The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Sixtus IV (1471-1484)
Consistory of May 7, 1473


(3) 1. LEVIS, Philippe de (1435-1475)

Birth. November 4, 1435, (no place found), France. Son of Eustache de Levis, baron of Quelus, and Adelaïde de Cusan. Called the Cardinal of Arles.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Apostolic protonotary.

Sacred orders. Received the diaconate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Auch, March 29, 1454; received the pallium on November 29, 1454; succeeded his uncle of the same name. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the metropolitan see of Arles, March 24, 1463; at his death, he was succeeded by his younger brother Eustache. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Montmajour, Arles, and of the Augustinian monastery of Saint-Sernin, Toulous. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King René of Sicily.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 7, 1473; received the red hat in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, May 10, 1473; and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, May 17, 1473. Resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Taurin, diocese of Evreux, September 28, 1473. Resigned the commendam of the monastery of Saint-Victor of Marseille, April 7, 1475.

Death. November 4 (1), 1475, Rome. Buried over the Holy Door, in a sepulchre with the jacent statue of the cardinal, in the patriarchal Liberian basilica (2), Rome (3). His brother Eustache, his suucessor in the see of Arles, was buried in the same tomb in 1489.

Bibliography. Albanès, Joseph Mathias Hyacinthe ; Chevalier, Ulysse. Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France. 7 vols. 1895-1920, III. 869-875. Other Title : Gallia Christiana. Responsibility: D'après les documents authentiques recueillis dans les registres du Vatican et les archives locales. Complétée, annotée et publiée par le chanoine Ulysse Chevalier; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1135-1138; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 182-183; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1257 and 1271-1272; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 147-148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 63, 93 and 100; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXVIII, 165.

Links. His tomb and epitaph, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, The Australian National University; biography, in French, pp. 869-875, by Joseph Hyacinthe Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archevêchés, évêques et abbayes de France, Gallica, Bibliothèque Numérique, Bibliothèque Nationale de France.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 93; the same source, II, 16 and 63, says that he died on November 11, 1475; Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima., III, 875, also says that he died on November 4, 1475; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 148, says that he died on November 11, 1475; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1257, says that he died anno 1475. pridie Non. Novembris; the same source, II, col. 1271, says that he died idibus Ianuarij anno 1476; his epitaph, both in Chacón, II, col. 1272, and linked above, says that he died ANNO. MCDLXXV. PRIDIE. NONAS. NOVEMBRIS.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 183; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXXVIII, 165, say that on the left side of the main alter in the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro, Rome, there is an oval plaque which suppooses that the cardinal is buried in that church. This is its inscription taken from Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima., III, 875: PHILIPPVS. DE. LEVIS. CARDINAL. ET. ARELATEN. ARCHIEPS. HOC. HVMILI. LOCO. POSITVS. PROXIMO. PARIETE. QVIS. FVERIT. AMPLIS. DEMOSTRATVR.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1272:

PHILIPPVS. DE. LEVIS. TIT. SS. PETRI. MARCELLINI.
CARD. ARELATEN. E. GALLIA, ORTVS. ILLVSTRIS.
MORIBVS. VISTVTE. ILLVSTRIOR. ROMANO. PONT.
ET. CHRISTIANISSIMIS. FRANCORVM.
REGIBVS. MAGNO. IN. PRETIO. HABITVS. IN SENATVM.
APOSTOLICVM. PROBITATE. ASCITVS. OBIIT. SVO. NATALI.
MAGNO. SVI. DESIDERIO. RELICTO. QVIPER. QVI. CORPORIS.
ET. ANIMI. BONIS. PRÆDICTVS. SVMMAQ.
AVCTORITATE. POLLENS. PROFVIT. QVIBVS. POTVIT. OBFVIT.
NEMINI.
VIXIT. ANNOS. XL. OBIIT. ANNO. MCDLXXV.
PRIDIE. NONAS. NOVEMBRIS.

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(4) 2. NARDINI, Stefano (?-1484)

Birth. (No date found), Forlì. Son of Nardino Nardini and Giulia dall'Aste. He had a sister, Gesumina, and two brothers, Pierpaolo and Cristoforo, both captains of the army and for a long time at the service of the pope. His last name is also listed as Nardino. He was called the Cardinal of Milan.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the University of Bologna, on June 19, 1445.

