1, 1464, the new Pope Paul II named him legate in Marche Anconitana; he left Rome after the consistory of the following November 16; he returned to Rome from his legation on October 9, 1465. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano on June 7, 1465. On October 14, 1468, he opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati. Administrator of the see of Polignano from 1468 to 1472. Participated in the conclave of 1471, which elected Pope Sixtus IV. The new Pope Sixtus IV named him camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on August 9, 1471; he took the oath of office on August 12; occupied the post until his death. Named archbishop of Tarento on October 30, 1472; occupied the post until his death. On August 8, 1477 he resigned the commendam of the abbey of Farfa; as well as the ones of the Benedictine monastery of S. Salvatore, diocese of Arezzo; and of S. Stefano extra muri in Sermoneta, diocese of Terracina e Volturno. At the end of his life, he became very religious.

Death. August 11, 1477, Rome. Buried in the church of the convent of S. Salvatore in Lauro, Rome, which he had built and endowed for the Canons Regular of S. Giorgio in Alga of Venice.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 110-112; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 970-971 and 1272; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 136-147; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11, 30, 34, 35, 36,37, 40, 59, 61, 64, 102, 134, 254 and 260.

Links. The Orsini family and cardinals by Johann Peter Kirsch, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia (he is no. 9); biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his portrait, Abbazia Cistercense S.Maria di Chiaravalle di Fiastra, on the right at the bottom of the page; his arms, first one on the second row, no. 40, Araldica Vaticana; his bust in the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 136; his biography in English in "The Orsini family and Cardinals", linked above, says that he was born in 1411; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 971, indicates that he died at aetatis annorum 74, in 1477, therefore, he would have been born in 1403/1404.

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(4) 3. COËTIVY, Alain de (1407--1474)

Birth. August 18, 1407, manor of Coët-Lestrémeur, Plouneventer, Bretagne. Son of Alain III de Coëtivy and Catherine du Chastel. He was a brother of the famous Admiral of France Prégent de Coëtivy, sire of Riaz. His last name is also listed as Coetivy, Coetivo, Cetivo, and Cetivi. He was called the Cardinal of Avignon.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Provost of Saint-Martin de Tours, Vertou. Provost of Toulouse. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Saint Pol de Léon from July 1436.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Avignon, October 30, 1437; celebrated a synod in 1456 or 1457; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Administrator of the see of Uzés from October 2, 1442 to June 1445.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1448; received the title of S. Prassede on January 3, 1449; and the red hat on January 30, 1449. Attended the secret consistory of October 27, 1451. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5, 1453, for a year. Administrator of the see of Nîmes, April 1, 1454; occupied the post until November 19, 1460. Participated in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III. Asked the new Pope Callistus III to assign the church of Saint-Yves, Rome, to the Bretons; the request was granted in 1456. Named legate in France for the crusade against the Turks; received the legatine cross on his shoulder from the pope in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on September 8, 1455; he left Rome for Avignon and Paris the following September 17; returned to Rome on May 6, 1458. While in France, he was named legate to the exhumation and recognition of the body of S. Vincenzo Ferrer in 1456. Named administrator of the see of Dol, June 18, 1456; resigned the post on January 7, 1460; administrator again in 1462; occupied the post until the beginning of 1474, shortly before his death. Present at the provincial council of Avignon, as papal legate to France; the council was presided over by Cardinal Pierre de Foix, legate in Avignon, bishop of Albano; the conciliar fathers signed the decree of the Council of Basle declaring the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Participated in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. Member of the commission of cardinals to maintain the order in Rome. He left Rome with the new Pope Pius II on January 22, 1459 to participate in the Congress of Mantua. King Charles VIII confiscated his benefices in the dioceses of Uzès and Carcassonne as well as the abbey of Saint-Jean d'Amgély, which he had in commendam. Administrator of the see of Saintes from January 7, 1461 until April 8, 1462. He was in Rome in April 1462 for the arrival of the skull of St. Andrew, the Apostle, and decorated his palace for the occasion. He went to Viterbo the following mont of June. Participated in the conclave of 1464, which elected Pope Paul II. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, June 7, 1465, retaining his title in commendam until his death; took possession of the see on January 3, 1466; restored its cathedral. He was present at the ceremony of the sending of the red hat to the new Cardinal Jean de la Balue, created on September 18, 1467. Left for France on June 12, 1468. Named abbot commendatario of Saint-Saveur-de-Redon, diocese of Vannes, in 1468; resigned the post on July 20, 1471. Cardinal protoprete in April 1469 (1). On December 18, 1469, he resigned the commendam of the monastery of Rosien, diocese of Limoges. He did not participate in the conclave of 1471, which elected Pope Sixtus IV. Returned to Rome from France on October 20, 1472. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, December 11, 1472. He had the archiepiscopal palace of Avignon rebuilt. He was prior commendatario of Bére; of Pertre; of La Franceullo; of the abbey of sous-Dol; of Brugny; of Courans; and of Montaigne.

