The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503)
Consistory of Friday September 20, 1493 (II)
Celebrated at the Apostolic Palace, Rome


(2) 1. BILHÈRES DE LAGRAULAS, O.S.B., Jean (1434/1439-1499)

Birth. 1434/1439, Gascony, France. Of a noble family. His father was the signeur of Lagraulas, Camicas and, probably, Billères. His last name is also listed as Villiers de la Grolaie, the French form of his name; and as Villary. He was called the Cardinal of Saint-Denis.

Education. Entered the Order of St. Benedict (Benedictines) at a young age. (No further educational information found).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of Saint-Michel de Pessan, diocese of Auch, in 1473. Royal counselor to King Louis XI of France. After the death of the Count Jean V of Armagnac, the four valleys of Aure, Magnoac, Neste and Barousse, hesitated to recognize a new maitre; Jean V had given the valleys to his sister; their interests and history attracted the valleys towards France but the king of Aragón, trying to obtain their loyalty, offered them numerous advantages; the king sent Abbot Bilères to the valleys to convince them to remain loyal to France and repudiate the advances of the Aragonese king; he was successful in his mission; in recognition, King Louis XI had him elected to the see of Lombès.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lombès, July 5, 1473; kept the see until two days before his death, when he resigned it in favor of his nephew Denis de Villiers. Consecrated (no information found). The French king named him temporary administrator of the abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris; Pope Sixtus IV wanted to name Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville as abbot but King Louis XI was opposed to this nomination; Abbot Bilhères was provided with the support of of the monks who were professors or students of Collége de Saint-Denis at the University of Paris on May 1, 1474; and he was unanimously elected, with royal permission, on May 12, 1474 (1); the pope received the election coldly and withheld its ratification for several months; he finally recognized it towards the middle of 1475. Ambassador of King Louis XI before King Fernando V of Aragón and Isabel I of Castilla in 1477; he concluded the difficult negotiations successfully and a treaty was signed in San Juan de la Luz on October 2, 1475. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Quentin de Beauvais. After the death of King Louis XI, the regent admited him to her councils and in 1483, named him president of the Court des Aides. Deputy of the French clergy, he was the president of the États Généraux in Tours in 1485. He was interim guard des sceaux de France several times. Named president of the Echiquier of Normandy by King Charles VIII from 1485. In 1489, he attended together with the pairs and the grands of the realm, the parlement to which King Charles VIII had the dukes of Orléans and Bretagne cited to explain their conduct. Ambassador of King Charles VIII of France to Germany; he stipulated in Frankfurt the peace with Maximilian, king of the Romans, son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. French ambassador to Rome in 1491. Named coadjutor of Bishop Louis de Rochechouart of Santes, December 2, 1491 until August 1492; he did not succeed him. Governor of Rome before the death of Pope Innocent VIII. The king of France recommended his promotion to the cardinalate. Commendatario of the Augustinian monastery of Saint-Martin de Nevers; resigned on November 27, 1495. Commendatario of the monastery of Luxeuil, archdiocese of Besançon; resigned on May 27, 1496. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Tournus, diocese of Châlons-sur-Marne; resigned on May 16, 1498. Abbot commendatario of Mas-Garnier, archdiocese of Toulouse; resigned on August 3, 1498.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, September 23, 1493. Accompanied King Charles VIII in his entrance in Rome on December 31, 1494. Sent by the French king on May 19, 1495 to negotiate with Pope Alexander VI; the mission was unsuccessful. Accompanied the French king on June 1, 1495 in the former's crossing to Rome. Named bishop commendatario of Condom, October 26, 1496; retained the see until his death. Named bishop of Viviers in commendam on February 14, 1498; retained the see until his death. He commissioned Michelangelo in 1498 to sculpt the statue of La Pietà for the chapel of S. Petronila, of the kings of France, in the grotto of the Vatican basilica; the statue was moved in 1749 to the first chapel of the right nave of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Death. August 6, 1499, Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Petronila in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome; his mausoleum was built by his excutors in 1500.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 252-253; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1326; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, pp. 111-112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 54, 65, 133, 179, 270 and 271; Fisquet, Honoré Jean Pierre. La France pontificale (Gallia Christiana) : histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'etablissement du Christianisme jusqu' à nos jours, divisée en 18 provinces ecclésiastiques. 21 vols. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1874, XII, tome 2, 252-253; Monlezun, Jean Justin. Histoire de la Gascogne depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu'à nos jours. 1846. 6 vols. Auch : J.A. Portes, 1846-1850, vol. V, livre XVII, chapter III, pp. 47-50.