Early life. In his youth, he followed a military career. Later, he entered the ecclesiastical state and went to Rome. In 1451, he was a cleric of the papal chamber. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Ferrara. General treasures of the Marches. Governor of Romagna in the pontificate of Pope Callistus III. Referendary in the pontificate of Pope Pius II. Protonotary apostolic. Nuncio in Germany; the pope wrote to him on July 25, 1459, concerning the advance of the Turks in Bosnia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, November 13, 1461; succeeded his uncle, Carlo; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Aragón, where he obtained the derogation of a pragmática, which was dangerous for the freedom of the church. Governor of the Marcha Anconitana. He was in Rome in December 1462 and in November 1463. Recommended to the cardinalate by the Milanese ambassador in April and June 1464, and again, in 1466. Accompanied Pope Pius II to Ancona in July and August 1464. Returned to Rome for the conclave of 1464. Together with Bishop Teodoro Lelio of Treviso, advised the new Pope Paul II in September 1464 not to reduce the number of cardinals to twenty four as the cardinals who participated in the conclave had agreed during its celebration. Nuncio extraordinary to Naples. Legate in France from April 1467 to June 1468; resided in Paris. He was in Rome in July 1471 when Pope Paul II died. Named by the Sacred College of Cardinals governor of Rome; accepted with reluctance. He was very much appreciated by the new Pope Sixtus IV.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 7, 1473; received the red hat and the title of S. Adriano, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Saint-Sauveur de Lodève, August 31, 1473. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Sauveur de Blaye, diocese of Bordeaux, November 21, 1473. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Stefano, Genoa, December 24, 1473; resigned, March 15, 1474. In 1475, he had built in Rome a grandiose home in the form of castle-fort, currently the palace of Governo Vecchio, next to the Taverna palace. On June 10, 1476, he went to Viterbo accompanying the pope; and to Foligno, because of the plague. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere in 1476. On July 5, 1479, he resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of San Cuensa, diocese of Barcelona. On January 11, 1480, he resigned the commendam of the Vallombrosian monastery of S. Bartolomeo, diocese of Novara. On January 30, 1480, he resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of S. Ambrosio, Milan; and of another monastery that he ceded to his nephew Giovanni. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1481 until January 7, 1482. Received in his Roman palace Roberto Malatesta, commandant of the papal troops, who was killed on December 10, 1483. Founder of Collegio Nardini, near the church of S. Tommaso in Parione, in Rome, for twenty four students. In 1483, he rebuilt the sacristy of his titular church. He made considerable donations to the archdiocese of Milan, built its archiepiscopal palace and a sumptuous villa outside the city walls. Participated in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. Absent because of illness from the consistory celebrated after the election, he was named legate in Avignon; he was not able to enter his legation and take possession because he died soon after.

Death. October 22, 1484, Rome; the following night, his body was taken to the patriarchal Vatican basilica and buried in its grotto, near the tomb of Queen Carlotta of Cyprus. The obsequies began on November 8, 1483. He left his palace and all his possessions to the hospital of S. Giovanni Laterano, Rome.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1259; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 183-185; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 213-215; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 257; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 39, 44, 46, 47, 64, 66 and 188; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, II 136, 138, 140 and 147; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLVII, 221-222.

Links. Biography by Anna Esposito, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 77 (2012), Treccani; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, door of Palazzo Nardini or of Governo Vecchio, where he founded Collegio Nardini; his arms, Arladica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Cazzani, Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano, p. 215:

D. O. M.
STEPHANO NARDINO PATRIA FOROLIVIENSI
TITULI S. MARIAS TRANSTYBERIM PRESB. CARDINALI
MEDIOLANENSI ARCHIEPISCOPO
LEGATO AVENIONENSI
OBIIT ANNO SALUTIS MCDLXXXIV
XI CALEND. NOVEMBRIS

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(5) 3. DESPUIG, Ausias (1423-1483)

Birth. 1423, Játiva, diocese of Valencia, Spain. His first name is also listed as Ausiàs Auziás, Osias and Auxias and his last name as de Podio, de Poggio, and del Puch. He was called the Cardinal of Monreale.

