The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul II (1464-1471)
Consistory of September 18, 1467 (I)
Celebrated in Rome


(1) 1. BOURCHIER, Thomas (ca. 1412-1486)

Birth. Ca. 1412. He was the third son of William Bourchier, earl of Eu (1), and Lady Anne Plantagenet, grand-daughter of King Edward III of England. He was called the Cardinal of Canterbury.

Education. He studied at Nevill Hall, Oxford; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at Oxford University; and a master of arts in 1433.

Early life. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure. Prebendary at Lichfield in May 1424. Dean of Salisbury. Dean of St. Martin-le-Grand, London, in 1428.

Sacred orders. Received the minor order and the subdiaconate on September 24, 1429. He obtained a second prebend in West Thurrock, in Hastings in 1432.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1433. Became a prebendary in Lincoln church in 1433. Chancellor of Oxford University, 1433-1437.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Worcester, September 24, 1433; and again, with the agreement of the king, who had opposed the first nomination, March 9, 1435; he received papal dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age. Consecrated, Sunday May 15, 1435 (2), at Blackfriars, London, by Cardinal Henry Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, assisted by John Kemp, archbishop of York, by John Stafford, bishop of Bath, by Robert Neville, bishop of Salisbury, and by John Low, bishop of St. Asaph. Transferred to the see of Ely, December 20, 1443; enthroned in 1445. At the death of Cardinal John Kempe, archbishop of Canterbury, the King's Council recommended Bishop Bourchier as his successor; and the House of Commons made a petition to the same effect. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Canterbury, June 21, 1454; received the pallium on July 1 (3) and took possession on August 22 of the same year. Named chancellor of England on March 5, 1455; occupied the post until October 1456. His short term as chancellor coincided with the start of the Wars of the Roses, fought from 1455 to 1485, over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster (red rose) and the House of York (white rose); both houses were branches of the Plantagenet royal house. At first, the archbishop was not a strong partisan; and later, in 1458, he helped reconcile the warring parties; when the war was renewed the following year, 1459, he appeared as a decided Yorkist. He crowned King Edward IV on June 20, 1461; four years later, in 1465, he celebrated the marriage of the king and Elizabeth Woodville; and on May 26 of that year, he crowned her as queen of England. In 1471, together with other peers, he took an oath accepting the prince of Wales as heir to the throne. As archbishop primate, he presided over the trial for heresy of Reginald Peacock, bishop of Chichester, privy councilor and reputed theologian; Archbishop Bourchier ordered him to resign and kept him in prison until his death in 1459 (4). Celebrated provincial synods in London in 1461, 1463, 1472, 1473, 1474 and 1475. King Edward IV asked the pope to promote Archbishop Bourchier to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1467; published the following day in the church of S. Marco, Rome; he was absent; received the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, May 13, 1468 (5). The cardinal was sent as ambassador to entreat for peace with the French at Pecquigny; the principal purpose of the treaty was to settle a ransom for the freedom of Margaret of Anjou, who had been captured at the battle of Tewkesbury in 1470; the cardinal was able to arrange an agreement with the French ambassadors and the queen was allowed to leave the country. Did not participate in the conclave of 1471, which elected Pope Sixtus IV. Received the red hat, sent by Pope Sixtus IV, on May 31, 1473, at Lambeth palace (6). At the death of King Edward IV in 1483, Cardinal Bourchier excused himself from attending the king's magnificent funeral because of growing illnesses; in that same year he had a coadjutor bishop, William Westkarre, appointed to assist him in carrying out his archiepiscopal duties. After the death of King Edward IV, Cardinal Bourchier persuaded the queen to allow her younger son, Richard, duke of York, to share his brother's residence in the Tower of London; and although he had sworn to be faithful to future King Edward V before his father's death, he crowned King Richard III on July 6, 1483. However, the cardinal was not implicated in the murder of the young princes in any way. Probably, he was a participant in the conspiracies that later occurred against King Richard III, who was killed in 1485 on the field of Bosworth. Did not participate in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. Cardinal Bourchier crowned King Henry VII on October 13, 1485; and officiated in the wedding of the new Lancastrian king and Princess Elizabeth of York on January 18, 1486 in Westminster abbey, at the end of the War of the Roses. He was a distinguished patron of literature, education and the fine arts; in his endeavors, the cardinal associated himself with another patron of scholars, Anthony Woodville, earl of Rivers, the brother of the queen. He assisted William Caxton in starting his original printing press and it was the cardinal himself who introduced its use in Oxford University, where the first book printed in England was produced in 1468.

Death. March 30, 1486, Knole, near Sevenoaks, Kent. His body was taken to Maidstone, and then to Faversham. On April 14, 1486, a magnificent funeral was celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral of Canterbury and the body was buried in a sepulchre of gray marble (7) in the north choir aisle of that cathedral, the place he had chosen for his sepulchre (8).

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 37-39; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 158-159; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1097; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 139; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 14, 48, 62, 117, 150 and 268; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, pp.77-82; Isaacson, Charles S. The story of the English cardinals. London : Elliot Stock, 1907, pp. 118-128; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, pp. 37-39; Williams, Robert Folkestone. Lives of the English cardinals, including historical notices of the papal court, from Nicholas Breakspear (Pope Adrian IV) to Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal Legate. 2 vols. Westmead, England : Gregg International, 1969. Responsibility: London, Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1868, II, 124-151.

Webgraphy.Biography by Henry Birt, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English, The Tudor Place; images and biography, in English, manninghouse.co.uk; and Cardinal Bourchier Urges the Widow of Edward IV to Let her Son out of Sanctuary by John Zephaniah Bell (1794-1883), Tate Collection, London, England.

