The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Sixtus IV (1471-1484)
Consistory of December 10, 1477 (IV)


(16) 1. DELLA ROVERE, Cristoforo (1434-1478)

Birth. June 13, 1434, Turin. Of a branch of Della Rovere family from Piedmont. Of the signori of Viconuovo. Son of Giovanni della Rovere and Anna del Pozo. He was called the Cardinal of Tarentaise. Brother of Cardinal Domenico della Rovere (1478).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law at the University of Bologna.

Early life. Jurisconsult and protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Tarentaise, August 3, 1472; confirmed by the pope, September 15, 1472; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome. The pope proposed his promotion to the Sacred College of Cardinals on March 27, 1477.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 10, 1477; received the title of S. Vitale, December 12, 1477; the pope sent him the red hat to Castello Sant'Angelo by one of the three conservators of Rome. He was already ill and died shortly after.

Death. February 1, 1478 (1), Rome. His body was taken on the same day to the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, which he had chosen as his burial place; buried in a magnificent tomb in the chapel of S. Girolamo in that church (1). The nine days of his obsequies began on February 9, 1478 in the presence of all the cardinals present in Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 202-203; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1260; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 153; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 18, 41, 65 and 245; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIX, 194-195; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 341.

Links. His tomb in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome; more images of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; his epitaph, Requiem Datenbank; and Della Rovere arms, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 829. indicates that he died on February 1, 1479.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

CHRISTOPHORO. RVVERO · TT · S. VITA
LIS. PRESBYTERO. CAR ·
DOCTRINA MORIBVS AC PIETATE INSIGNI
DOMINICVS XYSTI · IIII · PONT · MAXIMI
BENEFICIO MOX TITVLI
SVCCESSOR AC MVNERIS FRATRI
B · M · ET SIBI POSVIT
V · A · XLIII · M · VII · D · XIX ·
OB · ANN · VIII · PONT · XYSTI
KL · FEBR ·
.
The text of the epitaph as transcribed by Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1260, contains a few differences:

CRISTOFORO. RVVERO. TITVLI. S. VITALIS. PRESB. CARD. DOCTRINA. MORIBVS. AC. PIETATIE. INSIGNI. DOMINICVS. XYSTI. IV. P. M. BENEFICIO. MOX. TITVLI. SVCCESSOR. AC. MVNERIS. FRATRI. B. M. ET. SIBI. POS. VIX. ANN. XLIII. MENS. VII. DIES. XIX. OB. ANN. VIII. PONTIF. XYSTI. KAL. FEBR.

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(17) 2. BASSO DELLA ROVERE, Girolamo (1434-1507)

Birth. 1434, Albizzola, diocese of Savona. Son of Giovanni Basso, count of Bistagno, and Luchina della Rovere, sister of Pope Sixtus IV. Cousin of Pope Julius II. Uncle of Cardinal Clemente Grosso della Rovere, O.F.M.Conv. (1503). He was called the Cardinal of Recanati.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Savona.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Albenga, February 14, 1472. Consecration (no information found). Transferred to the see of Recanati, October 5, 1476; occupied the see until his death. Proposed by the pope to the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 24, 1477.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 10, 1477; published on December 12, 1477 with the title of S. Balbina; entered Rome from Recanati on February 21, 1478; received the red hat on February 22, 1478. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, September 17, 1479. He resided in the Vatican and on June 2, 1482, he lodged with him, for twenty-four hours, Cardinal Giovanni Colonna, who was accused of treason and sent to Castello Sant'Angelo. Named administrator of the see of Gubbio, September 23, 1482; occupied the post until January 9, 1492. Participated in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. On September 12, 1486, he reentered Rome from Genoa, ahead of his cousin Cardinal Giulio della Rovere. Participated in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, August 31, 1492. On May 27, 1495, he accompanied the pope to Orvieto and returned to Rome with him on June 27th. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, November 29, 1503. On August 30, 1506, he received Pope Julius II in Fabrica, a castle in Città di Castello; the pope was going from Civita Castellan to Viterbo. He was a friend of the arts and letters. He finished in his diocese the construction of the basilica of Loreto, which had been started by Pope Paul II. He had Melozzo da Forli decorate with frescoes the chapel of the treasury. Protector of the Order of the Carmelites. He is said to have been an irreproachable and upright prelate who never abused his family relations with Popes Sixtus IV and Julius II.