Education. Obtained doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Canon and chantre of the cathedral chapter of Barcelona. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Gerona, Huesca and Urgel; resigned the latter one after 1456. Papal subdeacon participantium, June 26, 1456. King Alfonso V named him chancellor of the Estudio General of Léria on April 13, 1457; also, named canon of the cathedral chapter in order to be able to occupy the chancery. Named Counselor of King Juan II of Aragón, who named him archbishop of Monreale; he was ambassador of the king in several missions.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Named archbishop of Monreale, July 1458; confirmed by the pope, September 18, 1453; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Referendary of the Roman Curia, August 1, 1459; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Intervened in the Concordia de Barcelona between King Juan II and his son the prince of Viana, January 26, 1460. In 1462, he accompanied the king of Aragón to the conference of Sauveterre en Béarn with the king of France, Louis XI. In the first revolt of the Catalans, he sided, like the other bishops of Sicily, with King Juan II. On November 21, 1471, he was in Barcelona, together with several Sicilian bishops, with Juana Enríquez and her son Prince Fernando. Prince Fernando named him chancellor of the kingdom of Sicily on March 4, 1470; occupied the post for eight years. At the beginning of 1472, the royal counselors asked the queen to expel from the council all those who had been excluded in the capitulation of Villafrance, among them the archbishop of Monreale, his uncle the maestre of Montesa and others. On April 4, 1472, he was named governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; occupied the posts until his promotion to the cardinalate. Named ambassador of the king of Aragón in Rome in 1472. On December 22, 1471, Archbishop Despuig signed, in the name of King Juan II, a general league of Italy against the Turks, proposed by Pope Paul II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 7, 1473; received the red hat in the patriarchal Liberian basilica on May 10, 1473; and the title of S. Vitale on May 17, 1473; he was authorized to keep his see. On June 5, 1473, he received in Rome, together with Cardinal Oliviero Carafa and others, Princess Leonor of Naples, who was going to Ferrara to join her husband Ercole, duke of Ferrara. On September 8, 1473, Pope Sixtus IV conferred on Cardinal Despuig the Augustinian priorate of Santa Cristina de Somport, diocese of Huesca. In 1474, when Federico, second son of King Ferrante of Naples, went to Rome, they (except Cardinal Despuig, who thought that it was not appropriate for a cardinal to pay so much honor to the second son of a monarch who was a subject of the church) returned the visit. In 1475, he organized the reception to the Spanish embassy that was sent to Rome to pay obedience to the new Pope Sixtus IV in the name of the Catholic Monarchs. Named archbishop of Zaragoza on December 15, 1475; because of the threats of the king, who was angry because the cardinal had obtained the see without the previous supplication to the monarch, he resigned it and the pope gave the cardinal the faculty to grant all the benefices of the archdiocese on January 13, 1476; on August 14, 1478, the cardinal ceded the administration of the see. Named bishop of Capaccio on August 9, 1476; occupied the see until his death; at the same time, he was named abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Pietro d'Eboli, archdiocese of Salerno. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, December 12, 1477; he enlarged the church and funded several benefices; during the reconstruction of the church, a large amount of gold and silver coins was found and the cardinal immediately ordered that food be distributed to the poor. Named legate a latere in Germany, April 21, 1479, to promote the crusade against the Turks; he left Rome on May 17, 1479 and returned on the following December 1st; he was received by the pope in a public consistory; he presided the Diet of Frankfurt in the name of the pope. On December 31, 1480, he presided the solemn vespers of the octave of Christmas in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. He celebrated the mass of the Annunciation on March 26, 1481, in the presence of the papal court. On June 30, 1481, feast of Saint Paul, the pope went to the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura to inspect the fleet prepared against the Turks and a mass was organized, which was celebrated by Cardinal Despuig. Likewise, the cardinal celebrated the solemn mass of Al Souls day, November 2, 1481; the mass of the Annunciation on March 25, 1482 in the church of S. Maria del Popolo in the presence of the pope; and on January 1, 1483, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Elected camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals unanimously on January 7, 1482; he left Rome for Foligno because of the plague in May 1482; he left the books and the seal of the Sacred College to Cardinal Giovanni Arcimboldo and asked to exercise the office until his return; and later to Cardinal Giovanni Battista Cibo; occupied the post again when he returned to Rome, October 31 until January 15, 1483.

Death. Tuesday September 2, 1483 (1). Buried in the basilica of S. Sabina, Rome (2), in a sepulchre done by Andrea Bregno. His obsequies started on September 16, 1483. He left all his possessions to the poor. Towards the end of the 16th century there was still a mass celebrated for him in the chapel of S. Maria in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 185-186; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1257; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 64; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p.148-149; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 42, 44, 46, 65, 113, 118 and 196; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Despuig de Podio, Ausias o Auziás u Osias." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), II, 257-259.

Links. Biographical entry, in English, enciclopèdia.cat; his tomb, S. Sabina, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 148-149; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 17 gives that date and September 3, 1483 as the date of his death. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1257, says that he died 1483. 7. Id. Septemb.; and so does his epitaph, linked above and trasncribe in note 2; Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 64, says that he died on September 3, 1483.
(2) The inscription on his sarcophagus, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above, says:

AVSIE VALENTINO:PATRIA SETABEN:CARD·MONTIS REGALIS:NOBILI PO
DIORVM FAMILIA ORTO:VITE SANCTIMONIA:SACRARVM LITTER·COGNI
TIONE:ET OMNI VIRTVTVM GENERE EXORNATO:QVI VARIIS HISPANOR·RE
GVM LEGATIONIBVS FVNCTVS:VRBEM PRVDENTER GVBERNAVIT:EXINDE
A XYSTO·IIII·PONT·MAX·IN SACRVM COLLEGIVM ASCRIPTVS:THVSCO FER
VENTE BELLO IN GERMANIAM LEGATVS APOST·SEDIS PROFECTVS EST.CE
SAREM ALLOQVIO DEMVLXIT:NATIONEM IN TVRCOS ANIMAVIT:REDIENS
DIVE SABINE TITVLI SVI AEDEM:SACERDOTIBVS ET AEDIFICIO AVXIT.
COMPOSITIS POSTREMO REBVS FAMILIARIBVS:MORTALITATEM EXVIT.
ANNO ETATIS·LX·SALVTIS CHRISTIANE·MCCCCLXXXIII·VII·IDVS SEP
TEMBER·PAR VITE RELIGIOSVS EXITVS·PECVNIAM EGENIS ALIMENTVM:
AMICI TESTAMENTARII:INTEGRA FIDE:DISTRIBVI CVRAVERVNT

