The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Callistus III (1455-1458)
Consistory of December 17, 1456 (II)


(4) 1. PISCICELLO, Rinaldo (1415/1416-1457)

Birth. 1415/1416 (1), Naples. Of a noble family. Son of Nicola Piscicello and Maria d'Alagni. He was a relative of Lucrezia d'Alagni, the favorite of King Alfonso V of Aragón, who probably impulsed his career. He was called the Cardinal of Naples.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Prebendary and canon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Naples. Vicar general of the archdiocese. Protonotary apostolic.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). In 1440, King Alfonso I of Naples recommended him to the pope for the see Catanzaro.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Naples, May 12, 1451. Consecrated (no information found). Consultor of the king of Naples. He rebuilt the metropolitan cathedral of S. Saverio of Naples, that had been severely damaged by earthquakes on December 5 and 30, 1456; the quakes caused 40,000 deaths. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of S. Pietro all'Altare.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1456; arrived in Rome on March 20, 1457; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia on March 21, 1457.

Death. July 4, 1457, "per incuria dei medici" (for negligence of the physicians), Rome. His body was transported to Naples in 1458 and buried in a marble tomb next to the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Naples (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 127-128; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 992-993; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12, 32, 61 and 200; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIII, 284; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 97-99.

(1) This is according to the text of his epitaph, transcribed in note 2, which says that he died at 42.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 993: RAYNALDVS PISCICELLVS PRIMO PONTIFICI IVRI OPERAM DEDIT, MOX ARCHIEPISCOPVS NEAPOLITANVS, DEINDE CARDINALIS EVASIT, IN VTROQVE PER HVMANITER VERSATVS, MIRIFICE OBSSERVABATVR. DECESSIT ANNO ÆTATIS SVÆ XLII. ET HIC CLAVDITVR. ANNO MCCCCLVIII.

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(5) 2. MELLA, Juan de (1397-1467)

Birth. 1397, Zamora, Spain. Of a noble family. Son of Fernando de Mella, notary of the episcopal curia episcopal and escribano de número of Zamora, and Catalina de Alfonso. Brother of Fr. Alfonso de Mella, .F.M., of the schismatic sect of the Fraticelles. His baptismal name was Juan Alfonso. He was called the Cardinal of Zamora.

Education. Studied at Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé, University of Salamanca; admitted in 1417 (theology and canon law; obtained a doctorate in Cánones).

Early life. Professor of canon law at the University of Salamanca. Dean of Coria. Archdeacon of Madrid. Prebendary and member of the cathedral chapter of Toledo. He went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Martin V to defend Archbishop Diego de Anaya before the papal court. He stayed in Rome performing valuable services for Pope Eugenius IV, especially during the time of the schism promoted by Antipope Felix V, who was supported by the king of Aragón among other European sovereigns; the kingdom of Castilla, of which Juan de Mella was a subject, remained loyal to Pope Eugenius IV; the pope rewarded his loyalty appointing him auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota in 1423; and later, promoting him to the episcopate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of León, April 12, 1434, to replace the bishop of that diocese, Alfonso de Cusanca, O.P., who had been transferred to Osma; Bishop Cusanca declined the transfer; after his death, Juan de Mella was named again to the see of León on August 26, 1437. Consecrated (no information found). He continued residing in Rome. He participated in the Council of Florence and was a member of the commission that redacted the bull Laetentur coeli, to achieve the union of the Latin and Greek churches; the union was proclaimed in the cathedral of Florence on July 6, 1439. Transferred to the see of Zamora, April 6, 1440; his brother Fernando administered the diocese as auxiliary bishop and vicar general.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1456; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, December 18, 1456. Participated in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. Participated in the conclave of 1464, which elected Pope Paul II. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in March 1465. Transferred to the see of Sigüenza, May 20, 1465; occupied the see until his death (2).

Death. October 12, 1467, victim of the plague, Rome. His remains were buried in a rich sepulchre in the church of S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli, which does not exist anymore and its title, as well as the ashes of the cardinal, were transferred to the church of S. Maria di Montserrato, Rome (3). In the cathedral of Zamora, he founded the sumptuous chapel of San Ildefonso and endowed it with five chaplaincies and a valuable retablo by Fernando Gallego.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 128; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 993-994; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12, 31, 32, 63, 64, 235, 174 and 271; Fernández Prieto, E. "Mella, Juan de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), III, 1466-1467; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLIV, 172-173.

Links. Brief biography, in English, under "Juan Alfonso de Mella", almost at the end of the page; his tomb in the church of S. Maria di Montserrato, Rome; and additional views of his tomb.