Death. September 1, 1507, Fabrica. His body was transported to Rome and buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, where Pope Julius II had Andrea Sansovino build a superb mausoleum, finished in 1509, in the choir (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 203-204; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1260; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 153-154; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 18, 41, 42, 49, 50, 52, 60, 61, 62, 84, 151 and 220; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIX, 195; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 336.

Links. His genealogy, A2 B1, by Miroslav Marek, Genealogy.EU; his tomb in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome; more views of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; his epitaph, Requiem Datenbank; and Della Rovere arms, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

HIERONYMO BASSO SAVONENSI XYSTI · IIII · PONT. MAX.
SORORIS FILIO. EPISCOPO SABINENSI CARD : RICINAT
IN OMNI VITA CONSTANTI INTEGRO RELIGIOSO
IVLIVS · II · PONT : MAX : AMITINO SVO · B · M · POSUIT
M · D · VII ·

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(18) 3. HESLER, Georg (1427-1482)

Birth. 1427, Würzburg, Germany. Of plebeian origin. Second son of Hans and Agatha Hesler. He had five brothers and a sister; three of the brothers became priests. His last name is also listed as Kesler, Hasler, Heßler, Hessler and Heseler. He was called the Cardinal of S. Lucia.

Education. He went with his brother Johannes, one of the priests, to Italy in 1454. There he studied like many Germans at the faculty of Pavia and obtained a doctoral degree in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. He matriculated at the University of Vienna in 1460.