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(6) 4. GONZÁLEZ DE MENDOZA, Pedro (1428-1495)

Birth. May 3, 1428, Guadalajara, Castilla, Spain. Fifth child of Íñigo López de Mendoza, first marquis of Santillana, and Catalina de Figueroa. From childhood he was destined to an ecclesiastical career. His last name is also listed as Gundisalvo di Mendozza. Uncle of Cardinal Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Quiñones (1500). Other cardinals of the family were Francisco Mendoza de Bobadilla (1544); and Íñigo López de Mendoza y Zúñiga (1530). He was called the Cardinal of Sigüenza, of Sevilla and of Toledo.

Education. Studied at the University of Salamanca from 1446 to 1452 (languages; doctorate in law).

Early life. At twelve, when he had already received the ecclesiastical tonsure, his uncle Archbishop Gutiérre Alvarez de Toledo, archbishop of Toledo, named him pastor of Hita and archdeacon of Guadalajara, which was one of the most important diginities of the cathedral chapter of Toledo. When he finished his studies, he entered the court of King Juan II, who named him his chaplain. Protonotary apostolic. He had two sons with Mencía de Lemos: Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, marquis of Zanete; and Diego, count of Mélito; both were legitimized by Pope Innocent VIII. With Inés de Tovar, he had another son, Juan Hurtado de Mendoza, who died in obscurity outside of Spain.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Calahora y La Calzada, November 28, 1453. Consecrated, Sunday July 20, 1454, Valladolid or Segovia, by Alfonso Carrillo, archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Alfonso Fonseca, archbishop of Sevilla, by Rodrigo Luna, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, by Pedro Castillo, bishop of Palencia, by Lope Barrientos, O.P., bishop of Segovia, and by Alfonso Santa María, bishop of Cartagena. After a short stay in Calahorra, he returned to the royal court and became an aulic bishop during the reigns of Enrique IV and the Catholic Monarchs, Fernando and Isabel. Chancellor of Castilla and León during the reign of King Enrique IV. When his father, the marquis of Santillana, died in 1458, he became the chief of the powerful Mendoza family, making his policy the aggrandizement and enrichment of himself and his relatives. Transferred to the see of Sigüenza, October 30, 1467; retained the see until his death; built the cathedral of Cruzero. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Valladolid, June 1468. Abbot commendatario of San Zoilo, Carrión de los Condes 1469. He was a personal friend of Cardinal Rodrigo Borja y Borja, future Pope Alexander VI, whom he accompanied in his legation to Castilla in 1472 and to whom he owed his elevation to the cardinalate in strong competition for the same dignity with Archbishop Alfonso Carrillo of Toledo. In 1473, a year before the death of King Enrique IV of Castilla, he sided with Princess Isabel, future queen of Spain, in the question of the succession to the throne; he remained loyal to the queen until the end of his days.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 7, 1473; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Domnica (1), deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, May 17, 1473. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, and named administrator of Sigùenza, May 9, 1474. He was the executor of the will of King Enrique IV, who died in Madrid on December 12, 1474. Counselor of the new King Fernando. King Louis XI of France granted him, in commendam, the abbey of Fecamp, Normandy, in 1475. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, July 6, 1478; he rebuilt the church and brought to it a relic of the true cross of Christ. King Enrique IV gave him the titles of "Gran Cardenal de España" and major chancellor. On April 30, 1482, he consecrated the first Christian church in the Kingdom of Granada, the parish church of Nuestra Seqora de la Encarnacisn de Alhama (2), which was the former Mezquita Mayor de Alhama, a Muslin mosque; King Fernado I el Católico, accompanied the cardinal. Administrator of the see of Osma and abbot commendatario on the Benedictine monastery of Moreruela, Zamora, July 8, 1482; resigned the administration in November 1482. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Vallsoleto, diocese of Palencia. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo and named titular Latin patriarch of Alexandria, November 13, 1482; occupied the sees until his death. On February 14, 1483, he resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of San Pedro de Arlantza, diocese of Burgos. On January 23, 1483, resigned the commendam of the monastery of Carensodo (or Carrostro), diocese of Astorga. Did not participate in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. Accompanied King Fernando and Queen Isabel in their expedition against the Moors which resulted in the surrender of Granada on January 2, 1492; in thanksgiving, he founded a church dedicated to the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Did not participate in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. As legate a latere of Pope Alexander VI, he established the metropolitan see of Granada on January 23, 1493. A long illness kept him in Guadalajara until his death. He founded "Colegio de Santa Cruz" in Valladolid; and "Hospital Santa Cruz" for abandoned children in Toledo. His influence was decisive in the most salient events of the reign of the Catholic Monarchs such as the establishment of the Inquisition, the establishment of dioceses in the territories taken from the Moors, the expulsion of the Jews and the support of Christopher Columbus. He was one of the most powerful men of his time.