(1) This earldom is also listed as Ewe.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 139; Williams, Lives of the English cardinals, II, 127, says that he was consecrated on May 15, 1436.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 139; Baxter, England's cardinals, p. 37; and Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 37, say that he received the pallium on January 25, 1455 at Canterbury cathedral.
(4) According to Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 38-39, the bishop of Chichester had written denying the authenticity of the Creed of the Apostles, of which he published a revised version; "was alleged to hold that the Natural Law is of greater authority than the Scriptures and to have denied the doctrine that Christ descended into Hell. It is admitted that Bishop Peacock did not hold these views but he acknowledged that his writings were unorthodox and withdrew them." In his judgement, the archbishop had acted without papal authority, was wrong in canon law, and had erred in understanding the bishop's affirmations. Pope Callistus III issued a bull ordering the bishop restored in his see but the archbishop refused to act according to the document. Pope Pius II ordered that Bishop Peacock should go to Rome, so that he could personally examine his case, but the bishop died before the process could start.
(5) In 1477, that title was transferred to the church of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, keeping its denomination; in 1587, the denomination was suppressed, becoming the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta.
(6) Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 38, indicates that the cardinal had been reserved in pectore for seven years because of the unsettled situation in England. None of the sources consulted mention this affirmation.
(7) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1097: HIC. IACET. REVERENDISSUMUS. PATER. ET. DOMINVS. THOMAS. BOVRCHIER. QVONDAM. SAC. S. ROMANAE. ECCLESIAE. S. CYRIACI. IN. THERMIS. CARDINALIS. ET. ARCHIEPISCOPVS. HVIVS. ECCLESIAE. QVI. OBIIT. XXX. DIE. MARTII. ANNO. MCCCCLXXXVI. CVIVS. ANIMAE. PROPITIETVR.DEVS.
(8) According to Williams, Lives of the English cardinals, II, 150, "He had executed a will a few days before his demise, in which he bequeathed a hundred and twenty five pounds to each of the universities, to be lent to poor scholars in sums of a hundred marks; a hundred pounds to be distributed to the poor; to his successor the sum of £2,000 for dilapidations; a statuette of gold and jewels of great value to the prior and chapter of Christchurch, Canterbury; one of silver to Ely; and to his kinsmen some of his manors and jewels. In the year 1455 the cardinal had purchased from Lord Say and Sele the manor of Knowle, in Sevenoaks. He rebuilt the mansion in a castellated form, and made it one of the manor-houses of his see. He was always a promoter of architecture, and took special interest in the noble productions which, despite the unfavorable times, were completed in his time. It has been averred that he founded a chantry. His benefactions to Canterbury were princely; among them was the alien priory of Cranfield, in Essex, presented to him by Edward IV, which he gave to the prior and convent of Christchurch.

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(2) 2. VÁRDAI, István (ca. 1425-1471)

Birth. Ca. 1425, Szabolcs, Hungary. Of a noble family (1). Son of Pelbárt Várdai. His first name is also listed as Stephanus' and his last name as Varda, Vardaio, Varada, Vardajo and Varas.

Education. Studied in Ferrara and obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Early life. Initially, he joined the military and defended the borders of Hungary against the Turks. Later, he entered the ecclesiastical state. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Eger, 1451 -1454. From 1454 to 1456, he was in Transylvania. Provost of the cathedral chapter of Eger in 1456. Vice-chancellor of the kingdom of Hungary, 1456-1458; chancellor, 1464-1471. Nominated by King László V of Hungary and postulated by the metropolitan cathedral chapter as archbishop of Kalocsa (2).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Confirmed by the pope archbishop of Kalocsa, February 25, 1457. Consecrated (no information found). Sent to France to negociate the marriage between King László V and a daughter of King Charles VII; the embassy was frustrated because of the death of the Hungarian king in 1457. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of Mátyás Corvin, king of Hungary, and of King Louis XI of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1467; published the following day in the church of S. Marco; he was absent; received the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, May 13, 1468; the pope sent him received the red hat in the last month of his life.

Death. Between February 22 and 26, 1471, Kalocsa. Buried in Kalocsa.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 159; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1097 and 1118; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 139; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 14, 36, 37, 64 and 132; Menyhért, Érdujhelyi. A kalocsai érsekség a renaissance korábban. Zenta : [s.n.], 1899; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXXXVIII, 140; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 44-49 and 317.

Webgraphy. Brief biography, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Köyutár; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his biography in Hungarian, linked above. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 159, says that he was born of vili, e miserabili genitori. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 139, says that he was of a famille obscure. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LXXXVIII, 140, says that he was born of miserabili genitori.
(2) The name of the see is also listed as Kalocza and Kalocza-Bacs.

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(3) 3. CARAFA, Oliviero (1430-1511)

Birth. March 10, 1430, Rome. From the branch of Carafa della Stadera. Of the counts of Matalona. Son of Francesco Carafa, Neapolitan patrician, and Maria Origlia. His last name is also listed as Caraffa. He was called the Cardinal of Naples. Half-uncle of Cardinal Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527). Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Gian Pietro Carafa (1536), future Pope Paul IV; Carlo Carafa (1555); Diomede Carafa (1555); Alfonso Carafa (1557); Antonio Carafa (1568); Decio Carafa (1611); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law in Naples. He also studied theology.