(1) According to Fernández Prieto, "Mella, Juan de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, III, 1466: "en su juventud padecis un tumor facial que le dejs para toda su vida los labios deformados y torcidos hacia la mejilla izquierda que daban a su rostro una extraqa deformidad" (in his youth he suffered of a facial tumor that left his lips deformed and twisted toward the left cheek for the rest of his life, giving his face a strange deformity; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XLIV, 173, comments in this respect: "Quantumque il cardinale avesse l'aspetto assai deforme, ciò non per tanto recò lustro e splendore al sacro collegio, e venne altamente commendato dal Cardinal Papiense, como umo laborioso, infacticabile, e intrepido ministro della giustizia, e che solo fra tanti avea esercitati quasi tutti gli uffici della curia romana" (Although the cardinal had very deformed aspect, not for that he did not bring luster and splendor to the sacred college, and came highly commended by Cardinal Papiense, as a laborious man, tireless, and an intrepid minister of justice, and that only he, among many, had exercised nearly all the offices of the Roman Curia).
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 235; Fernández Prieto, E. "Mella, Juan de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, III, 1467, says that the cathedral chapter refused to recognize him and the cardinal resigned the see.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 993:

IO. DE MELLA GENERE HISPANO FAMIL. INGENVA
CÆSARI AC PONTIFICII IVRIS CONSVLTISS.
S. LAVR. IN DAMASO PRÆSBYT. CARD. ZAMOREN.
SACRVM
VIX. AN. LXX. OBIIT XIII. OCTOBR. AN. SAL. NOSTRÆ
MCCCLXVI. PONT. MAX. PAVLI II. A. QVARTO

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(6) 3. CASTIGLIONE, Giovanni (1420-1460)

Birth. 1420, Milan. Of an illustrious family. Eldest of the five children of Palatine Count Maffiolo Castiglione and Angela Lampugnani. Milanese patrician. His last name is also listed as Castellio and Castellioneus. Other cardinals of the family were Goffredo Castiglione (1227), elected Pope Celestine IV; Branda Castiglione (1411); Francesco Abbondio Castiglioni (1565); and Giovanni Castiglione (1801). He was called the Cardinal of Pavia or Cardinale Papiense.

Education. Studied civil law.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Canonist and sacred orator of great reputation. Secretary apostolic of Pope Eugenius IV.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Coutances, September 2, 1444. Consecrated (no information found). Papal legate in England, 1447. Transferred to the see of Pavia, October 3, 1453. Papal legate of Popes Nicholas V and Callistus III in Germany; intervened in the Diets of Ratisbon in April 1454 and Frankfort in October 1454; his main charge was to promote the war against the Turks. On September 8, 1455, he was with the pope in the patriarchal Vatican basilica for the ceremony of the departure of the Crusade. Legate before Emperor Friedrich IV in 1456. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the duke of Milan.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1456; entered Rome on from his legation in Germany on February 23, 1457; received the red hat in public consistory on February 24, 1457; received the title of S. Clemente on March 9, 1457. Participated in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. The new pope named him legate a latere in Marche Anconitana; left Rome in September 1458; occupied the post until his death. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Abbondio, Como, 1458.

Death. April 14, 1460, Macerata. Buried in the tomb of his family in Milan (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 129; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 994 ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12, 32, 62, 134 and 212; Toustain de Billy, René. Histoire ecclésiastique du diocèse de Coutances. 3 vols. Edited by François Dolbet and Alexandre Héron. Rouen : Ch. Métérie, 1874-1886, Tome II, 3me. partie, 264-273.

Links. His genealogy, A2 B1 C1; and biography, in French, pp. 264-273.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 994: IOANNI. CASTELLIONEO. MEDIOLANENSI. EPISCOPO PAPIENSI. TIT. D. CLEMENTIS. S.R.E. PRESB. VARDINALI. CAELESTINI. IV. PONT. MAXIMI. OCTAVIANI. GOTIFREDI. ET. BRANDAE. CARDINALIVM. GENTILI. QVI. CVM. LEGATIONIS. MVNERE. APVD. FRIDERICVM. III, IMPERATOREM. CONCITANDI. IN. TVRCAS. EXERCITVS. CAVSSA. APOSTOLICAE. SEDIS. NOMINE. SECVNDO. FVGERETVR. A. ACLLISTO. III. IN, AMPLISSIMVM. ORDINEM. ABSENS. EST. COOPTATVS. EOQVE. DEFVNCTO. A. PIO. II. LEGATVS. MARCHIAE. ANCONITANAE. DESIGNATVS. DVM. IN. EA. PROVINCIA. LEGISLATORIS. STRENVI. SIMVL. DVCIS. OPERAM. CONTRA. PICCININVM. NIMIS. SOLICITE. IMPENDIT. INOPINATA. FEBRE. PRAEVENTVS. MACERATAE. INTERIIT. XVIII. KAL. MAII. ANN. SAL. MCDLX.