Death. January 11, 1495, Guadalajara. Buried in a Renaissancist sepulchre in the side of the Gospel in the main chapel of the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Toledo (3). His memoirs were published in 1569 and reedited in 1625 under the title Cronaca.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 186-187; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1257-1258 and 1344; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 149; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 26, 28, 51, 62, 67, 85, 165, 209, 235 and 252; Gonzálvez, R. "González de Mendoza, Pedro." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), Supl., 1036-1037; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 307; Herrera Casado, Antonio. La huella vida del Cardenal Mendoza. Guadalajara : Ayuntamiento de Guadalajara, 1995.

Links. Biography, in English; portrait and biography, in Spanish; portraits, photographs and chronology, in Spanish; his engraving, arms, tomb and biography, in Spanish; equestrian portrait, Colegio "Santa Cruz", Valladolid, Spain; his arms; and his portrait, archiepiscopal palace, Sevilla, Spain.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Gonzálvez, R. "González de Mendoza, Pedro." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl. 1037, which says that he initially receieved the title of S. Giorgio in Velabro and later opted for the one of S. Maria in Domnica.
(2) Throught 2007, ceremonies are being held to commemorate the 525th anniversary of the consecration.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1344: PETRO. MENDOCÆ. CARDINALI. PATRIARCHÆ. ARCHIPRÆSVLI. DE. ECCLESIA. BENE. MERENTI. Cardineo quondam Petrus lustratus honore. Dormit in hoc lapide nomine qui vigilat. OBIIT. ANNO. SALVTIS. MCDXCV. III. IDVS. IANVARII.

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(7) 5. VENIER, Giacopo Antonio (1422-1479)

Birth. 1422, Recanati. His last name is also listed as Venieri, Venerio and de Veneris. Called the Cardinal of Cuenca.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Papal scriptor in Rome. Later, cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Named by the king bishop of Siracusa on September 15, 1460.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected by the pope bishop of Siracusa, January 9, 1462. Transferred to the see of León, September 16, 1464; took possession on October 7, 1464. Consecrated, Sunday December 22, 1465, church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, archbishop of Rouen. Nuncio of Pope Paul II in Spain before King Enrique IV, who resent him to Rome as his ambassador. Nuncio in Milan in 1460 after the death of Duke Francesco Sforza. Transferred to the see of Cuenca, October 6, 1469; took possession on August 7, 1470; occupied the see until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 7, 1473; received the red hat in the patriarchal Liberian basilica on May 10, 1473; and the title of Ss. Vito e Modesto, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, on May 17, 1473. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, December 3, 1476.

Death. August 3, 1479 (1), Recanati. His body was transported to Rome and buried in the church of S. Clemente on August 12, 1479 (2). The obsequies started on the following September 6th.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 187-189; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1258 and 1274; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 149; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 42, 62, 68, 133, 174 and 244; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 308.

Links. His tomb, church of S. Clemente, Rome, The Australian National University; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Francesco Cristofori. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. 244, gives the date of his death as December 30, 1476 (?).
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1274:

ANTONIO. IACOBO. VENERIO. RACANATENSI. TITVLI. S. CLEMENTIS.
PRESB. CARD. EPISC. CONCHEN. MAGNANIMITATIS.
CONSTANTIÆ. SEVERITATIS. FIDEI. INTEGRITATIS. EXEMPLO.
CVNCTIS. IN. ROMANA. CVRIA. HONORIBVS. AC. IN. OMNIBVS.
PENE. OCCIDENTIS. ORIS. MIR. A. GRATIA. FELICISSIMOQ. SVCCESSV.
LEGATIONE. PERFVNCTO. IN. CARDINALEM. OBMERITA. TOTITVS.
SENATVS. SVFRAGIIS. ASSVMPTO. XYSTVS. IV. PONTIFEX. MAXIMVS. B. POSVIT.
ANNVM. AGENS. LVII. TERTIO. NONAS. AVGVSTI. ANNO. SALVTIS. MCDLXXIX. PATRIA. DECESSIT.

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(8) 6. CIBO, Giovanni Battista (1432-1492)

Birth. 1432, Savona. Son of Arano Cibo (1) and Teodorina de Mari. He was called the Cardinal of Molfetta. Uncle of Lorenzo Cibo de' Mari (1489). His last name is also listed as Cybo, Cybò and Zibo. Other cardinals of the family were Innocenzo Cibo (1513); Alderano Cibo (1645); and Camillo Cibo (1729).

Education. Studied in Padua and Rome.

