The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pope Innocent VIII (1484-1492)
Consistory of March 9, 1489 (I)


(1) 1. CIBO DE' MARI, Lorenzo (1450/1451-1503)

Birth. 1450/1451, Genoa or Valencia. Of the ancient and noble family De Marj. Natural son of Maurizio Cibo, governor of Spoleto, brother of Pope Innocent VIII; and a Spanish lady. His last name is also listed as Cibo, Cybo, Cibo de Mari, de Mari, and De Marj. He was called the Cardinal of Benevento. Other cardinals of the family were Innocenzo Cibo (1513); Alderano Cibo (1645); and Camillo Cibo (1729).

Education. "... dotato di molta letteratura..." (1); and "... dottisimo, e di angelici costume..." (2).

Early life. Prefect of Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1481. Protonotary apostolic. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Stefano, Ivrea; resigned the post, August 10, 1489. Abbot commendatario of San Victorino, diocese of Lérida; resigned the post on March 3, 1490. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Jean de Sordes, diocese of Dax; resigned the post on December 20, 1490. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of S. Pastore, diocese of Rieti; resigned the post on June 6, 1492. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Stefano, diocese of Vercelli; resigned the post on November 5, 1492. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Fécamp, archdiocese of Rouen; resigned the post on April 7, 1494; he was succeeded by Antoine, abbot of Saints-Corneille et Cyprien, Compiègne.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Benevento, December 5, 1485; resigned the government of the see in January 1503. Consecrated, March 28, 1486, second Sunday of Easter, papal chapel, second hall, the Vatican, by Pope Innocent VIII, assisted by Ardicino della Porta, bishop of Aleria, and by Antoniotto Pallavicini, bishop of Orense. In the same ceremony was also consecrated Niccolò Bucciardi Cibo, archbishop of Cosenza. He obtained permission for the canons of the metropolitan cathedral chapter to wear a red biretta.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 9, 1489; received the red hat, March 14, 1489; and the title of S. Susanna, March 23, 1489. On November 17, 1489, he visited Cardinal Francesco Nanni-Todeschini-Piccolomini in Siena. Named administrator of the see of Vannes, August 29, 1490; occupied the post until his death. Opted for the title of S. Marco, March 14, 1491; he resided in the palace adjacent to that basilica. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 1492 until 1493; as such received the oath of the new secretary of the Sacred College, Ottaviano de Fornari (cleric of Genoa and later bishop of Mariana in Corsica), on August 18, 1492. Participated in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI; he resisted the intrigues that made Pope Alexander VI to be elected; the new pope threatened him with the depriving of the cardinalate. At the insinuation of his uncle the pope, he had built a chapel in the patriarchal Vatican basilica with a bronze tomb for the pontiff, work of Antonio Pollajuolo, with the Holy Lance that Sultan Bajazut of Constantinople had sent as a gift to that pope; the chapel was demolished in 1606; the ciborium of the Holy Lance is currently in the Vatican crypt. On December 31, 1494, he was in Ponte Molle to assist and compliment King Charles VIII of France in his entrance to Rome. Went to Orvieto with Pope Alexander VI on May 27, 1495; returned to Rome on June 27, 1495. Received in commendam the title of S. Cecilia, December 9, 1497; he kept it until September 1500. He was absent from Rome in June and July 1498. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, May 14, 1501, retaining his title of S. Marco in commendam. Named administrator of the see of Noli, January 1503. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, November 29, 1503.

Death. December 21, 1503. Buried in the chapel of S. Lorenzo, which he had built in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome (3). He left his liturgical ornaments and library to the diocese of Palestrina.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 29-131; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1299-1300 and 1346; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 146; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20, 59, 60, 63, 65, 104, 200 and 264; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XIII, 126.

Links. Biography, in Italian; biography, also in Italian; his genealogy, A1 I1 J2; Cibo Chapel, now S. Cosimato, church of S. Maria del Popolo (the cardinal appears in photos 1, 11 and 12, kneeling down in front of the Virgin); his arms; and his tomb in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 229.
(2) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XIII, 126.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1299-1300: LAVRENTIVS. CIBO. GENVENSIS. EPISCOPVS. FRÆNESTINVS. S. MARCI. CARDINALIS. BENEVETAN. INNOCENTII. VIII. PONT. MAX. NEPOS. A RELIGIONIS. CVLTOR.ITA. INTER. CONSTANTISS. GESSIT. VT. AMPLISSIMÆ. DICNITATIS. MEMOR. A. IVSTITIA. FIDE. ET. PIETATE. NVNQVAM. DESCIVERIT. QVI. TERTIVM. ET. QVINQVAGESIMVM. AGENS. ANNVM. SANCTISSIME. VT. VIXIT. MORITVR. REVERENDISS. EXECVRORES. PORTVEN. A. PRÆNESTIN. EPISCOPI. ET. N. DE. FLISCO. PRESBYTERI. CARDINALES. PIENTISS. POSS. ANNO. SALVTIS. CHRISTIANÆ. MDIII.