Early life. Canon prebendary of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Naples, November 18, 1458.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Naples, November 18, 1458; resigned the see in favor of his brother Alessandro on September 20, 1484. Consecrated, December 29, 1458, Torre del Greco, by Leone de Simone, bishop of Nola, assisted by Leone Cortese, bishop of Acerra, and by Benedetto, bishop of Dragonara. Took possession of the see on January 13, 1459. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the king of Naples, Ferdinando I d'Aragona.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1467; published the following day in the church of S. Marco, Rome; he was absent; arrived in Rome on December 3, 1467; on that same day and in that church, he received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro. Opted for the title of S. Eusebio on September 5, 1470. Participated in the conclave of 1471, which elected Pope Sixtus IV. On December 22, 1471, the new Pope Sixtus IV named him legate before King Ferdinando I of Naples to obtain his participation in the formation of a fleet, which the cardinal was going to command; he left Rome on May 28, 1472, feast of Corpus Christi, after having celebrated mass in the basilica of St. Peter in the presence of the pope and the Roman Curia; reached Ostia and went aboard and headed the Christian fleet as its admiral; went to Naples and continued toward Rhodes; fought the Turkish vessels and occupied the important Muslim stronghold of Smyrna; returned to Rome on January 23, 1473 with the prisoners that had been captured and was received by the pope in consistory. On June 5, 1473, the cardinal received in Rome Princess Eleonora, daughter of the king of Naples. Went with the pope to Viterbo and Foligno on June 10, 1476, because of the plague. In a consistory celebrated in Narni on July 24, 1476, he opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, retaining the title of S. Eusebio in commendam until his death. Elected camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals on January 15, 1477; occupied the post until January 9, 1478. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, January 31, 1483; during his episcopate the see was transferred to Magliano on October 1, 1495. Participated in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. Abbot commendatario of Cava and of Montevergine from 1485, succeeding Cardinal Giovanni d'Aragona. Named administrator of the see of Salamanca, November 16, 1491; occupied the post until June 23, 1494. Participated in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. After the election of the new pope, he was elected dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. He went away from Rome; returned to the city and abstained himself from visiting King Charles VIII of France, who had arrived in Rome; on January 7, 1493, he sought refuge with the pope in Castello Sant'Angelo. He left Rome for Orvieto with Pope Alexander VI on May 27, 1495. Named administrator of Rimini, October 31, 1495; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Vincenzo on September 13, 1497. Protector of the Dominican friars, he declined to defend Girolamo Savonarola in April 1497. Resigned the commendam of the monastery of la Cava, April 15, 1497; he had united it to the Congregation of S. Giustino of Padua. President of the six cardinal commission for the preparation of the bull of reform, November 1497. On March 28, 1498, he resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of Pulsano, diocese of Manfredonia, which was given in commendam to his nephew Giacomo Tocho. He left Rome in July 1498 for Naples, where he was received triumphantly; returned to Rome on January 29, 1499. Named administrator of the see of Chieti, February 2, 1500; occupied the post until December 20, 1501, when his nephew Bernardin replaced him as bishop. On February 8, 1501, he was named member of the commission of the three cardinals chief of orders to control the finances of the crusade. At the death of his brother, he became administrator of the see of Naples on August 4, 1503; occupied the post until April 1505. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. On October 8, 1503, the new pope granted the cardinal the benefices that he had just resigned, most notably, the commendam of the abbey of Monte Vergine, to which he added new constructions. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. On November 26, 1503, the new pope granted him the commendam of the church of S. Maria di Brencholo, diocese of Bobbio. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 29, 1503. Administrator of Cajazzo, in 1506; occupied the post until July 9, 1507. Administrator of Terracina, August 20, 1507; occupied the post until May 13, 1510. In August 1510, he was dispensed, because of his age, from going to Viterbo, where the Sacred College of Cardinals had been convoked. He was a patron of the arts and letters and of the first printers of Rome. Also, he was a great benefactor of the cities of Rome and Naples, where he built churches, hospitals and monasteries. He made his nephew, Gian Pietro, who later became Pope Paul IV, enter the ecclesiastical state.

Death. January 20, 1511, Rome. He was buried on that same day in the chapel of S. Tommaso, which he had built, in the right transept of the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva (1), Rome (2); he had the chapel decorated with frescoes by Filippino Lippi. Soon after, his remains were transferred to Naples and buried in la Confessione chapel in the metropolitan cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 159-163; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1097-1105; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 139-140; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 14, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 46, 49, 52, 54, 55, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63; 95, 200, 227 and 249; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 145 and 310; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, IX, 240-242; Norman, Diane. "Cardinal of Naples and Cardinal in Rome : the patronage of Oliviero Carafa" in The possessions of a Cardinal : politics, piety, and art, 1450-1700. Edited by Mary Hollingsworth & Carol M. Richardson. University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010, p. 77-91; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, p. 100-105.

Webgraphy. Biography by Franca Petrucci, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Trecacni; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his genealogy, A2 B3, Libro d'Oro della Nobiltà Mediterranea; brief biographical data, in Italian, Sapere.it; his portrait (1750-1799), archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his marble bust (misidentified as Antonio Carafa) (1623-1626) by J. Lazzari and G. A. Galluccio, Southern Italy Shop, rchdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait in the Annunciation of the Virgin, presented by Saint Thomas Aquinas, by Filippo Lippi in the Carafa Chapel, church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, The Australian National University; his marble statue in the crypt of the cathedral of Naples (1400-1599), Neapolitan Shop, archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); detail of his face in the same painting; his arms, Porta Tiburtina or S. Lorenzo, Rome, Italy, Associazione Culturale Info.roma.it; and Cristo di dolore e il cardinale Oliviero Carafa by Cesare da Sesto, Collezione Farnese, Museo di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy.