Death. May 3, 1474 (2), Rome. Buried in a tomb surmounted by his statue in white marble in the church of S. Prassede, Rome (3). His cenotaph is in the collegiate church of Notre-Dame de Folgoët, where he had built a Calvary and at its feet is his effigy.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 691; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 112-114; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 971-972 and 1271; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 38, 39, 59, 60, 64, 100, 145, 201, 261 and 271; Paris-Jallobert, Paul. "Les cardinaux de Bretagne". Revue de Bretagne et de Vendée, n. ser., II (1887), 33.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, genealogy and biography, in French, Geneanet; biography, in Danish, Anna Rom Guide; his arms, middle one on the last row, no. 35, Araldica Vaticana; his monument in Le Folgoët, Bretagne, France, Le Finistera; his tomb in the church of S. Prassede, Rome, The Australian National University; other views of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 147, citing Chacón but without giving the volume and page numbers; it seems to be erroneous since the cardinal had opted for the order of cardinal bishops on June 7, 1465.
(2) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 972; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 147; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 11, 60 and 100; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 691, says that he died on July 22, 1474; and Paris-Jallobert, Paul. "Les cardinaux de Bretagne". Revue de Bretagne et de Vendée, p. 33, says that he died on July 21, 1474.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from the photograph of his tomb linked above:

SEDENTE XYSTO IIII
ALANVS EPS SABINENSIS EC RO CARDINALIS
NOBILISS IN BRITONIBVS COETTTIVORV GENTE NATVS
ILLVSTRI LEGATIONE AD GALLOS PRO FIDE FVNCTVS
CVIVS VITA EXMPLVM VIRTVTIS
ACTIONES AVTEM PRIVATIM ET PUBLICE SALVTARES FVERE
HOC MONIMENTO CONDITVS EST
VIX AN LXVI EN VIII DIES XV
M CCCC LXX IIII

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(5) 4. ROLIN, Jean (1408-1483)

Birth. 1408, Autun. Son of the chancellor of Bourgogne, Nicolas Rolin, and his second wife (he married three times), Jeanne de Landes (1), daughter of Jean, first duke of Bourgogne.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Archdeacon of Autun. Prior of Saint-Marcel.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Châlons-sour-Saône, May 29, 1431; confirmed by the pope, September 7, 1431. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Autun, August 20, 1436; occupied the see until his death; he rebuilt the cathedral, which was destroyed by a fire.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1448; received the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio on January 3, 1449; arrived in Rome on November 16, 1452; he was received the following day in the public consistory; received the red hat on November 24, 1562; left Rome for Bourgogne on February 1, 1453; went to Florence; and then, to Siena, where he arrived on April 16, 1459; he countersigned a papal bull on the following April 18; left Siena for Autun on May 5, 1460. He did not participate in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III (2). He founded in Autun, in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a collegiate church with twelve canonships. He did not participate in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. Named abbot commendatarioof Saint-Martin d'Autun; took possession on September 10, 1462; resigned the post on November 11, 1481. He did not participate in the conclave of 1464, which elected Pope Paul II. Did not participate in the conclave of 1471, which elected Pope Sixtus IV. Cardinal protoprete, December 1472. On July 14, 1473, he resigned the commendam of the Cistercian monastery of Sainte-Marie de Balorne, archdiocese of Besançon. He was the confessor of King Louis XI and the dauphin. He endowed the celebre hospital of Beaume.

Death. June 22, 1483, Auxerre. Buried in the left side of the main altar of the cathedral of Autun. In his will, he made the church of Besse the heir of his wealth.

Bibliography.Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 114-115; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 972-973; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp.11, 31, 32, 33, 65, 80 and 112; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVIII, 102.