Early life. Lived in the licentious court of the princes of Aragón in Naples. Entered the ecclesiastical state and the service of Cardinal Filippo Calandrini around 1460. Provost of Genoa.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Savona, November 5, 1466. Consecrated, January 28, 1467. Took possession of the see on April 25, 1467. Named bishop of Molfetta, September 16, 1472; occupied the see until his election to the papacy. Datary of Pope Sixtus IV from 1471 to 1473.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 7, 1473; received the red hat in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, May 10, 1473; and the title of S. Balbina, May 17, 1473. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, January 1474. In June 1476, when the pope went to Viterbo, left him as legate in Rome during the plague. Governor of Siena. Legate before Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III and Mattias Corvin, king of Hungary. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from June 5 to October 31, 1482, during the absence of Cardinal Ausias Despuig. Elected camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals on January 19, 1484; occupied the post until his election to the papacy. Participated in the conclave of 1484 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on August 29, 1484. Took the name Innocent VIII. Crowned, September 12, 1484, in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Francesco Nanni-Todeschini-Piccolomini, protodeacon of S. Eustachio. During his pontificate, he created eight cardinals in one consistory.

Death. Wednesday July 25, 1492, about 9 p.m., Rome (2). Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica in a bronze mausoleum, work of Antonio Pollajuolo; it currently is in the left nave next to the choir of the canons of the basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 389-390; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1258 and 1293-1320; Del Re, Niccolò. Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, pp. 617-619; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, pp. 149-150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 42, 61, 189 and 229; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 251-252; Pellegrini, Marco. "Innocenzo IV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 1-12; Samarelli, Francesco. Giambattista Cibo : eletto vescovo di Molfetta nel 1472 esaltato pontefice col nome di Innocenzo VIII nel 1484. Molfetta : Stab. Tip. V. A. Picca e Figli, 1929; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 162; Wright, Alison. The Pollaiuolo brothers : the arts of Florence and Rome. New Haven : Yale University Press, 2005. Contents: The lives of Antonio and Piero del Pollaiuolo -- The formation of the "maestro di disegno" and Antonio del Pollaiuolo's work as a goldsmith -- The earliest paintings and the "Labours of Hercules" -- The development of secular subjects -- Portraiture -- Design and invention -- The Florentine altarpieces -- Painting for the city -- Designing for the city -- Piero del Pollaiuolo : the later independent works -- Small scale bronzes -- The tomb of Sixtus IV -- The tomb of Innocent VIII -- The legacy of the Pollaiuolo brothers.

Links. Biography by Nicholas Weber,in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English (Britannica); biography by Franz Seiffer, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his engraving, arms and biographical data, in English; his genealogy, A1 H1 I2; his arms, church of S. Balbina, Rome; his arms, at the Vatican; six of his coins, Numismatic Collection, Olomouc, Czech Republic; four of his coins, Numismatic Collection Olomouc, Czech Republic; his engraving; and another engraving; Vatican thanks Knights for restoring tomb from old St. Peter's Basilica, in English, CathNewsUSA.

(1) His first name is also listed as Aronne and as Aranino. He was a functionary of justice in Naples; later, a seniore in Genoa in 1437; and finally, a senator in Rome in 1455.
(2) Roman chronicler Stefano Infessura wrote that in an apparent attempt to revive Pope Innocent VIII on his deathbed, blood transfusions from three young male children were used. All three of them died in the process. Probably this is the earliest recorded case of blood transfusion.

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(9) 7. ARCIMBOLDO, Giovanni (Toward the end of 1426-1488)

Birth. Toward the end of 1426 (1), Milan or Parma. Of an ancient and noble family. Son of Nicolò Arcimboldo, maestro delle Entrate Straordinarie of Filippo Maria Visconti, and Orsina Canossa, descendant of the family of Empress Matilde di Canossa. The other siblings were Guidantonio and Margherita. Called the Cardinal of Novara and the Cardinal of Milan.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the University of Pavia in 1458. He also studied letters under Francesco Fielfo, an Italian Renaissance humanist, and maintained an active correspondence with him for a long time.

Early life. He married Briseide Pietrasanta and had a daughter, Briseide; he also had nine illegitimate children (2). He was admitted to the prestigious and exclusive Collegio di Giurisconsulti of Milan, due to the influence of Duke Francesco Sforza of Milan, in July 1458 some of the members of the cillegio objected to Giovanni's admission because the statutues had not been followed. Senator of Milan. Ambassador of Duke Francesco Sforza before the pope. When he became a widower, he entered the ecclesiastical state.