(1) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, IX, 242, says that he was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1104: OLIVERII. CARAFAE. NEAPOLITANI. ORDINIS. PRAEDICATORVM. PROTECTORIS. RARI. EXEMPLI. DEPOSITVM. QVI. VIXIT. ANN. LXXX. MENSES. X. DIES. X. SACRI. SENATVS. ORNAMENTVM. OBIIT. KAL. FEBRVARII. RELIGIOSE. INTREPIDEQVE. MAGNO. SVI. DESIDERIO. RELICTO.

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(4) 4. AGNIFILI, Amico (ca. 1398-1476)

Birth. Ca. 1398, Collemezzo, Rocca di Mezzo, diocese of Aquila. Of a very poor family. His father, a shepherd, sent him and his brother to study in Aquila. He is also listed as Amico della Rocca and Amicus Agnifilus. His last name is also listed as Angifilo. He was called the Cardinal of Aquila. When he was promoted to the cardinalate, he had to assume a last name, which he did not have, and chose Agnifili, friend of the lamb ("Agni", lamb; and "philos", friend), like Christ and the occupation of his family.

Education. Studied in Aquila and later in Rome, under Cardinal Domenico Capranica; in Bologna, he was a schoolmate of Enea Silvio Piccolomini, future Pope Pius II. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Returned to Aquila and was named canon of its cathedral chapter and archpriest of S. Paolo di Barete. Went to Rome and was named canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. Professor of law at the University of Bologna, where he had as student Pietro Barbo, future Pope Paul II.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aquila, May 23, 1431; resigned in 1472 in favor of his nephew Francesco; occupied the see again on August 20, 1476, after the death of Francesco, who died on August 8. Consecrated, May 14, 1431, cathedral of L'Aquila, by Nicola Tartaglia, bishop of Lesina, assisted by Pietro Janatella, bishop of SantAngelo dei Lombardi, and by Francesco Lerinense (sic). He took as arms a lamb and a book. He was counselor to the kings of Naples Alfonso I and Ferdinando I d'Aragona. Pope Eugenius IV sent him as his legate to the coronation of Emperor Sigismund in Milan. He was in charge of several legations, among them the one of the Province of the Patrimony. Together with Giovanni da Palena, bishop of Penne, he was commissary for the sanctification of Bernardino di Siena. He was visited by Giovanni da Capistrano, another future saint. In 1456, he obtained the submission of the abbey of Bominaco to the obedience of the bishop and returned to the cathedral chapter of Aquila the priorate of S. Antonio, which had been unjustly occupied. When the city of Aquila rebelled against King Ferdinando I d'Aragona, and placed itself under Giovanni di Renato d'Angiò, Bishop Agnifili blessed their flag in the cathedral on January 6, 1460, assisted by the archbishop of S. Biagio and the prior of S. Antonio. The bishop's action displeased Pope Pius II, who on June 10, 1461, sent two briefs, one to the city and one to the bishop, rebuffing them for having joined the Angioini. After the city returned again to King Ferdinando, the flag was blessed on July 3, 1464. Pope Paul II, his former student, named him general treasurer of the church in the Marca, and later promoted him to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1467; published the following day in the church of S. Marco, Rome; he was absent. arrived in Rome on October 22, 1467 and received the red hat on that same day in the church of S. Marco; received the title of S. Balbina on November 13, 1467. Named abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Lorenzo in Aversa, October 30, 1467. In October 1468, he participated in the celebrations of the marriage of Giovanni Antonio Carafa and Vittoria Camponeschi, parents of future Pope Paul IV. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, October 13, 1469. Pope Paul II charged him with the construction of new fortifications in Civitavecchia; he also helped secure Nepi and Isbernia. When the news of the death of the pope reached Aquila, he left for Rome on July 28, 1471. Participated in the conclave of 1471, which elected Pope Sixtus IV. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, diocese of Rieti, August 20, 1476.

Death. November 9, 1476, Aquila. Buried in a marble tomb, sculpted by Silvestro d'Ariscola, in the cathedral of S. Massimo, Aquila. His epitaph, in verse, praises his generosity toward the poor (1). The monument was removed in 1703 during the reconstruction of the cathedral after that year's earthquake; it was placed there again in 1887, when the interior decoration of the cathedral were finished.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 172-173; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1111; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 140; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 14, 35, 40, 61, 64 and 91; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, II, 84; Rivera, Giuseppe. Memorie biographiche dei cardinali abruzzesi. Aquila : G. Melen, 1925, pp. 94-103.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, under ROCCA DI MEZZO, Dizionario Bibliografico della Gente d'Abruzzo di Raffaele Aurini; his portrait, church of S. Maria del Valle Porclaneta, Rocca di Mezzo, Gli Scritti, Centro Culturale; and his tomb, cathedral of S. Massimo, Aquila, Italy, Alinari Archives.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II 1111:

Quatuor, denos qui rexit Episcopus annos
Cardineumque decem gessit AMICVS onus,
Pauperibus largus, prudens, Canonumque profundus
Iterpres, Patriæ progenieque decus.
Divinitiis Templum hoc ornavit, ædibus ædes
Mente Deum periit, hunctenent ossa locum.
OBIIT AN. MCDLXXVI. PONTIFICATVS SIXTI PP. IV. SEXTO
DIE V. IDVS. NOVEMBRIS OPVS SYLVESTRI AQVILANI MCDLXXX.