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(7) 4. PICCOLOMINI, Enea Silvio (1405-1464)

Birth. October 18, 1405, Corsignano, Pienza, near Siena. From an ancient family. Son of Silvio Piccolomini, patrician of Siena, and Vittoria Forteguerri. They had twenty-one children. His first name is also listed as Ænea. Uncle of Pope Pius III. Grand uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Piccolomini (1517). Relative of Cardinal Niccolò Fortiguerra (1460), on his mother's side. Other cardinals of the family were Celio Piccolomini (1664); Enea Silvio Piccolomini (1766); and Giacomo Piccolomini (1844). He was called the Cardinal of Siena.

Education. Studied jurisprudence in the studio of Siena, 1424-1428; he stayed with the de' Lolli family, paternal uncle; he revealed himself as a "Latin poet"; later, studied for two years in Florence, 1429-1431; and went to Bologna, Ferrara, Padua and Milan. He returned to Siena in 1432.

Early life. Secretary to Cardinal Domenico Capranica; went with him to the Council of Basilea in the spring of 1432. He became the secretary of the bishop of Freising. From 1433 to 1434, he was secretary to Cardinal Niccola Albergati, O.Carth., bishop of Bologna, future blessed; he accompanied the cardinal in his trips to Milan, Bologna and Basilea. In 1435, he went to Siena, Florence and Milan with Bishop Bartolomeo of Novara; he was also at the service of Filippo Maria Visconti. Later in 1435, he traveled to Arras with Cardinal Albergati and was his ambassador to Scotland before King James I; he also visited parts of England as well as London. The following year, 1436, he left the service of Cardinal Albergati and returned to Basilea, where the council appointed him scriptor; later abbreviatore; and finally, chief of abbreviatori; he wrote a Commentarium on the Council; he was at the council until 1444. In 1438, Pope Eugenius IV was deposed in Basilea and in 1439, Amedeo VIII, duke of Savoia, was elected Antipope Felice V. He was secretary to the antipope from 1439 to 1442. In this latter year, he was sent by the Council to the Diet of Frankfort-sur-le-Mein; he left Antipope Felix V and entered the chancery of Friedrich, king of the Romans, whom he accompanied to Austria. He was crowned as poet by Friedrich on July 27, 1442 and was with the king until the following year. In 1444, he performed several missions and was part of embassies on behalf of Friedrich. In 1445, he was sent to Rome before Pope Eugenius IV to try to end the schism. He entered the ecclesiastical state in that same year. On February 8, 1446, he was named papal secretary. From 1446 to 1447, he went to the Diet of Frankfort-sur-Marne to obtained the recognition of Pope Eugenius IV by the German princes; later, he spoke in their name in a consistory; and the agreement was sealed with the papal bulls of February 5 and 7, 1447. He received the subdiaconate and the diaconate shortly before being ordained a priest.

Priesthood. Ordained on March 4, 1447 in Vienna. He was one of the guardians of the conclave of March 1447 and wrote its history. At the crowning of the new Pope Nicholas V on March 19, 1447, he performed the functions of apostolic subdeacon, carrying the cross before the pontiff.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Trieste, April 17, 1447; took possession of the see on June 5, 1447. Consecrated, August 15, 1447, at the metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stefan, Vienna, by Cardinal Juan Carvajal, bishop of Plasencia. In 1447, he was part of an embassy of King Friedrich to Milan to try to obtain its duchy after the death of Duke Filippo Maria Visconti. He was named delegate of King Friedrich to the Diet of Aschaffenbourg to obtain the recognition of Pope Nicholas V; he wrote to the pope from Germany on November 25, 1448. Transferred to the see of Siena on October 24, 1449; confirmed by the pope on September 23, 1450; occupied the see until his election to the papacy. He went to Rome for the Jubilee of 1450. Charged with a mission before the pope for the crowning of Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III; and later, before the king of Naples for the marriage of the emperor with the Princess Leonor of Portugal, sister of King Alfonso V, and niece, on her mother's side, of Alfonso il Magnanimo, king of Naples; he was successful in both missions. In 1451, Bishop Piccolomini was sent to Bohemia to propose and agreement and conciliation with the Hussites; in a letter to his close friend and superior, Cardinal Carvajal, he chronicled the mission. He met the emperor in Siena on February 4, 1452 and accompanied him to Rome; Pope Nicholas V celebrated the marriage ceremony of Friedrich and Leonor on March 16, 1452; they were crowned in Rome on March 19, 1452 by the pope; Friedrich was the last emperor to be crowned in Rome. On April 25, 1452, he pronounced, before the pope, a long and strong discourse on the need to contain the advance of the Turks and to respond to their invasion of the Balkan peninsula, as a first step toward a crusade. Later, in that year, he accompanied the emperor and his wife on their return to Austria then, he went to Viterbo, Siena, Florence, Bologna and Modena. Bishop Piccolomini went to Graz in July 1453 and was the delegate of the emperor to the Diet of Frankfort in October 1454; and later, to the Diet of Neustadt in February 1455. Together with Cardinals Nicolaus von Cusa and Juan Carvajal, he maintained the need of a crusade against the Turks, especially, after the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453. He went to Rome for the death of Pope Nicholas V in March 1455; he composed his epitaph in Latin and in verse. He chronicled the conclave of April 1455. He was charged by the emperor with presenting his obedience to the new Pope Callistus III. He went to Venice in July 1455 and did not return to Rome until the following August 10; he made the declaration of obedience in the public consistory celebrated a few days later; he spent the winter in Rome. Named writer of apostolic briefs. Named member of a Sienese embassy before the king of Naples in April 1456; he was in Naples the following July and August.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1456 (1); received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina on December 18, 1456. Elected camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals on January 26, 1457 for one year. Named bishop of Ermland on August 12, 1457; occupied the see until his election to the papacy. In the spring of 1458, he finished writing Historia Friderici Tertii et Austriae and in June of that same year in the baths of Viterbo, while recovering from the gout, he wrote Storia del popolo Boemo. He returned to Rome in June 1458, and soon after, left the city because of the plague; went back to Viterbo, where he wrote his memoirs. Returned to Rome at the death of Pope Callistus III. Participated in the conclave of 1458 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected on August 19, 1458. Took the name Pius II. He was crowned in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on September 3, 1458, by Cardinal Prospero Colonna, protodeacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro. He created thirteen cardinals in three consistories.