Links. His portrait, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; The Nativity of Cardinal Jean Rolin by Jean Hey, Olga's Gallery; his portrait, formerly in the cathedral of Autun, now in the Musée Rolin of that city, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, France; his arms, middle one on the first row, no. 38, Araldica Vaticana; and his statue by Antoine de Moiture, Musée Rolin, Autun, France.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 972; other sources call her Marie.
(2) The information about his participation in the conclaves is taken from "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 148; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 114; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVIII, 102, say that he participated in the conclaves of 1455 and 1471.

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(6) 5. CALANDRINI, Filippo (1403-1476)

Birth. 1403, Sarzana. First child of Tommaso Calandrini and his second wife, Andreola Tomeo dei Bosi. Half-brother of Pope Nicholas V, on his mother's side; her first husband was Bartolomeo Parentucelli, the pope's father. His last name is also listed as Calderini. He was called the Cardinal of Bologna.

Education. At the death of his father, occurred in 1414, he was entrusted, together with his brothers, to tutor Giorgio d'Antonio Cattani di Massa.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Lucca. Governor of the castle of Spoleto from August or September 1447.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bologna, December 18, 1447; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1448; received the title of S. Susanna, January 3, 1449; and the red hat on January 6, 1449, during a magnificent celebration held in Bologna; the final ceremonies of his cardinalitial creation took place in Fabriano, diocese of Camerino, on July 25, 1449. On July 22, 1450, he arrived in Fabriano from Macerata and remained there until the departure of the pope the following September 18. Named legate in Marche Anconitana; returned to Rome on April 9, 1451; attended the consistory of October 27, 1451. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina on November 24, 1451. Chosen by the pope on January 17, 1452, he went to Florence with Cardinal Juan de Carvajal to greet Emperor Friedrich III, whom he accompanied in his trip to Rome to be crowned by the pope; after the coronation, which took place on March 19, the two cardinals accompanied the emperor until reaching the border of the Papal States on April 26. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1454 and 1455. Participated in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III. Built a monument to Pope Nicholas V in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. He left Rome in June 1458 because of the plague. Returned to the city to participate in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. A friend of the new pope, he accompanied the pontiff on January 22, 1459 to the Congress of Mantua. He countersigned a papal bull in Siena on April 18, 1459. Named grand penitentiary in 1459. He was at the baths near Siena in June 1462. Absent from Rome after the summer of 1463 until May 1464. He wrote to the authorities of Siena in July 1464 concerning the reform of the monasteries. Participated in the conclave of 1464, which elected Pope Paul II. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano on October 14, 1468. He had, until his death, the commendam of the Benedictine monasteries of S. Croce di Saxovivo, diocese of Fiesole; of S. Benedetto di Gauldo and of S. Maria di Sania, both in the diocese of Nocera; of the Cistercian monasteries of Carreto, diocese of Lodi; and of S. Maria di Strata, diocese of Bologna. Again, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 19, 1471 until January 8, 1472. Participated in the conclave of 1471, which elected Pope Sixtus IV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina on August 30, 1471 (1).

Death. Thursday July 18, 1476 (2), Bagnoreggio, of the plague and podagra, while traveling from Sarzana to Rome, following the pope. Transferred to Rome and buried in a monumental tomb built by his nephew, Giovanni Matteo, in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 115-116; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 973-974; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11, 30, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 59, 60, 63, 65 and 108; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 304-311; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 165; and II, 723.

Links. Biography by Clara Gennaro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 16 (1973), Treccani; his portrait and arms (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); and his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 148; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, pp. 59 and 60; and Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 310; Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. 13; and Johann Heinrich Zedler and and Carl Günther Ludovici, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste (64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50), V, col. 158, say that he was bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina from 1470.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, p. 148; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 974, says that he died on July 22, 1476.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 974:

FILIPPO CALANDRINO SERGIANEN. BONON. EPIS
COPO PORTVEN. SANCTÆQ. R. E. SVMMO PENITEN
TIAR. NIOL. V. PONT. MAX. FRATRI IO: MATH.
CALANDRINI. PATRVO CARISSIMO POSVIT VIXIT
AN. LXXIII. OBIIT AN. SAL. CHRISTI MCCCLXXVI.

PETRO CEASARI CAROLO LEONARDO TRIBVS LIBE
RIS ADHVC IMPVBERIBVS PIENTISS. PATER HOC
EODEM HIPOGER CONDIT.

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(7) 6. CUSA, Nikolaus von (1400/1401-1464)

Birth. 1400/1401, village of Cues (Cusa in Latin) on the Moselle river, archdiocese of Trier, Germany. Son of Johann Cryfftz (Krebs or Cancer), a fisherman. His first name is also listed as Nicolas, Nicolaus, Niccolò and Nicholas ; and his last name as de Kues, Cues, Cusanus and Cusano. He was called the Cardinal of S. Pietro in Vincoli.