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(2) 2. DELLA PORTA, iuniore, Ardicino (1434-1493)

Birth. 1434 (1), Novara. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Ardicino della Porta, seniore (1426). His first name is also listed as Ardicinio and Arduino. He was called the Cardinal of Aleria.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure (both canon and civil law).

Early life. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Florence. He courageously published the interdict of Pope Paul II against the mutineers of the city. Legate of the pope before Emperor Friedrich III of Germany and King Mathias Corvin of Hungary to reconcile them and enlist the sovereigns in the crusade against the Turks. Referendary of the Roman Curia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aleria, February 22, 1475; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Datary of Pope Sixtus IV (2). Governor of the cities of Norcia, Terni, Perugia, Todi, Città di Castello; he ended the mutinies in many of them. He was placed in charge by Pope Innocent VIII of the relations with the ambassadors to the Holy See (3).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 9, 1489; received the red hat, March 14, 1489; and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, March 23, 1489. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Olomouc, June 3, 1489; resigned the post on February 8, 1493. He visited Cardinal Piccolomini in Siena on November 17, 1489. Wishing to live in solitude, he decided to resign the cardinalate and asked the pope's permission by letter of June 2, 1492. He resigned the post of abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Silano de Romagnano, diocese of Novara, June 22, 1492. With the agreement of the pope, he retired to a Camaldolese monastery (4); the other cardinals objected and he had to return to Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. After the papal election, his health deteriorated and his final illness lasted five months.

Death. February 4, 1493, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome (5).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 231-233; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1300-1302; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 146-147; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20, 48, 63, 85 and 206; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XIX, 131; and LIV, 153-154; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 163.

Links. Biography by Franca Petrucci, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 37 (1989), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle"; Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934, p. 147; Frank Burkle-Young in his chronicle of the conclave of 1492 says that he was born in 1454.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle"; Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934, p. 147; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XIX, 131; Storti, La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni, p. 163, indicates that the contemporary documents say that he was a referendary but does not mention him as a datary, and adds that Moroni probably confused the posts.
(3) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934, p. 147, indicates that it could be said that he was performing the functions of a secretary of State, without having the title, which was not instituted until a century later with the establishment of a permanent post.
(4) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 232; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1300, says that he retired to the Olivetan monastery near Siena; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LIV, 153, says that he went to a Franciscan monastery.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1300-1301: ARDICINO. DE. LA. PORTA. ARDICINI. CARD. NEPOTI. EPISC. ALERIENSI. I. V. PERITISSIMO. CONCILIATORI. MATTHIÆ. HVNGARIÆ. REGIS. CVM. FEDERICO. III. AVGVSTO GRATIARVM. IVSTITIÆQ. REFERENDARIO. ET. SIGNATORI. SEDENTE. SIXTO. IV. ET. INNOCENTIO. VIII. ET. AB. HOC. SPONTE. OB. MERITA. PRESBYTER. CARD. ELECTO. QVI. VIXIT. ANNOS. LIX. DECESSIT. SVB. ALEXANDRO. VI. AB. SALVTE NOSTRA. M. CD. XCIII. PRID. NON. NOVEMB. DOMESTICI. CLIENTES. HÆREDES. SACELLO. ORNATO. MONVMENTVM. HERO. RARI. EXEMPLI. POSVERVNT.

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(3) 3. PALLAVICINI, Antonio Gentile (1441-1507)