Death. August 14, 1464, at 11 p.m., Ancona; he was assisted by Benzi Socino, a physician who was a friend of the pope since he studied in Ferrara (2). His præcordia was deposited in the choir of the church of S. Ciriaco, Ancona; his body was taken to Rome and buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; later, it was transferred to the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome. He was one of the humanists of the Renaissance.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 132-136; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 990 and 1001-1070; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 129-130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12, 31, 32, 59, 64, 235, 247 and 262; Enea Silvio Piccolomini : arte, storia e cultura nell'Europa di Pio II : atti dei convegni internazionali di studi 2003-2004. A cura di Roberto Di Paola; Arianna Antoniutti; and Marco Gallo. Romae : Associazione culturale Shakespeare and Company 2 ; Vatican City : Libreria editrice vaticana, 2006. Note: Contributions in Italian, English, and Spanish. Note: Proceedings of five conferences organized by Comitato nazionale Renascentes artes Aenea Silvio Piccolomini Pio Secundo Pontifice, held in 2003-2004; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 247-249; Pellegrini, Marco. "Pio II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, pp. 663-684; Pius II, Pope, 1405-1464. Reject Aeneas, accept Pius : selected letters of Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II). Washington, D.C. : Catholic University of America Press, 2006. Responsibility: introduced & translated by Thomas M. Izbicki, Gerald Christianson, and Philip Krey; Pius II, Pope, 1405-1464 ; Lemaire, Jacques. La traduction en moyen français de la lettre anti-curiale De curialium miseriis epistola d'Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini. Villeneuve-d'Ascq : Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 2007. Uniform title: De curialium miseriis epistola. French (Middle French). Documents et témoignages ; Histoire; Tiberia, Vitaliano. Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 838-840.

Links. Biography by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Marco Pellegrini, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei Papi (2000), Treccani; biography by Stefan Bauer, in Italian, Il Contributo italiano alla storia del Pensiero - Politica (2013), Treccani; biography, in Spanish; chronological table, in Italian; his genealogy, A1; his portrait, arms and biographical data, in English; selection of his "Commentaries, in Latin and Dutch; The Departure of Enea Silvio Piccolomini for the Council of Basel by Bernardino di Betto, called "Pintoricchio", Piccolomini Library, Siena; Enea Silvio Piccolomini Ambassador to the King of Scotland by Bernardino di Betto, calle "Pintoricchio", Piccolomini Library, Siena; Enea Silvio Piccolomini Crowned Poet by Federico III by Bernardino di Betto, called "Pintoricchio", Piccolomini Library, Siena; Enea Silvio Piccolomini Swears Obedience to Eugene IV by Bernardino di Betto, called "Pintoricchio", Piccolomini Library, Siena; The Meeting between Federico III and Eleanor of Aragon by Bernardino di Betto, called "Pintoricchio"; Piccolomini Library, Siena; Enea Silvio Piccolomini Receiving the Cardinal's hat by Bernardino di Betto, called "Pintoricchio"; Piccolomini Library, Siena; The Coronation of Pope Pius II by Bernardino di Betto, called "Pintoricchio"; Piccolomini Library, Siena; Pius II Holding an Assembly for the Crusade in Mantua by Bernardino di Betto, called "Pintoricchio"; Piccolomini Library, Siena; The Canonisation of Saint Catherine of Siena by Bernardino di Betto, called "Pintoricchio"; Piccolomini Library, Siena; Pius II Reaches Ancona to Hasten the Crusade by Bernardino di Betto, called "Pintoricchio"; Piccolomini Library, Siena; parish of Aspach, Austria, where he was pastor; statue by Michelangelo Buonaroti dedicated to Pope Pius III, metropolitan cathedral of Siena, Italy; his portrait by Giusto di Gand, dalla serie degli Uomini Illustri dello Studiolo, Palazzo Ducale, Urbino, Italy; his engraving by Jean-Jacques Boissard; his engraving by Johann-Benjamin Bruhl; two engravings, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; stampa, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his effigy on five medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; another five medals of his pontificate, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Olomouc, Czech Republic; Comitato per il VI centenario de la nascita di Papa Pio II, in Italian; his funeral monument, church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome; Die Geheime Kardinalskreation Enea Silvio Piccolominis durch Nikolaus V. im jahr 1453. Zur Praxis der Geheimkreationen im 15. Jahrhundert by Duane Henderson, Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken, Herausgegeben vom Deutschen Historischen Institut in Rom, Bd. 91, 2011, 396-415, with an abstract in Italian on page 414-415; and in English on page 415.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted excep Henderson, Die Geheime Kardinalskreation Enea Silvio Piccolominis durch Nikolaus V. im jahr 1453, which says that he was probably named cardinal secretly by Pope Nicholas V at the end of April 1453.
(2) This is according to the majority of the sources consulted, including "I Sommi Pontifici Romani, secondo la cronotassi del 'Liber Pontificalis' e delle sue fonti, continuata fino al presente"; and Annuario pontificio per l'anno 2007. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 2007, p. *18. Some sources indicate that he died on August 15, 1464; the confusion could have occurred because originally it was said that he died the night between August 14 and August 15, 1464. The chronology of his life, in Italian, linked above, indicates that he died at 11 p.m. on August 14, 1464.