Sacred orders. He received the four minor orders, probably, on a Saturday in September 1461. Determined to obtain the diocese of Novara, he made himself ordained a subdeacon on September 20, 1466, by the suffragan bishop of Milan (the canon law then in force required that a interstice of five years pass between receiving the minor orders and being ordained a subdeacon). Named protonotary apostolic by Pope Paul II in October 1466; at the same time, he received benefices for 1,000 ducati a year: a pensiom of 400 ducati from rents of the diocese of Novara; a commenda abbaziale of the monatery of S. Bartolomeo in Strada, Pavia; canonical prebends from the cathedral chapters of Pavia and Piacenza; and from the collegiate churches of S. Michele Maggiore and S. Maria Gualtier, Pavia; S. Maria di Torre del Monte, Oltrpò Pavese. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Piacenza. For two year, with the help of his brother Guidantonio, who was in Rome, Giovanni tried to obtain the nomination to the see of Novara.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Novara, November 20, 1468; took possession in May 1469; remained in Novara for a few days until the duke of Milan called him for political and diplomatic matters. Consecrated (no information found). Ambassador of Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza before Pope Sixtus IV; he was in Rome in May 1472 and in February 1473. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the duke of Milan.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 7, 1473; received the title of Ss. Nereo e Achilleo, May 17, 1473; arrived in Rome on November 24, 1473 and was received in public consistory; received the red hat on December 10, 1473. Named prefect of the Apostolic Signature of Justice; occupied the post until his death. Camerlengo og the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 31, 1476, during the absence of Cardinal Giacomo Ammannati-Piccolomini. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Benedetto, Gualdo, diocese of Nocera Umbra. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, December 30, 1476. Named legate a latere, with full powers, in Perugia, January 15, 1477. Named legate in Hungary, Germany, Bohemia and neighboring regions, February 7, 1477. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinasl, May 19 to June 5, 1482, during the plague epidemic; elected, January 15, 1483; occupied the post until January 19, 1484. Legate in Perugia, again, November 15, 1483; confirmed in the consistory of September 23, 1484; went to Perugia on October 11 of that year and returned to Rome on January 14, 1485. When in Rome, he resided between the street della Scrofa and the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, the present Palazzo Madama. Obtained in commendam the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, November 15, 1483; retained it until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Milan, October 25, 1484, with the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of S. Ambrosio of Milan; received the pallium on the following November12; took formal possession of the archdiocese by procurator, Antonio Griffi, on January 1, 1485; occupied the see until his death. On May 4, 1487, he resigned the commendam of the monastery of S. Dionigi, Milan, in favor of his brother Guidantonio, who succeeded him as archbishop of Milan on January 23, 1489, by expressed will of Ludovico il Moro.

Death. October 2, 1488 (3), Rome. His obsequies were celebrated on October 29, 1488; they were held in only one day instead of nine as it was customary, by permission from the pope. His son Lugi took part in the ceremony. Buried in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, without an epitaph on his tomb. An elegant monument to his memory was erected in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan by his son, Giannangelo Arcimboldi, archbishop of that city (4). The cardinal left the cathedral of Milan "multa iocalia maximi valoris, crucem presertim argenteam cum ipsius eximia imagine, candelabra argentea, pluraque ecclesiastica ornamenta".

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 257; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 190-192; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 215-216; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1258 and 1313; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 39, 40, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 64, 188 and 205; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 43 and 54; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, II, 317; Somaini, Francesco. Giovanni Arcimboldi : gli esordi ecclesiastici di un prelato sforzesco. 3 vols. Milano : Nuove edizioni Duomo, 1994. (Archivio ambrosiano ; 68); Somaini, Francesco. Un prelato lombardo del XV secolo : il card. Giovanni Arcimboldi vescovo di Novara, arcivescovo di Milano. Roma : Herder, 2003. (Italia sacra ; 73-75).

Links. Biography by Nicola Raponi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 3 (1961), Treccani; biography, in Italian, second entry under "Arcimboldi Giovanni", Istituzione Biblioteche del Comune di Parma; biographical data, in Italian, Magazzeno Storico Verbanese; and drawing of his monument, metropolitan cathedral of Milan, from University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur.

(1) This is according to Somaini, Giovanni Arcimboldi : gli esordi ecclesiastici di un prelato sforzesco, p. 18. His two biographies in Italian, linked above, says that he was born ca. 1430.
(2) They were Giovanni Battista, Milanese patrician, who married Vittoria Crivelli and had two sons, Luigi and Giovanangelo; Gian Giacomo, Milanese patrician, privy counselor of the duke of Milan, who married Caterina Malaspina and had two sons, Pietro and Luigi; Caterina; Valenza; Susanna; Antonello, Milanese patrician, who married Bernardina Pallavicino, natural daughter of Girolamo, bishop of Novara; Giannangelo, Milanese patrician, senator of Milan, referendary of both Signatures, bishop of Novara in 1513, and archbishop of Milan in 1550; and Ottaviano, protonotary apostolic, referendary of both Signatures and archbishop of Milan in 1497. They all were legitimized.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 150; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 17, 64 and 188; Bertone, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 257, says that he died in Rome in 1491; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 1919, says that he died in Bohemia, "assai riputato in 1491", and was buried in the church of S. Ambrogio (cathedral) in Milan; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1258, says that he died on 3. Id. April. 1555. and in col. 1313, it says that he died in 1491 in Rome and was buried in S. Agostino; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX, p. 43, says that he died on October 2, 1491; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, II, 317, says that he died in Bohemia in 1491, and that he was buried in the church of S. Agostino in Milan.
(4) This is the text of the inscription in the monument:

JOANNI ARCIMBOLDO PRESBYTERO CARDINALI
AVO PATERNO LEGITIMO
ET GUIDO ANTONIO ARCIMBOLDO
PATRUO MAGNO
ARCHIEPISCOPIS MEDIOLANI
ET SIBI JOANNES ANGELUS ARCIMBOLDUS
AB EPISCOPATU NOVARIENSI CUI XXIV ANNOS .PRAEFUERAT
AD ARCHIEPISCOPATUM MEDIOLANENSEM
TRANSLATUS
V. F.