Birth. 1441, Genoa (1). Of a patrician family originally from Spain. Son of Babilano Pallavicino and Caterina Salvago. His first name is also listed as Antoniotto and his last name as Pallavicino. Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pallavicino (1517). He was called the Cardinal of S. Anastasia or the Cardinal of S. Prassede.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He went to Spain with his brothers Girolamo and Cipriano, who were merchants. Returned to Genoa and went to Rome in 1470. He entered the court of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Cibo, future Pope Innocent VIII, who named him secretary of apostolic letters for Pope Sixtus IV.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ventimiglia, June 15, 1484; resigned the government of the see on March 5, 1587. Consecrated (no information found). He was one of the guardians of the conclave of 1484. Named datary by the new Pope Innocent VIII, August 1484 until March 1489; he exercised the post and because of his gentleness and power of persuasion, he was called the Enchanter, il incantatore. Named bishop of Orense, January 27, 1486; occupied the see until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 9, 1489; received the red hat, March 9, 1489; and the title of S. Anastasia, March 23, 1489; kept the title until September 20, 1493. Received in commendam the title of S. Prassede, March 1489; became its titular, September 20, 1493. He accompanied the pope to Ostia from November 15 to 18, 1489. Obtained in commendam the Benedictine monastery of St-Melaine à Redon, diocese of Rennes, on August 20, 1490; resigned on August 31, 1497. Resigned the commendam of the Cluniancese monastery of Lézat, diocese of Rieux, December 20, 1490; and that of the monastery of the Isle of Sainte-Colombe, June 22, 1491. Administrator of the see of Tournai, August 19, 1491; occupied the post until May 21, 1494. Named bishop Lamego, March 26, 1492; resigned the see on March 20, 1493. Participated in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. Administrator of the see of Pamplona, August 31, 1492 until his death; in 1499, he celebrated the 11th diocesan synod. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 8, 1493 until 1494. Administrator of the see of Lectoure, March 21, 1494 until June 1498. Accompanied Pope Alexander VI, who sought refuge in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, January 7, 1495. In March 1495, he replaced for several days the camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giovanni Battista Orsini. In the secret consistory of May 11, 1495, he was named legate a latere in Naples and before King Charles VIII of France; the pope left Rome the following May 27 and the cardinal stayed in Rome as his legate to govern the city and received the French king; the cardinal went before the king on June 1 and offered him the hospitality of the Apostolic Palace; the king declined and lodged in the palace of Cardinal Domenico Della Rovere in Borgo until he left the city on June 8. In 1497, he assisted, together with five cardinals, in the composition of the grand bull of reform. On September 24, 1498, he resigned the commendam of the Cistercian monasteries of Sobrado and of San Justo, archdiocese of Compostela. On April 17, 1499, he resigned the commendam of the Premostratense monastery of Grâce-Dieu à Saint-Jean de la Castelle, diocese of Aire; and of the Benedictine monastery of Sainte-Marie or Saint-Vincent du Lucq, diocese of Oloron. In 1500, he resigned the commendam of the Cistercian monastery of San Salvador de Leyre, diocese of Pamplona. On May 15, 1502, he resigned the commendam of the Cistercian monastery of Santa Maria de Palazuelos, diocese of Palencia. On March 29, 1503, he resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of San Andres de Randulfo, diocese of Braga. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, April 10, 1503; he retained in commendam the title of S. Prassede until July 1, 1504. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 22, 1503. Received in commendam the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, July 1, 1504; retained it until just before December 1, 1505. Named by the pope legate a latere before King Louis XII of France, May 5, 1507; he embarked for Genoa on May 19; met the king in Milan on June 10; and in Savona on June 25; attended the interview between the French king and Ferdinando el Católico, king of Spain, to form the league against Venice; left for Rome by sea on July 7; presented a complete account of his mission in the consistory of August 18, 1507.

Death. Friday September 10, 1507. Buried in the chapel that he had built in the patriarchal Vatican basilica (3); in 1596, because of the demolition of the chapel, his remains were transferred by his grand nephews to a tomb with his jacent statue in the chapel of S. Giovanni Battista, next to the tomb of his nephew the cardinal, in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 233-236; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1302-1304; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 147-148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 21, 49, 50, 52, 59, 60, 61, 64, 65, 171, 174 and 211; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XIC, 131; and LI, 48-50; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p.163-164.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his tomb in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, The Australian National University; six photos of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; and his portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo, attributed since 2002 to Titian (Tiziano Vecellio), Web Gallery of Art.

(1) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LI, 49, says that he continued as pro-datary after his promotion to the cardinalate even during the pontificate of Pope Alexander VI; but Sttorti, La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni, p. 164, indicates that a new datary, Giovanni Sacchi, was already in office in April 1489.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on his sepulchre, erected while he was alive, taken from Enzo Bentivoglio and Simonetta Valtieri, Santa Maria del Popolo a Roma (Roma : Bardi, 1976), p. 74:

ANTONIOTTVS. CARDINALIS. S. PRAXEDIS. MORTEM. PRÆ. OCVLIS. SEMPER. HABENS. VIVENS. SIBI. POSVIT. ANNO. MDI.

(4) This is the text of the eulogy placed on his new tomb, taken from Enzo Bentivoglio and Simonetta Valtieri, Santa Maria del Popolo a Roma (Roma : Bardi, 1976), p. 74:
D. O. M.
ANTONIOTTO PALLAVICINO GENUENSI
EPISCOPO PRAENESTINO S.R.E. CARD. S. Praxedis
SUB INNOCENT. VIII. ALEX. VI. IULIO II.
AMPLISS. LEGATIONIBUS MAXIMISQ. REIP. MUNERIBUS
SUMMA CUM LAUDE PROBITATIS ATQ. PRUDENTIAE PERFUNCTO
IO. BAP. ABB. S. ANT. GEN. U.S. REFER. ET BABILANUS PALLAVICINI FRATRES
OB DISTRUBATAM VETERIS SEPULCRI IN VATICANAE APSIDIS DEMOLITIONE
UT EODEM TUMULI LOCO CUM IO. BAP. FRATES FILIO CARD. CONDERETUR
TRANSLATIS OSSIBUS PROPATRUO POSS. MDXCVI.
VIXIT ANN. LXVI. OBIT AN. SAL. M. D. VII. DIE. X. SEPTEMBRIS.

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(4) 4. ESPINAY, André d' (ca. 1451-1500)

Birth. Ca. 1451, Champeaux, near Vitré, Brittany. Of a noble family. Son of Richard d'Espinay and Beatrix de Montauban. His first name is also listed as Louis and his last name as Spinay and Spinayo. He was called the Cardinal of Bordeaux or the Cardinal of Lyon.