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(8) 5. TEBALDI, Giacomo (?-1465)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a noble family. Son of Marco and Ventura Tebaldi. Brother of the physician of Pope Callistus III. His last name is also listed as Teobaldi. He was called the Cardinal of Montefeltro or of S. Anastasia.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in civil law.

Early life. Governor of Spoleto; and later, of Perugia.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate and while in this order, he was promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montefeltro, June 5, 1450. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Perugia. Governor of Spoleto from September 1455 until November 1456. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Naples, August 3, 1456 (1); resigned three months later in November 1456.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1456; entered in Rome on January 11, 1457 by the gate of S. Maria del Popolo and spent the night there; received the red hat the following day; and the title of S. Anastasia on January 24, 1457. Elected camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals for the year 1458. Participated in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. Participated in the conclave of 1464, which elected Pope Paul II.

Death. September 4, 1466 (2), at 4 p.m., Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (3); his tomb was the work of Andrea Bregno and Giovanni Dalmata, 1466.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 129-130; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 994-995; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12, 32, 33, 35, 59, 153 and 200; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXXIII, 250; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, p. 100.

Links. His arms, tomb and biographical data, in Italian, Il Colle di Scipio; his tomb in S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 200; Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 100, says that he was promoted by Pope Paul II; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 130, says that it was Pope Callistus III who promoted him to the see of Naples; neither source give the date of promotion; his successor, Oliviero Carafa, future cardinal, was elected on November 18, 1458.
(2) This is according to his epitaph, transcribed in note 3; and Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 100; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 130; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II 12, say that he died on September 4, 1465; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LXXIII, 250, says that he died in 1466.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 995:

Qui fuit Vrbis bonos generosa prole THEBALDVS,
frigida marmoreo IACBVS tenet ossa sepulchro.
Cæsareas norat leges Montisque Ferretri
Præsulerat, nullique fide, & pietate fecundus,
Pauperiem tollebat humo, clarisque fauebat
Ingeniis, inflique pater, moderator, & æqui,
uius virtutem admirans, antimumquepudicum
Cardineo Divus decoravit honore CALLISTVS.

QVI OBIT ANNO CRISTI DCDLVI. DIE IV. MENSIS
SEPTEMBRIS HORA DECIMASEXTA.

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(9) 6. LONGUEIL, Richard Olivier de (1407-1470)

Birth. December 18, 1406, châteaux of Jonques, diocese of Lisieux, France. Of an ancient and noble family from Normandy. Son of Guillaume III de Longueil, sieur of Eu, and his second wife, Catherine de Bourguenole. He was called the Cardinal of Coutances or the Cardinal of Eu.