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(10) 8. HUGONET, Philibert (?-1484)

Birth. (No date found), Bourgogne, France. His first name is also listed as Filippo and his last name as Ugoneto, Ugonetto and Ugonecti. He was called the Cardinal of Mâcon.

Education. Studied in the diocese of Mâcon, where his uncle Etienne was the bishop since 1451; later, studied at the University of Pavia for six years and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Sent in several embassies by Charles le Téméraire, duke of Bourgogne after 1467; notably the embassies before Pope Paul II and King Fernando of Castilla. Brother of Guillaume, chancellor of the duchy of Bourgogna, who was assassinated in Gand in April 1477. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Mâcon. Protonotary apostolic. Succeeded his uncle in the see of Mâcon.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mâcon, October 2, 1472; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the duke of Bourgogne.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 7, 1473; received the red hat in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, May 10, 1473; and the title of S. Lucia in Silice, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, May 17, 1473. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Denis in Broqueroie, Hainaut, diocese of Cambrai; and of the Cistercian monastery of Belevaux, archdiocese of Besançon, October 8, 1473; resigned the latter on March 11, 1477. The assassination of his brother Guillaume affected the cardinal deeply and he never returned to Flanders. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Savin, diocese of Poitiers. Resigned the commendam of the monastery of Montier-Saint-Jean on Réoumé, diocese of Langres, May 24, 1476. Abbot commendatario of the Premostrantense monastery of Tongerloo, diocese of Cambrai, February 21, 1477. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, August 17, 1477. Legate in Viterbo and in the province of the Patrimony, December 1478. Left for France on May 15, 1480 and returned on July 30, 1481. Resigned the commendam of the abbey of Cluny, diocese of Mâcon, August 30, 1480; and the one of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Pierre, Chalon-sur-Saône, July 18, 1483. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Baume-les-Messieurs from 1482 until 1484. Named bishop of Autun, July 10, 1484; occupied the see until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. He was a protector of the letters.

Death. Saturday September 11, 1484, in his residence in Campo di Fiore, Rome. The following night, his body was taken to the church of S. Maria del Popolo, which he had chosen as his place of burial. The obsequies began on September 27, 1484. He was so poor at the time of his death that the Apostolic Chamber had to cover the expenses of his funeral.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1083; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 191-192; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1260 and 1312; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 150-151; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 40, 42, 43, 44, 47, 63, 66, and 187; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXXXIII, 18.

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LUXEMBOURG, O.Cist., Thibaud de (After 1418-1477)

Birth. After 1418, France. Of the royal family of France. Son of Count Pierre I de Luxemburg-St.Pol and of Brienne, and Margherita de Baux. Grand-nephew of Bl. Cardinal Pierre de Luxembourg (1384). Nephew of Cardinal Louis de Luxembourg (1439). Father of Cardinal Philippe de Luxembourg (1495). He was seigneur of Fiennes, count of Brienne. His first name is also listed as Thibaut and Theobaldo.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He married Philippe de Melun on June 1, 1441; they had nine children (1); she died in 1456.

Sacred orders. After the death of his wife, he entered the Order of the Cistercians in the monastery Ignaciensi in Reims. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Igny. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of Ours-camps.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Le Mans, May 11, 1465; resigned the see in favor of his son Philippe on November 4, 1476. Consecrated (no information found). Ambassador of the king of France before Pope Sixtus IV in 1472.

Cardinalate. According to some sources, Chacón and Moroni among them, he was created cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV in 1474 but never published.

Death. September 1, 1477, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Julien, Le Mans.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 164; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 124; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XL, 211.

Links. His genealogy, A2 E3 F1 G2; his arms, third from the last on page 1; genealogy, XX-495 (XIX-524-5), 6.; and Catalogue des Évêques du Mans, in French (he is the 68th bishop).

(1) They were Jacques, seigneur of Fiennes and of Grave; Philippe, cardinal and bishop of Le Mans; Jean, seigneur of Sottenghien; François de Martigues, governor of Provence; Louise, a nun; Helene, a nun; Isabeau, a nun; Madeline, who married Charles de Saint-Maure, count of Nesle in 1457; and Jacques Chabot, signore of Apremont and of Brion, in 1485; and Guillemette. who married Amé II de Saarbrücken, count of Braine, seigneur of Commercy.

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