Education. Licentiate in canon law (no further educational information found).

Early life. In 1476, he was proposed for the metropolitan see of Arles but was not elected. Protonotary apostolic. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Bordeaux. Prior of Saint-Martin-des-Champs, Paris (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bordeaux, April 10, 1479; confirmed, April 28, 1479; took possession, 1482; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Went to Brittany in 1483 after the death of King Louis XI and there assisted the successor, King Charles VIII. Attended the assembly of the Gallican clergy in 1485. Governor of Paris. Named archbishop of Lyon, retaining the see of Bordeaux, October 1, 1488; occupied the see until his death. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Charles VIII of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 9, 1489; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino, March 23, 1489. Returned to France and became abbot commendatario of Sainte-Croix de Bordeaux in 1490; resigned the post on August 16, 1499. Did not participate in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. On November 1, 1492, he was named by the new Pope Alexander VI legate in France before King Charles VIII, whom the cardinal followed in the campaign in Italy and the kingdom of Naples; he was next to the king in the battle of Fornone, near Parma, in 1495. Returned to France. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Aix, October 1499 to May 1500. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Saints-Corneille et Cyprien de Compiègne, diocese of Soissons, January 25 to April 20, 1500. He was a benefactor of the Order of the Celestins.

Death. November 10, 1500, palace of Tournelles, Paris. Buried in the chapel of Orléans, near the main altar, in the church of the Celestins, Paris (2). The news of his death reached Rome on November 23, 1500.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 876; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 236-238; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1304 and 1344; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 148; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 21, 55, 65, 112 and 182; Fisquet, Honoré Jean Pierre. La France pontificale (Gallia Christiana) : histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'etablissement du Christianisme jusqu' à nos jours, divisée en 18 provinces ecclésiastiques. 21 vols. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1874, VIII, 254 ff.; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXII, 101-102.

Links. Biography, in French, pp. 254 ff.; his image in a stained-glass window in the cathedral of Saint Jean-Baptiste, Lyon; his tomb, church of the Celestins, Paris.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934, p. 148, indicates that according to Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), he was a Benedictine monk but this latter source, p. 72, does not mention it. And none of the other sources consulted mention it either.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph in French taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1344: CY. GIST. REVEREND. PERE. EN DIEV. MESSIRE. ANDRY. D'ESPINAY. CARDINAL. ARCHEVESQVE. DE. LYON. ET. DE. BOVRDEAVX. PRIMAT. DE. FRANCE. ET. S'AQVITAINE. ZELATEVR. ET. BIENFACTEVR. DE. L'ORDRE. DES. COELESTINS. QVI. TRESPASSA. A. PARIS. AVX. TOVRNELLES. LE. X. IOVR. DE NOVEMBRE. L'AN. DE. GRACE. MIL. CINQ. CENS. PRIEZ. DIEV. POVR. LVY.

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(5) 5. AUBUSSON, O.S.Io.Hieros., Pierre d' (1423-1503)

Birth. 1423, Monteil-au-Vicomte, diocese of Limoges, France. Son of Renaud d'Aubusson and Marguerite de Rochechouart.

Education. He devoted himself to the military career at the service of the Emperor Sigismund.

Early life. Entered the Order of St. John of Jerusalem around 1450, in Rhodes, where the order had sought refuge. Commander of the order in Salins in 1457. Envoy to France. Bailiff of the League of Auvergne in 1471; later its grand prior. Elected the 40th grand master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem on June 8, 1470 in Rhodes; occupied the post until his death. He celebrated a general chapter of the order on October 28, 1478; he fortified the island; it was under siege by the fleet of Sultan Mohammed III from May 23 to August 18, 1480; he repealed the Turks and because of his heroism Christendom was saved; to give thanks, he built the sumptuous chapel of Notre-Dame de la Victoire; after the death of the sultan on May 3, 1481, he was succeeded by Sultan Bajazet; d'Aubusson received a request from Prince Djem, also called Zizim, who was disputing the throne, a request for asylum in Rhodes on July 9, 1482; the request was accepted on July 12th and received July 29th; Prince Djem was sent to France and relegated to Auvergne; in April 1485, Pope Innocent VIII requested that he be transferred to Rome; the transfer was accorded on February 13, 1486 and he arrived in Rome on March 13, 1489; he died there on February 25, 1495. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the king of France.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 9, 1489; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, March 23, 1489. Legate a latere to all Asia. Did not participate in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. In 1494, Pope Alexander VI removed the custody of Prince Djem from the cardinal. The following year, 1495, the pope granted Cardinal d'Aubusson the title of generalissimo of the Christian armada against the Turks. The pope also granted the cardinal the favor of enjoy the Roman Jubilee in Rhodes for six months and the islands occupied by the order. The cardinal zealously applied himself to the restoration of the discipline within the order; to the betterment of the conditions of the inhabitants of Rhodes; and the banishment of the Jews.