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(5) 5. BARBO, Marco (1420-1491)

Birth. 1420, Venice. Of a patrician family. Eldest of the three children of Paolo Barbo, Venetian patrician, and Lascaris di Ventimiglia. Relative of Pope Paul II (1). He was called the Cardinal of Vicenza, of Aquileia, or of S. Marco, or the patriarch.

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found about his ordination). Abbot commendatario of S. Pietro di Rosazzo from 1453; of S. Pietro di Osero, 1452; and of Ss. Sergio e Bacco di Escutari, 1453.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Treviso, November 14, 1455; occupied the see until March 18, 1470. Consecrated (no information found). Named bishop of Vicenza, September 17, 1464; enthroned, October 1, 1464. It is said that the pope wanted to create him cardinal in Christmas 1464.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1467; published the following day in the church of S. Marco, Rome; received the red hat on September 19, 1467; and the title of S. Marco, October 2, 1467. Resided in the palace of S. Marco, next to the pope. In February 1468, the pope entrusted to him the investigation of the conspiracy of Callimaque. Promoted to the patriarchate of Aquileia, March 18, 1470; he celebrated an important provincial council; occupied the see until his death. On March 15, 1471, the pope offered him the see of Verona but he declined; three days later, it was given in commendam to Cardinal Giovanni Michiel. In that same month, March 1471, he received Duke Borso of Modena in Rome. At the death of Pope Paul II on July 26, 1471, he brought his body to St. Peter's basilica and had Mino di Fiesole built a tomb in the chapel of S. Andrea; the debris of the tomb are now in the museum of St. Peter's. Participated in the conclave of 1471, which elected Pope Sixtus IV. Named legate in Germany, Hungary and Poland to promote the crusade against the Turks, December 22, 1471; received 2,083 florins on February 6, 1472, to cover the expenses of the trip; left Rome for his legation of February 22, 1472; went to the court of Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III; in spite of his efforts, his mission accomplished little success; returned to Rome thirty-two months later, on October 26, 1474; he was received in public consistory by the pope. Received in commendam the Benedictine monastery of S. Croce di Sansovivo, diocese of Foligno on July 24, 1476. He was also abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Pietro in Rosacio. Elected camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1478; he was absent from Rome because of the plague from June 25 to October 15 of that year; occupied the post until January 8, 1479. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina. November 6, 1478; retained his title in commendam until his death; he restored the cathedral of Palestrina. Protector of the hospice of S. Maria dell'Anima in 1479. He went to Oriveto and returned to Rome on March 5, 1483; he stayed away from the city as much as possible because of the worldliness of the papal court. Participated in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. On November 11, 1489, he returned to Rome from Palestrina. He was very erudite and had an excellent library; generous and charitable, he left all his wealth to the poor.

Death. March 2, 1491 (2), Rome. Buried in the tomb that he had built in the church of S. Marco, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 163-165; ; Il carteggio fra il card. Marco Barbo e Giovanni Lorenzi (1481-1490). Edited by Pio Paschini. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1948. (Studi e testi, 137; Variation: Biblioteca apostolica vaticana; Studi e testi ; 137); Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1105-1107; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 140-141; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 46, 49, 60, 63, 92 and 267; Orsoni, Alessandro. Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia. Corredata di annotazioni illustranti l'ecclesiastico-civile veneta storia. Venezia : Tip. G.S. Felice, 1828, p. 290.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in Italian;his arms; and his epitaph in the church of S. Marco, Rome.

(1) Several sources indicate that he was a nephew of Pope Paul II. The Enciclopedia de la Religión Católica (7 volumes, Barcelona : Dalmau y Jover, 1950-1956) seems to provide a solution to this problem. According to this work, Marco Barbo was not a nephew of Pope Paul II, but of Ludovico Barbo, bishop of Treviso, which seems likely not only by the matter of dates, but because Marco Barbo was also bishop of Treviso (although not the immediate successor of his uncle) and because Chacón does not call him "nepos" (nephew) of Pope Paul II but "patruelis" (that means first cousin). He was not that, but rather a distant cousin (in third degree). This is what suggests the epitaph of the funeral monument of Pope Paul II, in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1078, which calls him "consanguineo" (and not "nepos" or "fratris filius") of this pope.
(2) This is according to his epitaph, linked above; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 15 and 60; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 141, say that he died on March 11, 1491; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II 1106, made a mistake transcribing the text of his epitaph (note 3) which says that he OBIIT...DIE II MARTII and not XI MARTII as the transcription indicates.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II 1106:

MARCVS BARBVS CARDINALIS S. MARCI
PATRIARCHA AQVILEIENSIS
ITA SIBI VIVENS FIERI VOLVIT
ORATE PRO EO DOMINVM.
OBIIT ANNO SALVTIS MCDXC. DIE XI. MARTII.
OLIVERIVS ET FRANCISCVS CARDINALES EXECVTORES
B. M. POSVERVNT.

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(6) 6. BALUE, Jean (ca. 1421-1491)

Birth. Ca. 1421, Basse d'Angles-sur-Langlin, near Montmorillo, diocese of Poitiers, France. Son of the châtelain of Angles-sur-Langlin. His last name is also listed as la Balue; as de la Balue; and as Balve. He was called the Cardinal of Angers.

Education. Entered the ecclesiastical state. Studied at the University of Angers (licentiate in law, ca. 1457).