Early life. From Pavia, he went to the papal court and on May 5, 1456, he was appointed by Pope Calixtus III privy treasurer. He also received a canonship at Sts. Peter and Paul in Öhringen as well as at St. Stephan in Bamberg; furthermore, he also received the parish of Dollnstein near Eichstat and Hesselbach.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1458 by Giovanni de Castiglione, bishop of Pavia, future cardinal. Protonotary apostolic. He went back to Germany to help his family recover part of the possessions that they had lost. He entered the service of Archbishop Dietrich Schenk von Erbach of Mainz and after the death of his secretary, Fr. Hesler was named to occupy the post and received the canonship at the chapter of Sankt Peter and Alexander in Aschaffenburg; shortly after, in autumn 1458, he was again at the papal court. In the meantime the former private secretary of Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III, Enea Silvio Piccolomini, had been elected Pope Pius II. At the end of 1459, he was in the service Albrecht of Austria, brother of Emperor Friedrich III. He became assessor of the Imperial Court of Appeal, domiciled in Vienna, and in 1460 he registered at the university of that city. Of great importance for Hesler's career was his appointment as one of the seven canon priests at the cathedral of Cologne, as well as the influence of his father, who formed a close connection with Ruprecht bei Rhein, future archbishop of Cologne. With the canonship, he had the obligation of residence and the chapter manifested the importance it gave to the requirement, therefore, he moved to Cologne in 1460. When in 1463 Ruprecht became the archbishop, he appointed Canon Hesler as his chancellor and sent him with a delegation to Rome, in order to obtain papal confirmation; the mission was successful; he joined on this occasion the brotherhood of S. Maria del'Anima. Counselor of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. In 1464, he became secretary and counselor of Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III, as well as his ambassador to France. At the beginning of 1466, he became domherr of the cathedral of Speyer by papal commission; he addressed the prescribed Annaten personally in Rome on June 28, 1466; on the occasion, he became protonotary apostolic. In 1474, Emperor Friedrich III made him his advisor. Canon Hesler so much gained the trust of the emperor that he became his chancellor; as such he proved himself very valuable in many diplomatic endeavors; he arranged the marriage in 1477 between Prince Maximilian, the son of the emperor, and Maria de Burgundy; and not only his diplomatic skill but also his great influence in the Rhineland made the canon an important aid to the emperor. In March 1474, the emperor requested his promotion to the cardinalate; his elevation was decided in February 1477, in spite of the opposition of the Sacred College of Cardinals. From 1476, he probably was the provost of Sankt Viktor in Xanten; and also since that year, he held the Soester diaconates in the archdiocese of Cologne.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 10, 1477; published on December 12, 1477 with the title of S. Lucia in Silice, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title; the pope sent him the red hat on January 13, 1478. The ambition of Canon Hesler however would only find fulfillment with the elevation to the episcopate. His promoter for this goal was also Emperor Friedrich III; he obtained a papal bull, dated July 1, 1478, by which the chapters of Utrecht, Lüttich, Cambrai, Trier, Cologne, Mainz, Würzburg, Bamberg, Eichstätt, Speyer, Salzburg, Strassburg, Passau, Augsburg, Freising, Münster, Regensburg and Besançon were ordered not to proceed to complete the choice, postulation, nomination or commission before the pope and the emperor would have designated a suitable person. The bishops in the realm were themselves against such an interference into their rights and decided that the pope should refuse a confirmation until the consent of the metropolitan had been sought. Whoever was contested, nevertheless, was to appeal to a future council or to a future pope. With this, they wanted to help the appellants. In Speyer and Strasbourg, as well as Passau, the chapters ignored the papal and imperial prohibition. In Passau, after the death of Bishop Ulrich von Nußdorfs on September 9. 1479, the chapter elected by a majority of votes Domherr Friedrich Mauerkircher. The canon stayed in Rome (having entered from Germany on January 21, 1480) in order to settle the question. Pope Sixtus IV annulled this choice and decided on January 28, 1480 for the candidate of the emperor; on the same day bulls were issued, which threatened Domherr Mauerkircher and his supporters with excommunication and interdict. Recommendation letters for Canon Hesler were issued by the emperor to the archbishop of Salzburg and to the Southern German bishops. Cardinal Hesler was received by the pope in public consistory on January 28th.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Passau, January 28, 1480. Consecrated, February 13, 1480, Rome, by Pope Sixtus IV. On May 1, 1480 the bishop left Rome and went to the imperial court. Whereupon, the the provost of the cathedral and three canons of its chapter crossed to the emperor's side. They took their seats, on instructions from the pope, in Stadt Weis, while the majority of the chapter remained in Passau. On September 17, 1480, it was announced in the Viennese cathedral that a passport, which until then had been denied, had been granted. Since the emperor could count on the agreement, the ceremony of investiture took place without protest. Still, however, it was refused that Cardinal Hesler counld go into his episcopal city. Passau wanted to remain neutral; however, it was pressured by Austria, Bavaria, the king of Hungary and the aristocracy. Instructions, negotiations and feud letters went back and forth. Finally, Emperor Friedrich III pronounced in 1482 the proscription over the rebellious city. Only after it, Cardinal Hesler held the introduction on June 1, 1482. The protection of the Upper House fortress, a supporter of the Bavarian duke, began one day after the bombardment of the city; the food supply from Bavaria was interrupted, while the promised imperial auxiliary troops were missing. In this situation, in August 1482, an agreement between Cardinal Hesler and Mauerkircher was reached; by it, the bishop remained and Mauerkircher would be his successor; the feud of nearly three years had incurred an enormous cost to the city; besides, many other cities and castles had been pawned to the Hungarian king, and Cardinal Hesler left his successor debts for 80,000 gouldens. It was the last time in the history of the diocese that a bishop's choice was delivered with force of arms. Cardinal Hesler was an important influence in the epoch of Emperor Friedrich III, but he brought only distress and misery to the diocese of Passau.