Death. July 3, 1503, Rhodes. Buried in a magnificent bronze mausoleum that he had built in the church of St-Jean-Baptiste, Rhodes. His mausoleum was destroyed by the Turks following the capture of Rhodes in 1523.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols.286-292; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 239-240; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1307-1308; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 148-149; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 21, 56 and 66; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, III, 98-99.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in French; engraving and biography, in English (Britannica); his engraving, arms and biography, in French; his arms, photos 10-12; the siege of Rhodes, in English; the siege of Rhodes, in French; his equestrian portrait by Edoaurd Odier, 1841, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles, France; disembarkment of Prince Djem in Rhodes; his image and arms in postal stamps of the Order of Malta; his portrait; and Maison d'Aubusson.

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>(6) 6. GHERARDI, O.S.B.Cam., Maffeo (1406-1492)

Birth. 1406, Venice. Of a noble family. Second son of Giovanni Gherardi and Cristina (or Franceschina) Barbarigo. His last name is also listed as Gherardo; as Gerardi; and as Girardi. He was called the Cardinal of Venice.

Education. He entered the Order of Saint Benedict Camaldolese (Benedictines), when he was young; received the habit from Paolo Venier, abbot of the monastery of S. Michele di Murano.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of S. Michele di Murano, diocese of Torcello, now Venice, in 1444, for sixteen years. Abbot general of the order.

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of Venice by unanimous vote of the Venetian Senate, April 1466; on October 30, 1467, the Venetian ambassadors in Rome insisted before the pope in the election of Father Gherardi; it was confirmed, December 16, 1468; he occupied the see until his death. Consecrated, April 9, 1469, at in the cathedral of San Pietro, Castello (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 9, 1489, without being "published"; on July 3, 1489, the pope declared that he will be published in the next consistory for the promotion of new cardinals and that if this does not take place, he should be considered as "published" and allowed to participate in the conclave; it is possible that the pope reserved for him at the time the deaconry of Ss. Sergio e Bacco. At the death of Pope Innocent VIII, he arrived in Rome on August 3, 1492 and was received by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Orsini, who accompanied him the following day to the sacristy of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, where the Sacred College of Cardinal was gathered; he was recognized as a cardinal at the instance of the Council of Ten of Venice and published; it could be that at this time he received the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo. Participated in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI; his vote was the decisive one for the election of Cardinal Rodrigo de Borja y Borja as Pope Alexander VI (1). He left Rome or Venice on September 5, 1492. When he reached Terni, his condition became very grave and stopped in that city, where he shortly died. He was the first patriarch of Venice elevated to the cardinalate (2).

Death. September 14, 1492, Terni, of old age and dysentery (3), after receiving the viaticum and the extremeunction administered by Pietro Dolfin, his conclavist, predilect disciple and first biographer. Transferred to Venice and buried in the church of S. Pietro.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 983; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 238-239; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1304-1305 and 1344; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 149-150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 1, 50, 67 and 264; Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 42-46; Orsoni, Alessandro. Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia. Corredata di annotazioni illustranti l'ecclesiastico-civile veneta storia. Venezia : Tip. G.S. Felice, 1828, p. 292-315.

Links. Biography by Giuseppe Del Torre, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 56 (2001), Treccani; his portrait by Lorenzo Ceregato (2004), patriarchate of Venice, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) Dr. Francis Burkle-Young, in his chronicle of the conclave, linked above, says: "There seems to be no question that Gherardo was in an advanced state of senility and not entirely sure of place or time. He was probably not, as has been said, in his ninety-sixth year, but in his late eighties. During the course of the evening of the tenth, relays of cardinals and conclavists under the direction of Ascanio talked without interruption to the tired Patriarch, repeating over and over again, the merits of Borgia and the desirability of having him for pope. Finally, if only to be allowed to lie down and go to sleep, Gherardo capitulated and promised to give Borgia his vote in the morning scrutiny. He must have known that Venice would not approve the elevation of the Spaniard, but he was too exhausted to care. The account of the wearing down of Gherardo is to be found in two documents-a letter of Taddeo Vicomercato to Milan, dated August 18, 1492, and a letter of Giacomo Trotti to Ercole I d'Este, duke of Ferrara, dated August 28, 1492."
(2) The patriarchate of Venice was established by Pope Nicholas V on October 15, 1451, with the bull Regis æterni.
(3) Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1305, indicates that he may have been poisoned by Negro and Pace, secretaries of the Venetian ambassador for having voted for Cardinal Borgia, elected Pope Alexander VI.

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(7) 7. MEDICI, Giovanni de' (1475-1521)

Birth. December 11, 1475, Florence. Second son of Lorenzo de' Medici, il Magnifico, and Clarissa Orsini. Cousin of Pope Clement VII. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Lorenzo Strozzi (1557), on his mother's side. He was called the Cardinal de' Medici.