Education. Studied in Deventer; at the University of Heidelberg, 1416; University of Padua, 1417-1423 (doctorate in canon law); disciple in Padua of future Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini; and at the University of Cologne, 1425-1428 (philosophy and theology).

Early life. Pastor in Altrich in 1425. Secretary of Cardinal legate Giordano Orsini in 1426. Canon regular and provost of the monastery of Wotobergen. Dean of Sankt Florin, Coblentz, 1427. Professor of canon law at the University of Louvaina from 1428. At the service of the prince-bishop of Trier, 1428-1430. Secretary and chancellor of count von Manderscheid, 1430-1432. Protonotary apostolic. Participated in the Council of Basle from 1432 and very soon sided with the party of Pope Eugenius IV. Provost of Munstermaifeld in 1435.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1436. Sent by the pope in September 1437, together with Antonio Martínez, to Constantinople to move the Greek toward the union with the Catholic Church; returned with them to the Council of Florence. Nuncio before the king of France against Antipope Felix V. Archdeacon of Brabant, diocese of Liège in 1442. Papal legate to the Diets of Mainz in 1441; Fraknfurt in 1442; of Nuremberg in 1444; Franfurt, again, on September 1, 1446; and later, to the one in Frankfurt, September 1, 1446.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in secret by Pope Eugenius IV; he was never published; he received several votes in the conclave of 1447. The new Pope Nicholas V sent him as legate to the Diet of Aschaffenbourg in July 1447. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1448; received the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli on January 3, 1449. He entered Rome on January 11, 1450 wearing a black hat; on the same day, the pope bestowed on him the red hat; on January 19, the final ceremonies of his cardinalitial creation took place. Attended the initial ceremonies of the Jubilar Year of 1450.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Brixen, March 23, 1450; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated, April 24, 1450, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Nicholas V. Named legate in Germany, Bohemia and the Low Countries for the jubilee and the reform of the religious order, he left Rome on December 31, 1450; he presided a synod in Salzburg in February 1451; went to Vienna and Emperor Friedrich III confirmed him as bishop of Brixen on March 1, 1451; celebrated a synod in Bamberg in May 1451; at the end of that month, presided over the 14th provincial chapter of the Benedictines in Wurzbourg; he was in Erfurt on May 29; in June, he presided over a provincial synod in Magdebourg; visited the Low Countries; returned to Trier and founded in Cues the hospital Sankt Nikolas with his sister and his friend the pastor of Berncastel; named, in August 1451, legate in England and in the states of the duke of Bourgogne; presided over a synod in Mainz in November 1451; went to England and Bourgogne in December of that year; returned to Germany and presided over a provincial synod in Cologne from February 24 to March 8, 1452; took possession of his diocese; attended the Diet of Regensburg in June; on August 19, 1452, he was named legate in Bohemia and at the end of October, legate before Friedrich III; returned to Rome on March 5, 1453. Left Rome for his diocese on May 29, 1453. According to the regulations of the Council of Basle, he celebrated diocesan synod in 1453, 1454, 1455 and 1457. Attended the Diet of Regensburg on May 2, 1455. Did not participate in the conclave of 1455, which elected Pope Callistus III. Named by the new Pope Callistus III legate in England and Germany; he could leave his diocese that year. the pope wrote him in August 1457 concerning the war against the Turks. In 1458, he prepared a project of reform of the clergy. He did not participate in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II.Arrived in Rome in September 1458 and was received by his friend the new Pope Pius II. On January 11, 1459, the pope named him vicar general of Rome and governor of the city; he maintained the order and was congratulated by the pontiff on June 9. He went to Mantua in November 1459 for his conflict with Duke Sigismondo of Tyrol concerning his diocese; he did not succeed and returned to Brixen on January 19, 1460; in Easter, the duke took the cardinal away and imprisoned him; he was not released until signing a disadvantageous treaty; arrived in Siena, where the pope was, on May 28, 1460. He was in Viterbo in June 1462. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1463 until January 28, 1464. In June 1464, he was sent to the encounter of 5,000 crusaders that were going to Rome. He wrote a Catholic concordance (1432) concerning the Council of Basle; he also authored numerous works in theology, and science, which were published in three tomes in folio that were published in Basle in 1565 (1)It is said of him that he was the last Medieval thinker and the first Renaissance thinker and the greatest theologian of his time. He was an eminent preacher and many of his servants are still preserved. He was a friend of the wise men of his epoch and supported the theory that the earth moved around the sun, long before Nikolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei. He was also interested in the invention of the printing press and founded a seminary in Deventer.