Links. Biography, in French, pp. 47-50; another biography, in French, pp. 252-253.

(1) This is according to Fisquet, La France pontificale (Gallia Christiana), XIII, 2, 252; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, 111, says that he was elected on March 12, 1474.

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(3) 2. SANGIORGIO, Giovanni Antonio (1439/1442-1509)

Birth. 1439/1442, Milan (1). Of a noble family. Relative of Cardinal Gian Francesco Biandrate di San Giorgio Aldobrandini (1596). His last name is also listed as San Giorgio. He was called the Cardinal of Alessandria.

Education. Studied law n Pavia from 1470.

Early life. Public professor of canons in Pavia and Milan. Ambassador of the duke of Milan before King Matthias Corvin of Hungary. Provost archpriest of the metropolitan cathedral of S. Ambrogio, Milan. Named bishop of Alessandria at the request of the duke of Milan, April 11, 1478.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Alessandria, February 15, 1479. Consecrated (no information found). Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota in the pontificate of Pope Sixtus IV.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, September 23, 1493. Together with Pope Alexander VI, he sought refuge in Castelo S. Angelo, Rome, on January 7, 1495, because of the threat of French troops; he accompanied the pope to Orvieto on May 27, 1495; and returned with him to Rome on June 27, 1495. He was one of the six cardinals named on June 19, 1497 to help the pope compose the bull of reform. He was with the pope when, in January 1499, the ambassadors of Spain and Portugal threatened him with deposition. Transferred to the see of Parma, September 6, 1499; occupied the see until his death. Promoted to titular patriarch of Jerusalem in 1500; kept the title until 1503 (2). Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati on December 23, 1503. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Gallo, diocese of Aquila, in 1505. Named legate a latere in Rome by Pope Julius II in August 1506 during his absence; he gave a magnificent reception to the pope on his return on March 28, 1507. Archpriest of the collegiata of Ss. Celso e Giuliano, next to the bridge of S. Angelo. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 17, 1507. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, September 22, 1508. He was an eminent jurisconsult and an irreproachable priest, recognized for his generosity and benificence. He wrote six volumes of commentaries on canon law.

Death. March 14, 1509 (3), Rome. Buried in front of the main altar of the collegiata of Ss. Ceslo e Giuliano, Rome. He left his possessions to the Confraternity Sancta sanctorum of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. His funeral inscription was lost in 1547 and recovered in 1736 when the church was restored (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 251-252; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1326 and 1390; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 52, 64, 85 and 213; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 57 and 58.

Link. Biography, in Italian; biography, also in Italian.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 251; and his epitaph transcribed in note 2; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle, Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 112; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1326; and his biography in Italian, linked above, say that he was born in Piacenza.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 251; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1326; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle, Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 112; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 164, does not list him among the titulars of that see.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle, Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 112; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 22, n. 3, adds that other sources, which it does not name, indicate that he died on March 28, 1509; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, III, 58; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1390, indicates that he died on March 28, 1509.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1326: D. O. M. HIC SEPVLTVM. EST. CORPVS. DOMINI IOANNIS. ANTONII. DE. SANCTO. GEORGIO. MEDIOLANENSIS. EPISCOPI. SABINENSIS. S. R. E. CARDINALIS. ALEXANDRINI. NVNCVPATI. SOCIETAS. SLVATORIS. AD. SANCTA. SANCTORVM. HÆRES. EX. TESTAMENTO. B. M. POSVIT. MDXI. VII. KALEND. DECEMBRIS.