Education. In 1489 he started his studies grammar and philosophy in Florence under Demetrius Chalcondyles and Marsilio Ficino; theology and canon law in Pisa under Urbano Valeriano Bolzani, Filippo Decio, Bartolomeo Soccini; and later with Angelo Politien, in Florence; he was initiated in public affairs by General Treasurer Bernardo Dovizi, future cardinal.

Early life. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure in 1482, when he was seven years old. King Louis XI of France granted him the abbey of Font-Douce, diocese of Saintes, in 1483. Named protonotary apostolic by Pope Sixtus IV. In January 1484, in compensation for not having obtained the metropolitan see of Aix, he was given the rich abbey of Passignano. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine abbey of Monte Cassino, March 14, 1487. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine Vallombrosan monastery of Coltibuono, diocese of Fiesole, September 24, 1488. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of his father.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 9, 1489; the red hat, the ring and the assignation to the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica were sent to him in Florence on March 23, 1489; he was prohibited from wearing any of the cardinalitial insignias for three years because of his young age as he was thirteen years and four months old at the time; he was invested with the cardinalitial habit on March 9, 1492, at his monastery of Fiesole; he went to Passignano on March 12th; to Sienna on March 16th; to Viterbo on March 18th; and on March 22nd he arrived in Rome, where Cardinal Jorge da Costa, archbishop of Lisbon, received him in the monastery of S. Maria del Popolo; he was published on March 26, 1492; he received a long letter from his father with judicious advice warning him to avoid vice and luxury. Abbot commendtario of th Camaldolese monastery of Ss. Giusto e Clemente, Volterra, May 25, 1489. On July 8, 1491, he resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of La Chaise-Dieu, diocese of Clermont. Named legate a latere in Toscany and Florence in the consistory of May 11, 1492; he left on that same day to his legation; returned to Rome from Florence on July 25, 1492. Participated in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. Named legate in the Province of the Patrimony on August 31, 1492 by the new Pope Alexander VI. Returned to Florence and resided there until the expulsion of his family after the death of his father; dressed in a Franciscan habit, he left his house with his brother Pietro right before it was ransacked on November 9, 1494; he went to the home of his friends the Vitelli in Città di Castello; and later to his sister's Maddalena in Genoa; from 1495 to 1499, he traveled through Italy, Germany, Holland and France with his cousin Giulio; returned to Germany disguised as a merchant; learning that he was in danger, he safely arrived in Rome on May 19, 1500, residing in his palace of S. Eustachio (now Madama Palace). Named legate in Bologna in 1500; later in that year, he was named legate to the army of the Crusade. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Calvello, diocese of Sovana, January 9, 1501. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Felice in Piazza, Florence, March 16, 1502. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. He established a close friendship with Cardinal Galeotto della Rovere, like him, a great protector of letters and arts. Named legate in Perugia in 1506. Cardinal protodeacon in September 1508. Named administrator of the see of Amalfi, December 9, 1510; occupied the post until his election to the papacy. Named legate in Bologna and Romagna on October 1, 1511; also, legate to the Spanish-Papal army warring against France and her allies; he was present at the battle outside Ravenna at the edge of the river Ronco, on Easter Day, April 11, 1512; he was captured by the French and taken to Milan; when he was going to be deported to France, he escaped and went to Pieve del Cairo in June 1512; from there he went to Mantua and then to Bologna; on June 15th, the pope granted him the faculty of lifting the censures that had been pronounced against the latter city. Florence, having been forced to recall the Medici, he reentered the city on September 14, 1512. Participated in the conclave of 1513 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on March 9, 1513. Published on March 11, 1513, took the name Leo X. Crowned, March 19, 1513, by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, deacon of S. Eustachio. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 11, 1513. Presided the session of May 17, 1513 of the Fifth Lateran Council. On June 15, 1520, with the bull Exurge Domine et iudica, he condemned the forty-one propositions contained in the 95 theses of 1517 of Martin Luther. He created 42 cardinals in eight consistories. He was the last pope who had not received the priestly ordination at the time of his election to the papacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 15, 1513.

Episcopate. Consecrated bishop of Rome, March 17, 1513, Rome by Cardinal Raffaello Sanzio Riario, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by (no information found). He counted among his friends Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Desiderius Erasmus and Janus Lascaris.