Death. August 12, 1464, Todi. Buried in the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome (2); his heart was taken to Cues and deposited in the choir of the chapel of the hospital of Sankt Nikolas; a plaque of copper marks the place; in the same chapel is the tomb of his sister.

Bibliography. Bett, Henry. Nicholas of Cusa. London : Methuen & Co., 1932; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 116-120; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 974-976; Cue, Nicolas de. Les conjectures. Paris : Editions Beauchesne, 2011. Contents: Abréviations utilisèes. Introduction. Une situation paradoxale. L'art général des conjectures : un discours de la méthode. Une méthode individualisée. Le concept de conjecture. Les principes et les règles de la méthode. Plan de l'oeuvre. Note sur la traduction. Les Conjectures. [Première Partie]. [Prologue]. 1. L'origine des conjectures. 2. Le nombre est l'exemplaire symbolique des choses. 3. La progression naturelle. 4. Les quatre unités. 5. La première unité. 6. La deuxième unité. 7. La troisième unité. 8. La dernière unité. 9. Unité et altérité. 10. Explication. 11. [Participation]. 12. Les trois mondes. 13. Les trois distinctions trines. [Deuxième Partie]. [Prologue]. 1. [De la racine profonde de toutes les recherches scientifiques]. 2. [Suite]. 3. Différence et concordance. 4. Les éléments. 5. Elément et composé élémentaire. 6. Eclaircissement. 7. Le sénaire, le septénaire et le dénaire. 8. La différence des individus. 9. Les différences des modes d'être. 10. Les différences des composés d'âmes et de corps. 11. La vie. 12. Nature et art. 13. La nature de l'intellectuel. 14. L'homme. 15. [Concordance et différence des hommes entre eux]. 16. De l'âme humaine. 17. De la connaissance de soi. Glossaire. Bibliographie. Table des figures. Index des citations bibliques. Index des notions. Index des noms; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 148-149; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 11, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 59, 64 and 111; Gatz, Erwin. "Kues (Cusanus) Nikolaus don (1401-1464)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 393-398; Hopkins, Jasper ; Nicholas of Cusa. A concise introduction to the philosophy of Nicholas of Cusa. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 1978. Note: Includes English and Latin versions of Nicholas' Trialogus de possest; Hudson, Nancy J.. Becoming God : the doctrine of theosis in Nicholas of Cusa. Washington, D.C. : Catholic University of America Press, 2007. Contents: 1 Theosis in the Greek fathers and Pseudo-Dionysius 11; 2 Theophany as self-communication 45; 3 Transcendence as the distance between knower and known 89; 4 Theosis 134; 5 The problem of intellectual salvation. Abstract: "Nicholas of Cusa's doctrine of theosis reveals the strong influence of Greek philosophy. At issue is his orthodoxy and whether he replaces Christian doctrine with Greek thought, while maintaining only the language of Christian theology. The thorough analysis of theosis in this book reveals that Nicholas of Cusa does indeed follow tradition, though it is the tradition of the Eastern church."--Jacket; Introducing Nicholas of Cusa. A guide to a Renaissance man. Edited by Christopher M. Bellitto, Thomas M. Izbicki, Gerald Christianson. New York : Paulist Press, 2004. Contents : Acknowledgments; Editors' Introduction by Christopher M. Bellitto, Thomas M. Izbicki, and Gerald Christianson; Guide to the Citation of Cusanus' Works; Abbreviations; Part I: Introduction; Chapter 1: An Appreciation by Morimichi Watanabe; Chapter 2: Life and Works by Donald F. Duclow; Part II: Church and Society; Chapter 3: Reform by Brian A. Pavlac; Chapter 4: The Church by Thomas M. Izbicki; Chapter 5: Political and Legal Ideas by Morimichi Watanabe; Part III: Humanism and Spirituality; Chapter 6: Renaissance Humanism by Pauline M. Watts; Chapter 7: Mystical Theology by H. Lawrence Bond; Chapter 8: Preaching by Lawrence F. Hundersmarck; Chapter 9: Interreligious Dialogue by James E. Biechler; Part IV: Philosophy, Theology, and Science; Chapter 10: Knowledge and the Human Mind by Clyde Lee Miller; Chapter 11: Christ and the Knowledge of God by Walter Andreas Euler; Chapter 12: Sacraments by Peter Casarella; Chapter 13: Mathematics and Astronomy by Tamara Albertini; Part V: A Guide to Research; Chapter 14: Nicholas of Cusa in English by Thomas M. Izbicki and Kim S. Breighner; Chapter 15: A Brief Glossary of Cusan Terms by H. Lawrence Bond; Societies, Sites, Museums; Index; Kremer, Klaus. Praegustatio naturalis sapientiae : Gott suchen mit Nikolaus von Kues. Münster : Aschendorff, 2004. (Buchreihe der Cusanus-Gesellschaft); Meuthen, Erick et Hallauer, Hermann, Acta Cusana, Quellen zu Lebengeschichte des Nikolaus von Kues. 3 vols., Hamburg : Felix Meiner, 1996; Moritz, Arne. Explizite Komplikationen : der radikale Holismus des Nikolaus von Kues. Münster : Aschendorff, 2006. (Buchreihe der Cusanus-Gesellschaft, Bd. 14). Note: Thesis (doctoral) - Universität, Halle-Wittenberg, 2004; Nicholas of Cusa : Selected spiritual writings. Uniform title: Nicolai de Cusa Opera omnia. Vol XII. De venatione sapientiae-De apice theoriae. New York : Paulist Press, 1997. (The Classics of Western Spirituality). Transl. and introd. by H. Lawrence Bond; Sfez, Jocelyne. L'Art des "Conjectures" de Nicolas de Cues. Paris : Beauchesne, 2012. Dissertation: Texte remanié de: Thèse de doctorat--Philosophie--Lyon--École normale supérieure, 2012. (Collection Grenier â sel).