Education. Licentiate in law.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. President of the Chambre des comptes. Chantre of Lisieux. Canon and official of the metropolitan chapter of Rouen. Archdeacon of Eu, archdiocese of Rouen. In 1452, at the death of the archbishop of Rouen, fifteen of the cathedral canons proposed him as successor but he declined. Shortly after, he was elected bishop of Coutances.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Consecrated bishop of Coutances, September 28, 1453 (no further information found); preconized by the pope, October 3, 1453; took the oath of loyalty to the king of France, May 12, 1454; celebrated a diocesan synod and promulgated its statutes; occupied the see until his death. Together with the archbishop of Rouen and the bishop of Paris, he was a member of the papal commission appointed by Pope Callistus III on June 11, 1455 to revise the process of Joan d'Arc; it had its first session on November 17, 1455; her rehabilitation was pronounced in the archiepiscopal palace of Rouen on July 7, 1456. King Charles VIII of France was pleased with that decision and named Bishop Longueil to the grand council and honored him with his trust. Charged by the French king with a mission before the duke of Bourgogne. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the king of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1456. Did not participate in the conclave of 1458, which elected Pope Pius II. The new pope sent the red hat to him in France at the end of 1458. Shortly after, in the French Parliament, he requested the abrogation of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1438, of schismatic tendency; he was sentenced to pay a fine of 10,000 livres; he was praised by the pope for such a courageous act. On August 15, 1461, he attended the consecration of the new king of France, Louis XI, in Reims; he resigned the post of president of the Chambre des comptes. Received from Pope Pius II the mission of restoring the prestige of the papacy in France and to bring back the king, who in fact, revoked the Pragmatic Sanction; and sent an embassy to Rome to inform the pope; Cardinals Longueil and Jean Jouffory, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Arras, formed part of that embassy; they arrived in Rome on March 13, 1462; he entered the city wearing the red hat and was received by the pope on March 16 in the grand hall of the consistory; then took place the official acknowledgement of the abrogation of the Pragmatic Sanction; on that same day, he received the title of S. Eusebio; he fixed his residence in Rome; and because of this, the king issued an order of the Privy Council of May 24, 1463, stopping all his benefices; the pope appreciated his advice and granted him numerous favors. Participated in the conclave of 1464, which elected Pope Paul II. The new pope named him archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, where he erected the ancient statue of St. Peter that is still venerated today (1). Named legate in Perugia on October 1, 1464; left for his legation the following November 16, after having attended a secret consistory; returned to Rome on April 9, 1465; returned to Perugia the following May 18; and went back to Rome on February 10, 1468. He received in commendam, until his death, the Benedictine abbeys of St.-Gildas, diocese of Bourges; of Ste.-Trinté de Vendôme, diocese of Chartres; of Sts.-Corneille et Cyprien de Compiène, diocese of Soissons; and perhaps, those of Bernay, diocese of Lisieux; of St.-Pierre-sur-Dives, diocese of Séez;, in 1464; and later, from Pope Paul II, that of Ambournay. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina on August 17, 1470 (2), two days before his death. Cardinal Giovanni Castiglione, his predecessor in the see of Coutances, said that he was a "venerable man, filled with knowledge, wisdom and goodness, extremely sincere in his opinions".

Death. August 19, 1470 (3), at 10 a.m., Sutri (4). His body was transferred to Rome the following day and buried under the altar of the chapel of S. Petronila (5) in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; the chapel was destroyed around 1540 and then his remains were transferred to the grotto of the basilica, where his epitaph can be seen on a broken plaque on the pavement (6); his death was commemorated in the cathedral of Coutances on August 19 until the French Revolution.

Bibliography. Adam, Jean. Le cardinal Richard Olivier de Longueil, évêque de Coutances : 1453-1470. Evreux : Impr. de l'Eure, 1907; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col.1143-1444; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 130-132; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, cols. 995-997 and 1118; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 130-131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 12, 33, 35, 37, 60, 62 and 134; Toustain de Billy, René. Histoire ecclésiastique du diocèse de Coutances. 3 vols. Edited by François Dolbet and Alexandre Héron. Rouen : Ch. Métérie, 1874-1886. Note: Vol. 3 is edited by A. Héron. Published by the Sociéé de l'histoire de Normandie, Rouen, Tome II, 3me. partie, 275-304.

Links. His biography, in French, under "LONGUEIL, Richard Olivier de"; his engraving; and another biography, in French, pp. 275-304.

(1) According to Toustain de Billy, Histoire ecclésiastique du diocèse de Coutances, Tome II, 3me. partie, 298-299, it was the statue of Jupiter Capitolin of the Roman pagans, which had been preserved until then. The pope requested and the Cardinal of Coutances had the old statue melted and converted into the image of Saint Peter. The cardinal had the statue placed so that the pilgrims lowering by respect their heads could kiss its feet as a sign of humility and reverence. In the pedestal of the statue appear the arms of the cardinal.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p.131; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 12 and 60; Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni (103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861), LIV, 227, says that he occupied the see in 1469.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 12, 37 and 60; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 131; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, cols. 996 and 1118; Toustain de Billy, Histoire ecclésiastique du diocèse de Coutances, Tome II, 3me. partie, 277, indicates that he died on August 17, 1470; the same source, p. 298, says that he died on August 18, 1470; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, says that he died on August 15, 1470.
(4) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 131; and Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1143; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 132; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, cols. 996; and Toustain de Billy, Histoire ecclésiastique du diocèse de Coutances, Tome II, 3me. partie, 298, say that he died in Perugia.
(5) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 131; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 132, says that he was buried in the chapel of Ss. Processo e Martiniano in that basilica, in which he had established to chaplaincies.
(6) This the fragmented text of the inscription taken from a drawing in "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 131:

... VS SACRE BASILICE
... CONSTANTIEN QVI
... TVS OB. SVA. VIRTVTES. AC. MERI
... S VENERANDOQVESE NATVI CARISS
... DE. INSIGNI. DE. PATRIA. ET. RO. ECC.
... IT. AN. LXIII. M. VIII. D. I. OBIIT. AN. S.