Death. December 1, 1521, Rome. Buried in a modest tomb in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. On June 6, 1542, his remains were transferred to the basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva and placed in a grand mausoleum of white marble with several statues, work of Baccio Bandinelli, next to the mausoleum of Pope Clement VII, his cousin. His portrait by Michelangelo Buonarotti is in the Palatine Gallery of Florence; and his inscription, composed by Cardinal Pietro Bembo, calls him Deliciæ humani generis.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1132; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 240-242; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1308-1309; Di Sivo, Michele. "Leone X." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, pp. 648-650; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 150-151; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 21, 50, 55 and 67; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 13-18 and 105; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 256-258; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXVIII, 35-43; Pellegrini, Marco. "Leone X." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000. III, 42-64.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English; his portrait, arms and biographical data, in English; his episcopal lineage, in English; his portrait with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici y Luigi de' Rossi by Raffaello Sanzio; detail of the pope's face in the previous portrait; his portrait by Cristofano dell'Altissimo; drawing conferring the Roman citizenship to Duke Giuliano de' Medici by Giorgio Vasari, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Camera Blindata, Rectorate, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; portrait and biographical data, in Italian, Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence, Italy; ten engravings of the pope (except no. 8); his engraving by an anonymous artist, Goretti Collection, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome, Italy; his engraving, Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire Neufchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; engraving with his brother Giuliano; his engraving by Friedrich van Hulsen, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany; his effigy on an ivory cameo; his effigy by Andrea Della Robbia, on a bassrelief when he was a youngster; his bust by Angelo Uggeri, church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome; his statue by Aimo Domenico, church of S. Maria in Ara Coeli, Rome; another view of the same statue; his arms by Filippo Juvara; his arms and tomb by Baccio Bandinelli; his statue by Antonio da Sangallo, in his tomb; nine medals issued during his pontificate; twenty coins issued during his pontificate; his effigy on a medal; and his effigy on a coin of the Papal States valued one-and-a-half ducats.

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(8) 8. SANSEVERINO, Federico (1475/1477-1516)

Birth. 1475/1477, Naples (1). Of the counts of Calazzo. Son of Count Roberto di Sanseverino dAragona Visconti, general of the papal army, and his second wife Elisabetta da Montefeltro. His first name is also listed as Federigo. The family gave the church several cardinals: Guglielmo Sanseverino (1378); Antonio Sanseverino, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1527); Lucio Sanseverino (1621); and Stanislao Sanseverino (1816).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cleric of Milan. Protonotary apostolic. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Bartolomeo, Novara. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Lorenzo, Cremona, October 29, 1479.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Maizellais, November 5, 1481; occupied the post until 1508; he was not replaced until 1511. Provost of the church S. Maria in Crescenzago about 1492. He was passionate about hunting. Promoted to the cardinalate in consideration to the services rendered by his father. Administrator of the see of Novara, May 30, 1505; occupied the post until October 24, 1511.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 9, 1489; his creation was not published because of his youth; the pope died without publishing him; admitted to the Sacred College of Cardinals because of the intervention of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza and published during the sede vacante on July 26, 1492; received the deaconry of S. Teodoro. Participated in the conclave of 1492, which elected Pope Alexander VI. Legate before King Charles VIII of France in Siena in November 1494; he quickly returned to Rome and was suspected by the Pope, who called him to the Vatican on December 9, 1494; the cardinal attended the consistory held the following day and was arrested together with Cardinal Bernardino Lunati in order to scare the rebels of Ostia; he was lodged in the upper floor of the apostolic palace; he was freed on December 19 and sent again before King Charles VIII of France, whom he accompanied in his entrance in Rome the following December 31st. He accompanied the pope to Orvieto on May 27, 1495 and returned to Rome with the pontiff on June 27th. Named administrator of the see of Terouanne, February 8, 1496; occupied the post until November 12, 1498. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Vienne, July 1, 1497; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Alessandro on January 26, 1515. On January 9, 1499, he read in consistory a letter in French from King Louis XII of France dated December 20, 1498 in Chinon; the following May 22nd, he read another letter dated May 13th in Blois. On July 6, 1499, he resigned the commendam of the monastery of S. Vittore in Milan. On August 3, 1499, he left, with the pope's permission, for Milan to join Cardinal Ascanio Sforza. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Named legate in the Province of the Patrimony, May 24, 1504. Named administrator of the see of Novara, May 30, 1505; occupied the post until his deposition. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, May 1, 1510; he kept in commendam the deaconry of S. Teodoro until May 17, 1511. He joined those opposed to the pope, who threatened him in June 1510 with incarceration in Castello Sant'Angelo. In October 1510, he sought refuge, with another four cardinals, in the camp of the French army and went to Milan. He was one of the signatories of the document of May 16, 1511 convoking a council in Pisa on September 1st. In the consistory of October 24, 1511, the pope threatened him with excommunication if did not subject; he did not attend the schismatic Council of Pisa but he persisted in his rebellion against the pope and was deprived of the cardinalate and his benefices in the consistory of January 30, 1512. He was with the French army at its victory in Ravenna on Easter Day April 11, 1512; Gaston de Foix, its chief was killed in battle; the cardinal was to become governor of the Papal States according to the plan of King Louis XII of France, who wanted to dethrone Pope Julius II; the plan failed. At the death of the pope, he did not participate in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Shortly after the election of the new Pope Leo X, the cardinal was arrested in Florence by orders of the pope, who promised his pardon if he repented. On June 17, 1513, he condemned the schismatic council and submitted himself to papal authority; the declaration was read in a session of the Fifth Council of Letran; he arrived at the Vatican on June 27th, together with Cardinal Bernardino López de Carvajal, to attend a secret consistory; he read the formula retracting his actions and was absolved by the pope and restored to the Sacred College of Cardinals with his deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria; as penance he had to fast for a month; he gradually recovered his former benefices. Cardinal protodeacon after June 1513. Named protector of France, he negotiated with the pope on October 6, 1513, the text of a declaration to have signed by King Louis XII of France; it was approved on October 26th and authorized submitting to the pope a request for arbitration. Transferred from the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria before March 24, 1514, when the deaconry was assigned to Cardinal Matthäus Lang von Wallenberg; he possibly opted for the deaconry of S. Teodoro, which he occupied until his death. On June 25, 1515, he was called by Pope Leo X because it looked like one of his servants had killed a papal guard; he was arrested and sent to Castello Sant'Angelo; he was released the following day after the pope explained the case in consistory and the cardinal proved that he was innocent. In November 1515, the pope sent him before King François I of France, who was in Parma; the king received him on December 10th at the bridge of Reno, three hours from Bologna; he entered the city the following day, followed by the king..