Death. September 21, 1482, he became ill while traveling to Vienna to meet the emperor (1). His body was transported to Vienna and buried in the church of S. Maria ad Ripas, which was the Passau official church from 1357 to 1784, in the main altar on the side of the Gospel; The brother of the cardinal, Johannes, had died a few days before, on September 10; and the mother, Agatha, followed her sons on November 16; they were also buried in that church; today their gravestones no longer exist; when in 1814 Emperor Franz restored the church, all the gravestones perished as they were used for the church's plaster.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1073; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 204-206; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1260; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 154; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 18, 43, 45, 66 and 213; Hollweg, Walter. Dr. Georg Hessler. Ein kaiserlicher Diplomat und römischer Kardinal des 15 Jahrhunderts. Versuch einer Biographie. Leipzig : J.C. Hinrichs, 1907; Leidl, August. "Heßler, Georg (um 1427-1482)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 289-291; Strnad, Alfred. A. "Der Apostolische Protonotar Dr. Georg Heßler. Eine biographische Skizze." Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte, XLV (1970), 29-53.

(1) This is according to Hollweg, Dr. Georg Hessler. Ein kaiserlicher Diplomat und römischer Kardinal des 15 Jahrhunderts., p. 114-115; he cites "The Chronicon Mellicense", which says that the cardinal contractus et aegrotus moritur while he was traveling; Hollweg indicates that the version that says Cardinal Hesler drowned in a shipwreck on the Danube and that his corpse was found nine days later in the proximity of Vienna, is not credible.

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(19) 4. RANGONE, O.F.M.Obs., Gabriele (1410/1420-1486)

Birth. 1410/1420, Chiari, diocese of Brescia (1). From a family of modest origins. Son of Martino Rangone. He moved with his parents to Verona (2). His last name is also listed as Rangone da Verona; da Verona only; and Rangoni. He was called the Cardinal of Eger.

Education. Entered the Orders of the Friars Minor Observants (Franciscans) in 1447 at the convent of S. Maria di Arcarrota, in the province of Venice.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Between 1451 and 1479, he was an active preacher in Austria, Bohemia, and Poland; he was a collaborator of Giovanni Capistrano, future saint, before 1456. Vicar of the Austrian province of his order. Inquisitor in Bohemia against the Hussites in 1460. Counselor of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. Charged by Pope Paul II, around 1470, to reconcile the kings of Hungary and Poland concerning the kingdom of Bohemia.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Transylvania (3), December 16, 1472. Consecrated (no information found). Postulated to the see of Eger in 1474; transferred to that see, April 24, 1475; occupied it until his death. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the king of Hungary, who had requested it since 1475.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 10, 1477; published on December 12, 1477 with the title of Ss. Sergio e Bacco. Arrived in Rome from Hungary on December 6, 1479 and was received in public consistory by the pope, who imposed the red hat the following day. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of Ourscamps, diocese of Noyon, until his death. Named legate in Naples on August 18, 1480, to promote the war against the Turks; he arrived in Naples on August 23; in Otranto, the Christian armies were fighting the invading Turk forces; he returned to Rome in October 1481. Participated in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. He was the first Observant Franciscan cardinal.

Death. September 27, 1486, Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Bonavenura, which he had founded, in the Franciscan church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome.

Bibliography. Betti, Umberto. I cardinali dell'ordine dei frati minori. Presentazione di P. Alberto Ghinato, O.F.M. Roma : Edizioni francescane, 1963. (Orizzonti francescani, n. 5), 55-58; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 206-207; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1261 and 1312; Cobianchi, Roberto. "Gabriele Rangone (d. 1480) : The first Observant Franciscan cardinal and his chapel in Santa Maria in Aracoeli, Rome" in The possessions of a Cardinal : politics, piety, and art, 1450-1700. Edited by Mary Hollingsworth & Carol M. Richardson. University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010, p. , p. 61-76; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 154; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 18, 42-43, 49, 67, 82 and 254; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVI, 163-164.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Könyvtár; his genealogy, A3 B5, Libro d'Oro della Nobiltà Mediterranea; and his arms, Biblioteca Estense Universitaria, Modena, Ministero per i beni e la attività culturali.