...NOMEN RICHARDO PATRIA TOCHA FVIT
... ENTVS DOCTIS PRESIDIVM SVBSIDISQV. BONIS


Toustain de Billy, Histoire ecclésiastique du diocèse de Coutances, Tome II, 3me. partie, 2, 298, says that his tomb had the following epigram: Richardus episcopus Portuensis, Cardinalis Constantiensis, Normadiâ oriundus, hoc altarem vetustissimum novâ facie et dote novâ testamento jussit ornari, ubi in pasce requiescit. Anno Domini MCCCCLXX.

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SORETH, O. Carm., Jean (ca. 1394/1405-1471)

Birth. 1394/1405, Caen, Normandy, France (1).

Education. He entered the Order of the Carmelites in Caen at the age of sixteen; following his ordination, he pursued studies at the University of Paris, where he obtained a biblicus in 1430; a sentencier in 1432; a licentiate in theology on December 20, 1437; and a title of maître en théologie on May 26, 1438. In 1452, he was granted a degree of maître en théologie, honoris causa, by the University of Padua.

Priesthood. Ordained, around 1417. After obtaining his degree in 1438, he was regent of studies in the Paris convent of his order. In 1440, he was elected provincial prior of his order in France. In 1442, he was commissioned to deal with a schism that divided the province of Lower Germany. He also had to deal with a serious dispute that had broken between the University of Paris and the Mendicant Friars. He was successful and soon gained a reputation for his learning, wisdom and energy. In 1450, Pope Nicholas V appointed him vicar general of the order. On November 1, 1451, the general chapter of the order at Avignon confirmed the pope's selection and elected him prior general, a post he retained until his death, being re-elected in 1456, 1462, and 1468. As prior general, he worked for reform, having particular success in the Low Countries, the Rhineland, and northern France (2). He sought to improve religious life in general within his order, especially by establishing stricter observance on a voluntary basis. In order to accomplish reform, he traveled extensively across Europe, making canonical visitations; preaching against abuses and excessive privileges, which were destroying community life; emphasizing the renewal of the liturgy; and promoting a more faithful observance of religious life both in the older provinces and convents; as well as in the Mantuan Reformed Congregation. In spite of his vigorous efforts at reform, his admonitions were generally ignored. His greatest accomplishment was the foundation of the Carmelite nuns, allowed by Pope Nicholas V with the bull Cum Nulla of October 7, 1452. He personally established convents in Liège (1457); Dinant (1455); Haarlem (1466), and Vilvorde (1469). With the collaboration of Frances d'Amboise, future blessed, he introduced Carmelite nuns in France, establishing a house in Vannes (1464). He wrote the constitutions for the nuns. He also founded the Carmelite Third Order. In 1462, he wrote a commentary on the Carmelite rule, Expositio paraenetica in regulam carmelitarum; it was a practical guide for the new houses. He promulgated new constitutions for the order in the general chapter held in Brussels in 1462; they were approved by the general chapter celebrated in Orléans in 1469. He was noted for his love of the Eucharist, and his image art reminds us of his defense of the Blessed Sacrament from profanation when Charles the Bold attacked Liège.

Cardinalate. According to Alban Butler's Life of Saints; and his first biography in Italian, linked below, at one stage Pope Callistus III wanted to make him a bishop and perhaps a cardinal, but Father Soreth wanted to devote himself to his order and so he refused.

Death. July 25, 1471, after a bout of colic caused by eating fruit that was not ripe, in Angers, France (3). Buried at the right side of the main altar of the Carmelite church in Angers (4). In 1640, his body was placed under the main altar. Among those who praised his hard work was the great Carmelite humanist Battista Spagnoli of Mantua, future blessed, who wrote a eulogy for him, De morte Joannis Sorethii, Galli, Carmelitarum prioris generalis, carmen encomiasticum; and another of his contemporaries, Arnould Bostius, wrote a brief but excellent biographical notice (5).

Beatification. Although his cultus was persistent, it was not widespread. He was beatified (cultus confirmed) (6) by Pope Pius IX in 1866. His feast is celebrated on July 24.