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(4) 3. LÓPEZ DE CARVAJAL, Bernardino (1456-1523)

Birth. September 8, 1456, Plasencia, Spain. Son of Francisco (López) de Carvajal y Trejo, 2nd señor of Torrejón, and Aldonza Sande. Related to Cardinal Juan de Carvajal (1446). He was called the Cardinal of Cartagena and also the Cardinal of S. Croce.

Education. Studied in Salamanca from 1466; obtained a bachelor's degree in 1472; and a licentiate in May 1478; substituted Pedro de Osma in the chair of theology in 1475; and again in 1477-1479; rector in 1481. Obtained the title of magister in arts and theology, December 21, 1480. He also studied in Plasencia and in Italy, letters, sciences and theology.

Early life. Archdeacon of Toro, dioocese of Zamora. From 1482, he established himself in Rome. Chamberlain of honor of Pope Sixtus IV. Named protonotary apostolic by Pope Innocent VIII. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Plasencia in 1484. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Delivered the sermon "De eligendo Summo Pontifice" after the death of Pope Sixtus IV in 1484. He had a loud disagreement with the Spanish ambassador before the Holy See in September 1485, shortly before going to Spain as nuncio.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Astorga, August 27, 1488; took possession of the see, November 5, 1488. Consecrated, December 21, 1488, church of S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Rome, by Cardinal Jean Balue, bishop of Angers, assisted by Ardicino della Porta, bishop of Aleria, and by Antoniotto Pallavicini Gentili, bishop of Orsense. Transferred to the see of Badajoz, January 23, 1489. Ambassador of King Fernando V of Aragón and Queen Isabel of Castilla and León, before the pope. Delivered the address "De eligendo Summo Pontifice" in 1492, after the death of Pope Innocent VIII. Transferred to the see of Cartagena, March 27, 1493; took possession of the see, October 18, 1493; in commendam, September 20, 1493 until February 20, 1495. In May 1493, he advocated for King Fernando before the pope, who, at his request, issued three bulls in favor of Spain concerning the lands discovered by Christopher Columbus. King Fernando recommended his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, September 23, 1493. Governor of Campagna. On October 8, 1494, the pope asked to go to the border of Terracina to welcome King Ferdinando of Sicily and accompany him to Rome. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gersualemme, February 2, 1495. Named bishop in commendam of Sigüenza, February 20, 1495; occupied the see until 1511; and later from 1513 to 1519. On May 11, 1495, he was named legate a latere to King Charles VIII of France, who was in Naples with Cardinal John Morton; instead, he went with the pope to Orvieto on May 27, 1495 and returned with him to Rome on June 27, 1495. On July 6, 1495, he was named legate to Maximilian, king of the Romans; he left from his residence palazzo Mellini on July 29th and was in Milan on August 31st to present his homage to Maximilian at his entrance into Italy. By brief of July 6, 1496, he received the mission of threatening King Charles VIII of France with ecclesiastical punishment if he did not renounce making war to Italy. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from January 1498 to January 9, 1499; he reformed and modified the charges of the post. He was at the pope's side in January 1499, when the ambassadors of Spain and Portugal threatened the pope with deposition. Received the commendam of the monastery of Sainte-Marie de la Reale, Perpignan. Named administrator of the see of Avellino, July 28, 1503; occupied the post until 1505. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Named titular patriarch of Jerusalem, December 30, 1503 occupied the post until February 20, 1523, when his nephew Rodrigo de Carvajal succeeded him. In January 1504, he was charged with the surveillance of César Borja in Ostia, which he relaxed on April 19, 1504, without regard to the papal agreement; the pontiff complained about the cardinal's decision. On April 12, 1507, he went with the pope and Donato Bramante, the architect, to the construction site of the new basilica of St. Peter. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, August 3, 1507; retained the title of S. Croce in Gerusaleme in commendam until October 24, 1511, when he was deposed as a cardinal and excommunicated by Pope Julius II. Legate a latere before Maximilian, King of the Romans, August 4, 1507; left Rome the following day, went to Sienna and arrived in Innsbruck in September; Maximilian declared himself elected Emperor of the Romans on February 4, 1508; the cardinal reentered his legation in Germany on January 12, 1509. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, September 17, 1507. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 22, 1508. Commendatario of the title of Ss. IV Coronati, 1508 to October 24, 1511. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, March 28, 1509; deposed, October 24, 1511; restored, June 27, 1513.