(1) This is according to Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVI, 163 Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III. 206; and his biography in English, linked above, which adds that he moved to Verona with his parents; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1261, says that he was born in Modena; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 18; and his biography in Hungarian, linked above, indicate that he was born in Verona.
(2) His genealogy, linked above, says that he was an illegitimate child and that his mother was a peasant from Verona; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 154, says that he was of a noble family; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 206, indicates that he was born of honest parents who were not vile but not very wealthy and denies that his mother was a peasant from Verona but a woman from the family Flgliati, one of the most important of Chiari; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVI, 163, repeats Cardella's information.
(3) The diocese was also called Alba Julia, Erdely adn Siebenbürgen.

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(20) 5. FOSCARI, Pietro (ca.1417-1485)

Birth. Ca. 1417, Venice. Son of Procurator Marco Foscari and Margherita Marcello. Nephew of Francesco Foscari, doge of Venice. He was called the Cardinal of Venice.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Abbot of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, Zara. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua, 1448. Primicerius of the patriarchal cathedral of S. Marco, Venice, 1452. Protonotary apostolic. Primicerius of the abbey of Ss. Filippo e Giacomo.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal secretly by Pope Paul II in the secret consistory of March 25, 1471 (1); but he was never published; the pope died the following July 26; he was not admitted in the conclave. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 10, 1477; published with the title of S. Niccola fra le Immagini, December 12, 1477. Arrived in Rome on March 12, 1478; received the following day by the pope in public consistory; received the red hat on April 6, 1478. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Spalato, April 1, 1478; occupied the post until September 17, 1479.

Episcopate. Administrator of Padua, April 15, 1481; occupied the post until his death. Left Rome for Venice and Padua on June 18, 1481; returned to Rome on May 25, 1483. Participated in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII.

Death. August 11, 1485, at the baths of Viterbo. Buried in the third chapel of the left nave of the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 207-208; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1312; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 154-155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 18, 41, 44, 46, 48, 64, 210 and 240; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXVI, 15-16.

Links. Biography by Giuseppe Del Torre, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 49 (1997), Treccani; his portrait (1540-1560), Venetian School, patriarchate of Venice, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait (1700-1710), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his tomb in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, Australian National University; another view of his tomb, Wikipedia; and more images of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; Tales of Scarlet : Cardinal Pietro Foscari, Vatican Radio.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 154; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 207, says that he was created in 1475; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXVI, 16, indicates that he was created cardinal in 1468.

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(21) 6. ARAGONA, Giovanni d' (1456-1485)

Birth. June 25, 1456, Naples. Fourth child of Ferdinando I, king of Naples, and his first wife, Isabella di Chiaromonte, princess of Taranto. His last name is also listed as Aragón and as de Napoli. He was called the Cardinal of Aragona.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic July 12, 1465. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of SS. Trinità di Cava, 1465-1485. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine abbey of Monte Cassino, August 30, 1471. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of Jesús de Nazareth, Montearagón, diocese of Huesca, November 16, 1472. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Benedetto, Salerno, May 10, 1475. He was also abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monasteries of S. Lorenzo in Aversa and S. Maria de Pomposa, diocese of Ferrara.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Named administrator of the see of Tarento, with dispensation of age, November 10, 1477; occupied the post until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 10, 1477; published with the deaconry of S. Adriano on December 12, 1477; the pope sent the red hat to him in Naples three months later with a special embassy. He entered Rome on December 10, 1478 by the Lateran door. Administrator of the see of Badajoz, January 20 to May 14, 1479. Legate a latere in Hungary, April 10, 1479; he left Rome from S. Maria del Popolo on January 31st; returned from his legation on August 31, 1480 and was received in public consistory. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry of S. Adriano was elevated pro illa vice to title, January 14, 1480. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Cosneza, November 14, 1481; occupied the post until his death. After having been absent from Rome, he returned from Naples on February 14, 1482; left again for Naples, April 23, 1482. He did not touch any of the revenues from the Sacred College of Cardinals until November 1, 1482. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Salerno, January 13, 1483; and of the metropolitan see of Esztergom, December 20, 1483; occupied both posts until his death. Returned to Rome on August 30, 1483. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, September 10, 1483. Legate in Hungary and Germany, September 10, 1483; left for his legation shortly after; returned from his legation and from Naples, August 19, 1484 to participate in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII; he supported the election of Pope Innocent VIII; he received dispatches from Duke Alfonso di Calabria and from the regent of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, addressed to him and to Cardinal Ascanio Sforza to exclude certain cardinals from the pontificate; it was the first example in history of a "secular exclusive". Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, retaining commendam the title of S. Sabina, 1484. Governor and viceroy of the province of Bari in the name of his father the king; his father sent him before the pope at the beginning of October 1485 to obtain his support; arrived in Rome at the moment of a serious epidemic that attacked him and two persons of his retinue; he died of the fever (1). Pope Innocent VIII called him vir auctoritatis magnæ.