Priesthood. Ordained in Poitiers (no further information found). Protegé of Jacques-Juvénal des Ursius, bishop of Poitiers and patriarch of Antioch, who made him the executor of his will in 1457. Later, he went to Angers, where the bishop, Jean de Beauveau, named him canon of Saint-Maurille in 1461; and vicar general. In 1462, he accompanied his bishop, who had been named French ambassador to Rome, and was named protonotary apostolic. Prebendary of Sainte-Marguerite d'Angers, September 1, 1462; the nomination provoked a dispute with the chapter of Angers, and he went to Paris to defend his interests; there, he met Charles de Melun, who introduced him to King Louis XI of France. The monarch named him his secretary and aumonier; and in 1464, named him counselor clerk of the parliament and counselor of State. He could not obtain from the pope two benefices in Paris and Angers. Treasurer of the see of Angers in 1463. Later, he became intendant of royal finances and secretary of State. Named abbot commendatario of Fécamp in 1464.

Episcopate. Named bishop of Evreux by the king of France on February 4, 1465; confirmed by the pope, May 20, 1465. Consecrated, August 4, 1465, cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, by Guillaume Chartier, bishop of Paris; took possession of the see on August 22, 1465. In Paris, he occupied himself with the Ligue du Bien public and guarded the city for the king, increasing his influence over him. Formed part of an embassy to Rome in October 1466 with Cardinal Jean Jouffroy; returned to France and left the see of Evreux to his brother Antoine Value, O.S.B., and was transferred to the see of Angers on June 5, 1467; kept the see until his death; he was enthroned on February 11, 1468; he replaced his benefactor, Bishop Beauvau, whom he accused falsely and who was deposed by the metropolitan archbishop of Tours in 1465 and by the pope in 1467. Named by the king abbot commendatario of Saint-Jean-d'Angély in 1465; and of Saint-Eloi; of Saint-Thierry; and of Bec. The king requested in 1465 and 1466 his promotion to the cardinalate; in spite of his repugnance, the pope acquiesced.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1467; published the following day in the church of S. Marco, Rome; he was absent; received the title of S. Susanna on May 13, 1468. On October 1, 1467, he presented in the Parliament of Paris a declaration for the abrogation of the Pragmatic Sanction, that to thank for his promotion, King Louis XI had made. Received the red hat in a ceremony celebrated in France by Cardinal Alain de Coetivy, who brought him the hat. On April 6, 1468, he attended, seated at the right of the king, the États of Tours. Because of Bishop Balue's intrigues, Charles de Melun was decapitated in Loches in 1468 by order of King Louis XI. Counselor to King Louis XI in the interview of Péronne with Charles le Teméraire; he lost the confidence of the king, who accused him of treason because of intercepted letters on April 15, 1469; he was arrested in Amboise, deposed of his properties and imprisoned in Loches; later, he was transferred to the château of Onzain, near Blois, and was kept for eleven years in an iron cage; the cardinal called his chains the fillettes du roi; his cardinalitial dignity saved him from being executed because the pope intervened in his favor; in 1472, Cardinal Johannes Bessarion, legate in France, in vain demanded his freedom; in August 1480, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, another legate in France, later Pope Julius II, obtained his freedom with the condition that the prisoner would leave France. Did not participate in the conclave of 1471, which elected Pope Sixtus IV. After several months in Lucca, he arrived in Rome on February 3, 1482; he was received in a public consistory; resided in the palace of S. Pietro in Vincoli; Pope Sixtus IV finished the ceremonies of investiture as a cardinal. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, January 31, 1483. Named, on October 8, 1483, legate a latere before the new King Charles VIII of France; he left Rome on October 13; he was received in a sumptuous reception by the king on July 24, 1484 in Angers. Did not participate in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. Named abbot commendatario of Saint-Ouen de Rouen. Named bishop of Autun, October 13, 1484; resigned the see in April 1490. Returned to Rome from his legation in France on February 8, 1485; Pope Innocent VIII received him the following day in a public consistory. Resided then in Rome as ambassador of the king of France and protector of the French interests. On September 12, 1486, he entered Rome ahead of the cardinal bishop of Ostia e Velletri. Charged, in July 1487, with helping to subdue the city of Osimo, which had revolted. Named protector of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and guardian of Prince Djem, brother of the sultan of Turkey, who had been relegated to Auvergne (1). Obtained in commendam the monastery of Saint-Vaas, Arras, on September 24, 1488; resigned the same on February 4, 1489. Returned from Ostia with the pope on November 18, 1489. Resigned the commendam of the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Lagny, Paris, on June 14, 1490. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina on March 14, 1491. In August 1491, he was named legate to repress the troubles occurring in the Marche Anconitana.

Death. October 5, 1491, at 2 a.m., Ripatransone, Marche Anconitana. His body was transferred to Rome on October 18, 1491 and deposited in the church of S. Prassede; later it was buried in the chapel of the Saints in that church. His epitaph was composed by Cardinal Antonio Gentile Pallavicino (2). He died without having made a will, therefore, his properties went to the pope.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 296-302; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 165-172; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1107-1110; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 141-142; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15, 36, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49-50, 59, 60, 65, 80, 87 and 148; Forgeot, Henri Léon Joseph. Jean Balue, cardinal d'Angers (1421?-1491). Paris : É. Bouillon, 1895. (Bibliothèque de l'École des hautes études. Sciences philologiques et historiques ; fasc. 106; Variation: Bibliothèque de l'École des hautes études.; IVe section; Sciences historiques et philologiques ; fasc. 106).

Webgraphy. Biography by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; Jean Balue, cardinal d'Angers, 1421 ?-1491 by Henri Forgeot, in French 1895, Bubliothèque Nationale Française; Basse d'Angles, birth place of the cardinal and his house; his engravingt, third, on the right, Lombard Antiquarian Maps and Prints; and another engraving, probably from the 17th century, Bibliothèque publique et universitaire, Neuchãtel.