Because of his difficulties with the pope, the cardinal sought refuge in Milan after going to Florence and Pavia; he became the chief of the rebel cardinals and signed on May 16, 1511 in Milan, a document convoking the pope to the so called Council of Pisa on September 1, 1511; he was deposed as a cardinal and excommunicated by Pope Julius II on October 24, 1511; his see of Sigüenza was given to Federico de Portugal, bishop of Segovia, on October 29, 1511; Cardinal López de Carvajal arrived in Pisa on October 30, 1511 and presided over the schismatic council at the cathedral on November 5, 1511; two days later, he transferred the gathering to Milan, where he had himself elected antipope with the name of Martin; he then moved it to Asti in June 1512, and finally to Lyon, where it dispersed without official closure the following September; his partisans were called the "sect of Carvajal". Together with him were deposed and excommunicated Cardinals Federico di Sanseverino, Francisco Borja, Guillaume Briçonnet, and René de Prie. To respond to the schismatic gathering, Pope Julius II convoked the V Lateran Council; the council declared the schismatic cardinal undeserving of the cardinalitial dignity. Pope Julius II died on February 20, 1513. Excluded from the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X, although he had asked Emperor Maximilian to intercede for him before the Sacred College of Cardinals. He was arrested by the Florentines and taken to Florence by order of the pope; learning that the new Pope Leo X was inclined to clemency and to granting him a pardon, he submitted himself; after long negotiations, he wrote, together with Cardinal Federico di San Severino, a declaration condemning the schismatic council of Pisa and soliciting the pardon of the V Lateran Council; the document was read to the council by its secretary on June 17, 1513 and the council accepted he was admitted to the consistory of June 27, 1513, read the formula of abjuration and was absolved by the pope with the penance of one day of fast per month; all his previous posts that had not being given to others (the suburbicarian see of Sabina, the titular patriarchate of Jerusalem and the diocese of Sigüenza, for which his successor Federico de Portugal received benefices in Salamanca, Palencia and Astorga) were restored to him on that same day; later, he received numerous benefices in several Spanish dioceses. All the other cardinals were also pardoned and reinstated by Pope Leo X in 1513 except Cardinal Borja, who had died in 1511. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Rumold de Malines, diocese of Cambrai, September 21, 1515. Abbot commendatario of Sankt Cassius von Bonn, archdiocese of Cologne, October 30, 1515. On November 4, 1517, he was named to an eight cardinal congregation for the crusade against the Turks. Member of a group of nine cardinals to solve difficult and secret affairs, December 1, 1518. Named bishop of Plasencia, January 14, 1521. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, July 24, 1521. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; he took the oath and the pope imposed the pallium on August 5, 1521. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Greeted the new Pope Adrian VI when he arrived in Rome on August 27, 1522. Administrator of the see of Foligno, September 26, 1522; resigned the post, February 4, 1523 in favor of his nephew Rodrigo de Carvajal. In the consistory of April 28, 1523, he was one of the three cardinals charged with the instruction of the process of Cardinal Francesco Soderini. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII.

Death. December 16, 1523. Buried in the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 253-256; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1326-1327; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, pp. 112-114 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 51, 52, 54, 62, 63, 97, 119, 164, 209 and 235; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 55, 56, 57, 58, 62, 126, 199 and 275; Goñi, J. "López de Carvajal, Bernardino." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; 1987, Suppl., 442-450; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 310.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in Italian; his portrait, Rettorato, Sala del Consiglio, University of Bologna, Bologna; his engraving; and his tomb in the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, colx. 1326-1327: BERNARDINO. CARVAJAL. NATIONE. HISPANO. PATRIA. PLACENTINO. EPISCOPO. OSTIENSI. CARDINALI. SANCTÆ, CRVCIS. OB. EGREGIAS. VIRTVTES. DOCTRINAMQ. IN. SACRIS. LITERIS. SIGVLAREM. AB. ALEXANDRO. VI. PONTIFICE. MAXIMO. IN. NVMERVM. PATRVM. ASCITO. PLVRIBVS. LEGATIONIBVS. PRO. REPVBLICA. CHRISTIANA. UNCTO. INTEGERE. SAPIETEROQ.PROSPERA. FORTVNA. MODERATE. ADVERSAM. CONSTANTER. VSO. PER. OMNEM. VITAM. PIO. AC. RELIGIOSO. VIXIT. ANN. LXVII. M. III. D. VIII.OBIIT. XVII. KAL. IANVARI. ANN. MDXXIII. HIC. BERNARDINVS. CARVAJAL. S. R. E. CARD. EPISCOPVS. OSTIENSIS. QVIESCIT. DONNEC. AD. ÆTERNAM. RESVRGAT. VITAM.