Death. October 17, 1485, Naples. Buried in the basilica of S. Sabina, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 208-209; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1312; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 18, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 63, 65, 66, 141, 209, 227, 242 and 246; Haffner, Thomas. Die Bibliothek des Kardinals Giovanni d'Aragona (1456 - 1485) : illuminierte Handschriften und Inkunabeln für einen humanistischen Bibliophilen zwischen Neapel und Rom. Wiesbaden : Reichert, 1997; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, II, 268-269.

Links. His genealogy, A1 B1 C4, Libro d'Oro della Nobiltà Mediterranea; and his arms, Magyar Elektronikus Könyvtár.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 155; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, II, 269, says that some believe that he was poisoned.
(2) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1312; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 209; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, II, 269, say that he was buried in S. Lorenzo in Lucina.

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(22) 7. SANSONI RIARIO, Raffaele (1460-1521)

Birth. May 3, 1461, Savona (1). Son of Antonio Sansoni and Violante Riario, sister of Cardinal Pietro Riario, O.F.M.Conv. (1471). His last name is also listed as Riario Sansoni and Sansoni Riario della Rovere. Grand-nephew of Pope Sixtus IV. Called the Cardinal of S. Giorgio. He took the last name of his uncle, Riario. Second cousin of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere (1471), future Pope Julius II. Other cardinals of the family were Alessandro Riario (1578); Tommaso Riario Sforza (1823); and Sisto Riario Sforza (1846). His last name is also listed as Riario only.

Education. Studied at the University of Pisa.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 10, 1477; published with the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro on December 12, 1477. He left Pisa because of the plague and went to Florence in the spring of 1478. He was hosted by the Pazzi family and unknowingly, he got entangled in their conspiracy of April 26, 1478 against Duke Lorenzo de' Medici; he was arrested and imprisoned in spite of his innocence; he was reclaimed by the pope on May 24 and freed on June 13; he arrived in Siena "more dead than alive" and then went to Rome, where he arrived on June 20; he stayed with Duke Girolamo and went to the Apostolic Palace on June 22; the pope received him in public consistory; the pope concluded the ceremonies of his creation as a cardinal in a private consistory. Named legate in Perugia, he left Rome on June 26, 1478; he returned from his legation on October 15 of that same year. The pope granted him numerous benefices and rents.