(1) Pierre d'Aubusson, grand master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, received from Prince Djem (also called Zizim), who was disputing the throne with his brother Sultan Bajazet, a request for asylum in Rhodes on July 9, 1482; the request was accepted on July 12th and received July 29th; Prince Djem was sent to France and relegated to Auvergne; in April 1485, Pope Innocent VIII requested that he be transferred to Rome; the transfer was accorded on February 13, 1486 and he arrived in Rome on March 13, 1489; he died there on February 25, 1495.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from his biography in French, p. 149, linked above:

D. O. M.
Hic, inter prospera et adversa, varia usus fortuna
In Piceno, sub Innocentio VIII, legatum agens septuagenarius gloriose
Obiit
Instabilitatis humanae et felicitates exemplum
Memorabile--Antonius, episcopus, veteris amicitie memor posuti
D. O. M.
Ioanni Andegavensi, episcopo Albanensi.


Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 302, transcribes the following epitaph:

Deo     Opt.    Max.
Joanni Card. Andegavensi Episcopo Albanensi.
Hic Heros prospera, et adversa varia usus
fortuna in Piceno sub Innocentio VIII Legatus
agnes septuagenarius glorosie obiit, infelicitatis
humanæ, et felicitatis exemplum memorabile.

Antonius episcopus veteris amicitiæ
memor posuit.

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(7) 7. DELLA ROVERE, O.F.M.Conv., Francesco (1414-1484)

Birth. July 21, 1414, hamlet of Pecorile, Cella Ligure, near Albisola, diocese of Savona. Of an impoverished and ancient distinguished family that destined him to the religious life when he was a child. Son of Leonardo della Rovere and Luchina Monleone (1). His father had to leave Albisla with the family because of an epidemic. Sicklish when he was very young, he made a vow to St. Francis of Assisi. He was called the Cardinal of S. Pietro in Vincoli. Uncle of Cardinal Pietro Riario, O.F.M.Conv. (1471); and of Pope Julius II. Cousin of Cardinal Girolamo Basso della Rovere (1477); Grand-uncle of Cardinals Raffaele Sansoni Riario (1477); Clemente Grosso della Rovere, O.F.M.Conv. (1503); Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere (1503); Marco Vigerio Della Rovere, O.F.M.Conv. (1505); Leonardo Grosso della Rovere (1505). Another cardinal of the family was Giulio della Rovere (1547).

Education. When he was nine years old, by his mother's decision, his education was entrusted to a Franciscan friar. Studied grammar in the convent of Savona under Fr. Giovanni Pinnarolo, O.F.M.Conv. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Conventual (Franciscans). Studied in Chieri and at the University of Pavia and the University of Bologna; in the University of Padua, he obtained doctorates in philosophy and theology (the latter one and the title of magister on April 14, 1444).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Professor in Franciscan houses of study at Padua, Bologna, Pavia, Siena, Florence, Perugia. He was called theologus acutissmus. In 1458, he was named socius cismontanus of the aged minister general of the order, Jacopo da Sarzuela. Provincial of the Franciscan province of Liguria in 1460. In December 1462, at the request of Pope Pius II and in his presence, he had a contradictory debate with the Dominicans concerning the Blood of Christ. Procurator general of his order in Rome and vicar general for Italy in 1463. Elected minister general of his order in Perugia on May 20, 1464; he promoted the reform of the order; visited all the Franciscan houses; celebrated a general chapter in Florence in May 1467; afterward, he went to Savona and Pavia; started the construction of a new palace next to the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome (2); he continued in the post until the general chapter celebrated in Venice on May 19, 1469. He had a great reputation as a very knowledgeable friar and an excellent preacher throughout Italy and was very appreciated by Greek Cardinal Johannes Bessarion, who recommended him to the pope for the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 18, 1467; published the following day in the church of S. Marco, Rome; he was absent and arrived in Rome on November 15, 1467; admitted in consistory, received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli on November 20, 1467. He restored his residence next to his title. He wrote several treatises, notably, one dedicated to the Blood of Christ, which he dedicated to Pope Paul II; it was printed in Rome in 1470; he wrote another treatise about the Immaculate Conception. On September 5, 1470, he received the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of S. Eustachio di Neversa, diocese of Treviso. Participated in the conclave of 1471 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on August 9, 1471 at the Vatican palace. Took the name Sixtus IV.

Episcopate. Consecrated bishop of Rome, August 25, 1471, by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, bishop of Ostia e Velletri. Crowned on August 25, 1471, in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Rodrigo Borja y Borja, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carce, future Pope Alexander VI. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica on that same day. He was a patron of letters and art. He changed the city of Rome from a medieval into a Renaissance one. Among his works were the opening of new streets and widening and paving of old ones; the building of Ponte Sisto; building churches as S. Maria del Popolo, which was the Della Rovere family burial place; S. Maria della Pace;and the restoration of the hospital of Spirito Santo in Sassia. He brought to Rome renowned painters and sculptors, improved church music and formed the Sistine choir; besides, he established the Vatican archives; and was the second founder of the Vatican library, established initially by Pope Nicholas V. On August 15, 1483, feast of the Assumption of Our Lady, he dedicated the Sistine Chapel to the Blessed Virgin. He created thirty four cardinals in eight consistories.