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(5) 4. BORGIA, Cesare (1475-1507)

Birth. September 1475, Rome. Third natural child of Rodrigo de Borja, future Pope Alexander VI, and Vanozza de Catanei. He was known with the appellations of Cardinal of S. Maria Nuova, Cardinal of Velencia or Cardinal Borgia. Grand-nephew of Pope Callistus III. Cousin of Cardinals Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el menor (1496) and Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní (1500). Brother-in-law of Cardinal Amanieu d'Albret (1500). The family Italianized the Spanish form of the name Borja to Borgia.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Destined by his father to the ecclesiastical state. He received from Pope Sixtus IV on October 1, 1480, a dispensation of the canonical impediment for being the son of a cardinal bishop and a married woman. Named protonotary apostolic in 1482; received benefices in Játiva and other Spanish cities.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pamplona, September 12, 1491. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valencia, August 31, 1492; he succeeded his father in that see; resigned, September 6, 1499. Abbot commendatario of Cistercian monastery of Valledigne, August 31, 1492. On February 8, 1493, he was named abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monasteries of of Abondance, diocese of Genève; Szent Márton de Pannonie, diocese of Györ; and S. Vittore of Milan. Administrator of the see of Nantes, August 9, 1493; his nomination was revoked on November 4, 1493.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, September 23, 1493.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders and the diaconate, together with his cousin Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, future cardinal, March 26, 1494. (Never received the priestly ordination and the episcopal consecration.) Administrator of the see of Castres, November 4, 1493 to January 20, 1495. On May 8, 1494, received rich benefices from the king of Naples. On October 31, 1494, left Rome by sea, ordered by the pope, to replace Cardinal Ascanio Sforza; recalled to Rome, he arrived in the evening of November 3, 1494. On January 7, 1495, he sought refuge, together with the pope, in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, in anticipation of the arrival in the city of King Charles VIII of France. On January 15, 1495, named legate for four months before the French army; he accompanied King Charles VIII to Naples on January 28th, but in Velletri he disappeared and returned to Rome. Resigned the commendam of the monastery of Saint-Géraud d'Aurillac, diocese of Saint-Flour, January 20, 1495. He accompanied the pope to Orvieto on May 27, 1495 and returned with him to Rome on June 27, 1495. Administrator of Elne, January 20, 1495 to September 6, 1499. Administrator of the see of Coria, 1495 to September 6, 1499. He accompanied the pope to Ostia on May 6, 1497; he had been named, in a secret consistory, legate a latere to consecrate and crown in Naples Federico de Aragón, king of Sicily; he left for his legation on July 22, 1497 and returned the following October 5th; on the following day, as it was the custom, he was received by the Sacred College of Cardinals in the monastery of S. Maria Nuova. He was accused of killing (on June 14, 1497) his elder brother Giovanni, duke of Gandía, out of jealousy.