Death. August 7, 1516, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, with no memorial.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 243-244; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1309-1310; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 151-152; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 197 and 268; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp., 333; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXI, 51-52; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 858.

Link. Biographical data, in Italian, Magazzeno Storico Verbanese; his genealogy, A1 B3 D7 G3 H1 J2 L1 M6, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; biographical data, in Italian, Enciclopedie on line, Treccani.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934, p. 151; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 243, says that he was from Milan and that other sources say that he was from Naples.

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CIBO, Pantaleone (?-?)

Birth. (No date found), Genoa (?). Son of Cristoforo Cibo. Cousin of Pope Innocent VIII (1).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. (No information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Several sources indicate that he was created cardinal in the consistory of March 9, 1489 and never published.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 244; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 152; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 20, n. 4; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XIII, 127.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle"; Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934, p. 152; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XIII, 127, says that he was the pope's grandnephew.

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CIBO, Niccolò (?-1499)

Birth. (No date found), Genoa (?). Relative of Pope Innocent VIII (1). His last name is also listed as Bocciardi Cibo and Bocciardi Cibo.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. (No information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Cosenza, October 19, 1485; took possession, May 1486. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Perugia, 1487. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Arles, April 24, 1489; took possession, October 15, 1489.

Cardinalate. Several sources indicate that he was created cardinal in the consistory of March 9, 1489 and never published. In May 1492, he was sent by the pope to Ancona bring to Rome the Holy Lance of Longinus. After the death of Pope Innocent VIII, the grand sultan of Turkey wrote to the new Pope Alexander VI, through papal ceremonieri Giovanni Burchard, asking him to create the archbishop as a "perfect" cardinal but he was unsuccessful.

Death. July 1499, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 244-245; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 152; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20, n.4; ; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, III, 126-127.

Link. Biographical data, in French, pp. 879-884.

(1) This is according to , p. 152; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, III, 126, says that he was a brother of the pope.

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BARBARO, iuniore, Ermolao (1454-1493)

Birth. May 21, 1454, Venice. His name is also listed as Hermolaus Barbarus.

Education. He went to Rome at a young age and studied under Julius Pomponius Laetus (Giulio Pomponio Leto); then, he completed his studies at the University of Padua.

Early life. Crowned as a learned man and poet on December 3, 1468. Named professor of philosophy at the University of Padua in 1477. He went to Venice in 1479 but returned to Padua because of the plague. Venetian ambassador before Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III; and later, before his son Emperor Maximilian. He was also ambassador before Pope Innocent VIII, who elevated him to the patriarchate of Aquileia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of Aquileia, March 6, 1491. Consecrated (no information found). The Venetian Senate refused to accept his election to the patriarchate because he had accepted it before securing the senate's approval; and threatened to banish him and confiscate his father's properties if he did not resign, which he did; he stayed in exile in Rome. He authored, edited and translated numerous works of Classical authors.

Cardinalate. According to several sources he was created cardinal in the consistory of March 9, 1489 and never published.

Death. May 2, 1493 (1), probably from the plague, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 245-247; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1317; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 152; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 20 and 92; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, IV, 103-104; Paschini, Pio. Tre illustri prelati del Rinascimento : Ermolao Barbaro, Adriano Castellesi, Giovanni Grimani. Romae : Facultas Theologica Pontificii Athenaei Lateranensis, 1957. (Lateranum ; nova ser., an. 23, n. 1-4).

Links. Biography, in English; and his engraving

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934, p. 152, citing Ludwig, Freiherr von Pastor, The history of the popes : from the close of the Middle Ages. Drawn from the secret archives of the Vatican and other original sources (40 vols. St. Louis, Mo : Herder, 1923-1953. Translation of: Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters); his biography in English, linked above, says that he died on June 14, 1493 or 1495.

Note. Some sources say that Pope Innocent VIII also created Cardinals Fryderyk Jagiellończyk, administrator of Kraków, Poland; and Ippolito I d'Este, administrator of the metropolitan see of Esztergom, Hungary; but they were elevated to the cardinalate by Pope Alexander VI in the consistory of September 20, 1493.

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