Bibliography. Benoit-Marie de la Croix. "La réforme du Bienhereux Jean Soreth, 1451" in "Les réformes dans l'Ordre de N.-D. du Mont-Carmel." Etudes Carmélitaines 19 (1934), VI, 188-192; Butler, Alban. Butler's lives of the saints. Uniform Title: Lives of the saints. New full edition. Managing editor, Paul Burns. Collegeville, Minn. : Liturgical Press; Tunbridge Wells : Burns & Oates, 1995, 7, 202-203; Carroll, Eamon Richard. ""Soreth, John, Bl." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Prepared by an editorial staff at the Catholic University of America. 19 vols. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1967-1996, 13, 440-441; Mattei, Santi. Vita del B. Giovanni, Soreth XXIV º generale dell'ordine carmelitano, seguita da un compendio di quella del B. Romeo carmelitano. Roma : tip. Cuggiani, Sandini e C0, 1874; "Prima biographia B. Ioannis Soreth e codice Viennensi Novate Sanctorum (12709)", transcripta ed. Marcus Reuver, in Carmelus, V (1958), 73-99; Villiers, Cosme de Saint Étienne de. Bibliotheca Carmelitana, notis criticis et dissertationibus illustrata. 2 v. in 1. Edited by Gabriel Wessels. Romae, In aedibus Collegii S. Alberti, 1927. Responsibility: curâ et labore unius è Carmelitis Provinciae Turoniae collecta. Aurelianis, Excudebant M. Couret de Villeneuve & J. Rouzeau-Montaut, Regis, Serenissimi Aurelianensium Ducis, Regiique Aurelianensis Collegii Typographi & Bibliopolae, M. DCCLII. Cum Approbatione et Privilegio Regis, II, col. 99-100.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Scuoledinfanza.it.; images and biography by Anthony Cilia, in Italian, Santi e Beati; biography by Louis Saggi, in English, carmelnet, The Carmelties Province of the Most Pure Heart of Mary; his image and biography, in English, The Carmelites, The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Mount Carme; same image and biography, in Spanish, Los Carmelitas, Orden de los Hermanos de la Bienaventurada Virgen María del Monte Carmelo; biographical entry and prayers, in English, The British Province of Carmelites; Blessed John Soreth and Liège: A Collection of Sermons from 1451 by D. Henry Dieterich, Fifteenth Century Studies, v. 11 (1985), in English, University of Michigan; Jean Soreth, réformateur du XVe siècle, in French, Le Carmel en France; Bienheureux Jean Soreth, in French, Les Grands Carmes en France; Blessed John Soreth (1394-1741) by Father Leopold Glueckert, O. Carm., in English, Carmelite Review.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted, except Butler's lives of the saints, 7, 202, which says that he was born ca. 1405; Carroll, ""Soreth, John, Bl." New Catholic Encyclopedia, 13, 440, which says that he was born ca. 1395; and the page Jean Soreth, réformateur du XVe siècle, which says that he was born in 1395?. His epitaph, in note 4, below, says that he died at 77in 1471, and therefore, that he was born in 1394.
(2) According to Butler's lives of the saints, 7, 202-203, "In the fifteenth century the Carmelites, like the other Mendicant Orders, were in need of reform. Pope Eugene IV (1431-47) had permitted an easing of the original very strict Rule, and the regulations concerning the personal ownership of property and the obligation to live in community had subsequently been relaxed, especially for those engaged in teaching. John's aim was to introduce reform without splitting the Order; his method was to establish in each province one or two houses of strict observance and to encourage as many friars as felt called to a stricter way of life to join them." "He wished to go beyond external observance and mortification to concentrate on the chief Carmelite aim, which was to create an atmosphere conducive to prayer and contemplation. He was willing to accept the mitigations allowed by Eugene IV, arguing that these did not interfere with the basic obligation on the Carmelite friar or nun to seek union with God through prayer. It was only in the context of this obligation, he argued, that such things as silence, mortification, solitude, and so on made sense.
(3) His biography in Bibliotheca Carmelitana, II, 99, says that he died not without suspicion of poisoning.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Bibliotheca Carmelitana, II, 99:

Gloria Carmeli magnus SORETH ille Joannes ,
Condignus longâ posteritate coli.
Rabbi Doctorum , lux , Censor , normaque morum ,
Per notus mundo , proh dolor ! occubuit.
Bis denis annis Prior olim qui Generalis
Extitit observans omnia , quæ docuit.
Hic benè mutavit vitam cum morte beatam ;
Vita vel est potiùs morte secuta suâ.
Septuagenus septimus annus fluxerat ipsi ,
Andegavi ei dum fuit ultima lux.

(5) The biographical notice is in Speculum historiale, manuscript of the Brera Library, Milan, 1, VII, cap. 40 and 51, 1. IX, cap. 2.
(6) When the Church confirms the public cultus of a saint, it means that the Church is formally acknowledging the holiness of this person, and is saying that it is acceptable to venerate this person. Confirmation of a public cult is one of the first steps toward canonization. It is a slightly different process than that of the modern formal beatification, but the person is referred to as Blessed.

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