Episcopate. Named administrator of the see of Cuenca on August 13, 1479; resigned the post on July 8, 1482; named again on May 24, 1493, he took possession on August 15; occupied the post until his death. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Pisa, September 17, 1479; resigned the post, June 3, 1499. Legate in Hungary; returned to Rome after August 31, 1480. Named administrator of the see of Tréguier, August 18, 1480; occupied the post until May 16, 1483. Left Rome for his new legation in Marca Amconitana, November 27, 1480; returned to Rome on November 23, 1481. Named administrator of the see of Salamanca, July 8, 1482. Administrator of the see of Osma, January 15, 1483; occupied the post until May 1493. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, January 24, 1483 until his death. Attended a reunion of cardinal in the Apostolic Palace on March 31, 1483. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, May 5, 1483 with the post of vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church took possession of the title on October 21, 1483. He was a friend of Lorenzo Oddone, protonotary apostolic, who was involved in the fight of the Colonnas and the Orsinis; the cardinal intervened in his favor before the pope; it was in vain, because Oddone was executed on June 30, 1483. Attended with the pope to the celebration of the first mass in the new Sistine Chapel at the Vatican on August 15, 1483. He was in Viterbo on May 18, 1484. Participated in the conclave of 1484, which elected Pope Innocent VIII. On February 16, 1487, he resigned the commendam of the monasteries of S. Mercurial and of S. Maria di Fiumana, diocese of Forli. Named apostolic administrator of the see of Arezzo, July 7, 1488; occupied the post until November 5, 1511 (2). The pope sent him on a mission to Imola and later, to Forli, which had been attacked by the Milanese; returned to Rome on October 26, 1488. A great lover of the theater, he had a representation performed as a sign of happiness for the conquest of Granada from the Moors by the Spanish Monarchs on January 2, 1492. When Pope Innocent died on July 25, 1492, he governed with energy as camerlengo until the opening of the conclave. Participated in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. The new pope granted more rich benefices. He rebuilt his title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (?) at his own expense in 1495 and resided in the annexed palace, which he had started in 1483; it was the former palace of the chancery. On May 27, 1497, he accompanied the pope to Orvieto because of the approaching French army; they returned to Rome the following June 27. One of the six cardinals appointed to a commission charged with the preparation of a bull of reform, 1497. Administrator of the see of Viterbo, August 24, 1498; occupied the post until September 16, 1506. Charged in November 1498 and January 1499 with the supervision and direction of the works done in Rome in view of the arrival of pilgrims for the 1500 Jubilee Year. On November 21, 1499, he went hunting and then to Monte Rotondo and to Sarzana.

He was in Blois, with King Louis XII of France, in December, 1501, at the time of the arrival of Prince Philippe le Beau. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Donnino fuori le mura, Pisa, May 10, 1502. In August 1502, he accompanied the French king to Italy; he arrived in Rome on September 9, 1503, to participate in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Cardinal protodeacon after the election of the new pope on September 22, 1503. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, November 29, 1503; retained in commendam the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso with the post of vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church until June 22, 1517, when he was deposed. Consecrated April 9, 1504, at the Vatican, Rome, by Pope Julius II, assisted by Cardinal Antoniotto Pallavicini, bishop of Orense, and by Cardinal Giovanni San Giorgio, bishop of Parma; in the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere, bishop of Lucca; and future cardinals Francesco Alidosi, bishop of Mileto; Antonio Ferrero, bishop of Noli; and Gabriele de' Gabrielli, archbishop of Urbino. On March 28, 1507, he congratulated the pope, in the name of the Sacred College of Cardinals, for having reconquered Bologna for the Holy See. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, August 3, 1507; took possession the following September 10. Named administrator of the see of Arezzo, July 7, 1508; occupied the post until November 5, 1511. Named administrator of the see of Savona, December 5, 1508; occupied the post until April 9, 1516. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, September 22, 1508. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 20, 1511. At the opening of the Fifth Lateran Council May 3, 1512, he celebrated the mass of the Holy Spirit. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X; presided over it as dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. On March 19, 1513, he was confirmed as abbot commendatario of the Vallombrosian monastery of S. Bartolomeo fuori le mura, Genoa; as well as of the perpetual chaplaincy of the Chapel of the Kings of Toledo and other rich benefices. On December 21, 1513, he was dispossessed of several benefices in litigation with the bishop of Amalfi. On March 21, 1514, he resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of S. Maria di Tabenna. On May 15, 1514, he resigned the commendam of the monastery of S. Pietro di Moton, diocese of Tortona. In the name of the Sacred College of Cardinals, he addressed King François I of France on December 11, 1514, in Bologna, on his way to Rome to visit the pope. Administrator of the see of Lucca, March 9, 1517; occupied the post until November 12, 1517. Implicated in the process against Cardinals Bandinello Sauli and Alfonso Petrucci, he was arrested on May 29, 1517, in the chamber of Pope Leo X at the Vatican, for not having revealed the plot planned by them against the pope; he was transferred to Castello Sant'Angelo, where the two other cardinals were detained; the three were tried by the Sacred College of Cardinals, which found them guilty, degraded them, deprived them of their cardinalitial dignity and their dioceses, benefices, charges and possessions; they were turned over to the secular authorities; Cardinal Riario appealed to the pope, asked for his pardon and promised, on July 17, 1517, to pay a fine of 300,000 ducati; on the following July 24, in consistory, the pope pardoned him and reestablished all his dignities, except the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, and deprived him of active and passive voice, which was restored shortly after; the pope made the cardinal come to him and embraced him; the reconciliation was greeted with joy by the entire city of Rome. Named administrator perpetuo of the see of Màlaga, April 12, 1518; took possession of the post on September 3 of that same year, without being present; on March 22, 1519, his nephew, Cesare Riario, took possession as bishop of the see; the cardinal kept the title of administrator perpetuo until his death. On December 25, 1518, he was reinstated to his see of Ostia and was received in consistory on January 10, 1519; the following February 10, he was freed from his fines. On May 20, 1520, he signed a summation of Pope Leo X to Friedrich von Saxon to make Martin Luther retract. In July 1520, with the permission of the pope, he retired to Caprarola, and, the following November, to Naples. He had the reputation of a worldly cardinal and was a supporter of the arts.