Links. Biography by John Hagen, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Wolfgang Strobl, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp; photos and biography, in German, Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon; his funeral statue and biography, in Italian, Cusano; his arms, second row, no. 41; note the krebs (cancer) of his last name; Cusano e Alberti, in Italian; another view of his portrait, chapel of Hospital St.-Nikolaus-Hospital in Bernkastel-Kues, Germany; postal stamp, Blindiana Stamps; postal stamp, from Germany, Woordmerk HoGent; his tomb in the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, The Australian National University; his funeral monument, next to his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; detail of his face, statue of his funeral monument; and site "Nikolaus von Kues", in German.

(1) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 975, enumerates the works conrained in each one of the tomes: Tomo Primo. De Docta Ignoratia ad Iulianium Cæsarium Cardinalem; Apologiam Doctæ Ignorantiæ; De Coniecturis libros duos; De Filiatione Dei; De Genesi. Idiotæ de Sapientia libros quatuor; De visione Dei; De Ludo Globi mystice libros duos; De Fortuna; Compendium; Directorio Speculantis; Trialogum de Possessiuo; De Berillo; De Dato Patris Luminum; De Quærendo Deum; De Venatione Sapientiæ; De Apice Theoriæ; De Deo Abscondito.Tomo Secundo. De Annunciatione Dialogum; Exercitationum libros decem; Deequalitate. De Concordia Catholic ad Concilium Basileense; Epistolarum librum : harum nonnullæ sunt ad Boëmos, vt eos ad Ecclessiæ vnitatem reuocaret, eisque Ioannem de Capistrano ordinis Minorum, virum sanctitate clarum laudat : aliæ sunt ipsi Capistrano scriptæ; De Pace fidei; Cribationem Alcorani libris tribus; De NouissimoDie. Tomo Terio. De Geometricis Tansmutationibus; De Arithmeticis Complementis; De Mathematicis Complementis as Nicolaum V Papam; De Quadratura Circuli, ad quam Mathematicoru turba noctuat; De Sinibus, & Chordis; De vna recti, curuique mensura; Complementum Theologicum; De Mathematica Perfectione; Reparatio Kalendarij; Correctio Tabularum Alphonsi.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 975:

NICOLAVS DE CVSA TREVERENSANI
S PETRI AD VINCVLA CARDINALIS BRIXINEN EPIS-
COPVS TVDERTI OBIIT MCDLXIV. XI. AVGVSTI OB
DEVOTIONEM CATENARVM S. PETRI HIC SEPELI-
RI VOLVIT DILEXIT DEVM TIMVIT ET VENERATVS
EST AC ILLI SOLI SERVIVIT PROMISSIO RETRIBV-
CIONIS NON FEFELLIT EVM.

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