Death. August 12, 1484, at 5 a.m., probably of gout, Rome. Buried, wearing the Franciscan habit, in chapel that he had built, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, until the monument in bronze by the Florentine sculptor Antonio del Pollaiolo, commissioned by his nephew Giuliano della Rovere, was finished. The monument is composed of a statue of the pope in pontifical vestments surrounded by allegorical figures. It took nine years to complete the funeral monument and it was never used as a tomn. The pope's remains were transferred, together with those of his nephew Pope Julius II, in 1635, during the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII, to the chapel of Santissimo Sacramento in the new patriarchal Vatican basilica (3). In 1922, the monument was moved to St. Peter's Museum; and currently it is in the basilica's grotto.fter two years, the restoration of the monument, under the direction of Sante Guido, was completed in January 2010.

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori. Presentazione di Alberto Ghinato. Roma : Edizioni Francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti Francescani. Collana di cultura francescana, 5), p. 52; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 173-174; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1111-1112 and 1251-1291; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 142-143; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15-20, 26 and 64; ; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 250-251; Lombardi, Giuseppe. "Sisto IV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, II, 701-717; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, I, pp. 48-51 and II, 72-73; Scano, Gaetana. "Sisto IV." Del Re, Niccolò. Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, pp. 992-993; Wright, Alison. The Pollaiuolo brothers : the arts of Florence and Rome. New Haven : Yale University Press, 2005. Contents: The lives of Antonio and Piero del Pollaiuolo -- The formation of the "maestro di disegno" and Antonio del Pollaiuolo's work as a goldsmith -- The earliest paintings and the "Labours of Hercules" -- The development of secular subjects -- Portraiture -- Design and invention -- The Florentine altarpieces -- Painting for the city -- Designing for the city -- Piero del Pollaiuolo : the later independent works -- Small scale bronzes -- The tomb of Sixtus IV -- The tomb of Innocent VIII -- The legacy of the Pollaiuolo brothers.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; coin and biography, in English (Britannica); biography by Michael Schaich, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his genealogy, A1, Genealogy EU; his arms, piazza della Maddalena, Savona, Italy, Chi Era Costui?; commemorative Vatican postal stamps with his effigy and arms, Motivgruppe Deutsche Geschichte; nine medals with his effigy, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; five medals with his effigy, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his effigy on a medal, California State University, Northridge; his effigy on another medal, Web Gallery of Art; his engraving, Allumiere; engraving by Hieronymus Hopfer, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; his portrait by an anonymous artist of a later period, Chapelle des Penitents, chartreuse de Villeneuve lès Avignon, France, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication; Sisto IV nomina Bartolomeo Platina prefetto della Biblioteca Vaticana, fresco by Melozzo degli Abrosi, called Melozzo da Forlì, Vatican Museums, The Vatican, sauvage27; his portrait by Giovanni Massone, 15th century, Musée du Petit Palais, Avignon, France, Réunion des Musées Nationaux; fragment of the Disputation of the Holy Sacrament (La Disputa) by Raffaello Sanzio, Stanza della Segnatura, The Vatican; additional views of the same painting (click on "Segnatura"), Web Gallery of Art; his portrait by Pedro Berruguete, Museum of Art, Cleveland, United States of America; his portrait by Joos Gent, ca. 1475, Art.com, his tomb by Antonio del Pollaiolo, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, Web Gallery of Art.

(1) Her last name is also listed as Monteleoni.
(2) The order, in obedience to a papal directive, in 1444-1445, had to cede the convent of S. Maria in Aracoeli to the Friars Minor Observant. At the request of Cardinal Johannes Bessarion, Pope Pius II, on July 1, 1463, assigned to the Friars Minor Conventual the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli together with the land and buildings next to it.
(3) The tomb is currently marked by a simple tombstone on the floor of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. In the same tomb are buried Pope Julius II and other illustruious family members.

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(8) 8. PALEOLOGO DI MONTFERRATO, Teodoro (1425-1484)

Birth. August 14, 1425, Casale Montferrato. The family was originally from Constantinople. Fifth of the seven children of Giangiacomo Paleologo, margrave of Montferrato, count of Acqui, and Princess Giovanna of Savoy. Called the Cardinal of Montferrato.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Dean of the collegiate church of S. Maria di Saluzzo. Protonotary apostolic. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria di Lucedo, 1457.

Sacred orders. (No information found about his ordination). Promoted to the cardinalate at the instances of his brother-in-law, the king of Cyprus.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 18, 1467; published the following day in the church of S. Marco, Rome. Arrived in Rome on April 21, 1468 and was received in public consistory, where he received the red hat; received the deaconry of S. Teodoro on April 27, 1468. Left Rome on May 1, 1470; returned to the city in June 1471 to participate in the conclave of 1471.

Episcopate.Elected bishop of Casale, 1475; occupied the see until 1481 (1). On October 29, 1479, he resigned the commendam of the Cistercian monastery of Tiglieto, diocese of Acqui, in favor of his nephew Scipione di Monferrato, protonotary apostolic. Left Rome for Piedmont and Lombardy on November 1, 1481; returned to the city on February 15, 1482; left again in May 1482; and again in March 1483; went to Piedmont in December 1483. Of an eminent virtue.

Death. January 21, 1484, as a result of an accidental slight injury that became infected (2), Asti. Buried in the abbatial church of S. Michele di Lucedo, in the tomb of his ancestors.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 174-175; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1112; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 143; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 14, 36, 37, 44, 45, 46, 47, 67; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LI, 11-12.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A1 B3 C1 D5, Genealogy EU; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his genealogy, linked above; neither Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 119 and III, 155; nor Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 814, list him among the occupants of the see, which had been erected on April 18, 1474. None of the other sources consulted mention his episcopate either.
(2) He wounded himself in the arm with the point of his knife while cutting his food.

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