Death. July 9, 1521, Naples. Buried in a very simple tomb on the left side of the presbytery in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome (3). In 1700, in the pontificate of Pope Clement XI, during works done in the basilica, his body was found intact.

Bibliography. Bentivoglio, Enzo. "Nel cantiere del palazzo del card. Raffaele Riario (la Cancelleria)" in Quaderni dell'Istituto di Storia dell'Archittetura, XXVII (1982), Roma, fasc, 169-174, p. 26-35; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 210-214; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1433 ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, p. 155-157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 18, 41, 42, 43, 46, 49, 52, 55, 56, 66, 133, 209, 216, 227, 254 and 269; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 55, 56, 58, 64, 116, 229, 233 and 291; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVII, 171-173; Nicolai, Umberto. I vescovi di Lucca. Lucca : Tipografia Ricchielli, 1966, p. 24, no. 81; Schiavo, A. "La primitiva sepoltura di Raffaele Riario" in Palatino, III (1964) n. 7-8, p. 157; Valtieri, Simonetta. "La fabbrica del palazzo del card. Raffaele Riario (la Cancelleria)" in Quaderni dell'Istituto di Storia dell'Archittetura, XXVII (1982), Roma, fasc, 169-174, p. 3-25.

Links. His portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; Raffaele Riario, Cardinale di San Giorgio 1451 - 1521, Corte dei Rossi; his genealogy, A1 B3 F1 G1, Libro d'Oro della Nobiltà Mediterranea; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait, fragment of "La missa de Bolsena" by Raffaello Sanzio, Room of Heliodorus, Vatican, Repro-Tableaux.com; The Mass of Bolsena, by Raffaello Sanzio, Room of Heliodorus, Vatican, Vatican Museums; his bust by Benedetto da Maiano, Staatliche Museum, Berlin, Germany, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; his tomb, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; and catalog of the bishops of Arezzo; since 1986, diocesi di Arezzo Cortona e Sansepolcro.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 155; his biography in German, his first biography in Italian and his genealogy, all linked above, say that he was born on May 3, 1460; his second biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was born in 1451; his biography in Spanish, also linked above, indicates that he was born on May 3, 1451.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1933, p. 156; neither Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 84; nor Pius Bonifatius Gams, Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 742; nor the catalog of the bishops of Arezzo, linked above, list him as occupant of the post.
(3) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVII, 173, says that some authors erroneously indicate that he was buried in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome; among them is Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, col. 1433.

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