In December, 1497, he received the benefices of Cardinal Giovanni Giacomo Sclafenati, who had died the 4th of that month; at the same time, he continued the process, started in 1493, to leave the ecclesiastical state. He resigned the cardinalate on August 18, 1498, with the unanimous consent of the Sacred College of Cardinals; he also resigned all his bishoprics and abbeys. He was very fond of the arms and of politics, became chief of the army and showed great talent both militarily and administratively; he was also a friend of the arts and poets but his morals were quite depraved. He had a ward for women built in the Hospital of S. Maria de la Consolation, Rome. He was named count of Valentinois and Diois; and shortly after, duke of Valentinois by the new French King Louis XII, with whom he aligned himself; he left Rome on October 1, 1498, landed in Marseille the following 19th, and arrived in Chinon, where the French king was, on December 19, 1498; he brought the cardinalitial hat to Georges d'Amboise, who had been created a cardinal on the previous September 17th. He married Charlotte d'Albret on May 10, 1499 in France; she was related to the French royal family; they had a daughter, Louise; he had several illegitimate children. He accompanied King Louis XII to Italy and entered Milan on October 6, 1499; he went on a military campaign in November, took Imola and then Forlì on January 12, 1500. He arrived in Rome on February 26, 1500; on March 29, after the mass at St. Peter's basilica, the pope created him gonfaloniere and captain general of the Holy Church; he received the Golden Rose. On August 18, 1500, he assassinated Alfonso de Bisceglie, husband of his sister Lucrezia. On October 1, 1500, he left Rome commanding an army of 10,000 men; he took Pesaro and Rimini and then Faenza on April 25, 1501 after having tried for several months. He received then from the pope the title of duke of Romagna. He continued his conquests in the duchy of Florence and in Piombino; reentered Rome in June 1501 and was present at the proclamation of the league of the pope with France and Spain against Naples on June 29th; he joined his troops on July 4th to the French army that took Naples; his influence over the pope grew even more; on February 17, 1502, he accompanied the pontiff to Piombino and to the Island of Elba; he returned to Rome on March 11th. He left Rome with his troops again on June 13, 1502; he conquered the duchy of Urbino and later, in July, Camerino; he was in Milan with King Louis XII on August 5th; he seized Senigaglia on December 31st and had his adversaries massacred. In January 1503, he continued his campaign against the Orsinis and took Cere in April; he was accused of having Cardinal Giovanni Michiel poisoned. His father, Pope Alexander VI, died on August 18, 1503. He took the oath of obedience to the Sacred College of Cardinals on August 22nd. and was confirmed as captain general of the Holy Church. Having his life threatened in Rome, he sought refuge in Nepi after an agreement reached on September 1, 1503 with the French army. With the consent of the new Pope Pius III, he returned to Rome on October 3rd. Abandoned by all, he tried to leave the city on October 15, 1503 but could not and sought refuge in Castello Sant'Angelo. He regained influence and, with the help of the Spanish cardinals, was able to influence the conclave into electing the new Pope Julius II on November 1st; the new pope took away from him the title of gonfaloniere; he went to Ostia on November 19, 1503 and the pope commanded him to return to the church the four strongholds still under his control (Forlì, Cesena, Forlimpopoli and Bertinoro); he refused and was forced to return to Rome; he was lodged at the Vatican and all his wealth was confiscated; by an accord of January 24, 1504 with the pope, he promised to surrender his strongholds before forty days; he went to Ostia and was placed under the surveillance of Cardinal Bernardino López de Carvajal; having the conditions relaxed by the cardinal, he left for Naples; there he was arrested on May 27, 1504 by order of the king of Spain, imprisoned in Ischia and later sent to Spain on August 20th; he was incarcerated in Medina del Campo; he escaped on October 25, 1506 and sought refuge with his brother-in-law Jean d'Albret, king of Navarre; he fought under the king's flag against the count of Lérins and was killed on the walls of Viana, diocese of Pamplona on March 12, 1507 at thirty one years of age.

Death. March 12, 1507, Mendavia, near Viana. Buried in the church of Santa María de Viana (1), Navarra, Spain, in a magnificent monument of white marble, beneath the altar (2). In 1537, Bishop Alfonso de Castilla of Calahorra visited the church and was horrified for such a sinner being buried in the holy place. Hence, the tomb was destroyed and the remains were transferred to an unconsecrated site outside the church so that his body would be "trampled on by men and beasts", as the bishop ordered. His remains stayed there until 1945, when they were accidentally exhumed by some workmen. A group of local politicians pleaded with the Catholic Church to give him a proper burial. However, the local bishop turned down the request. His body then was placed under a marble plaque outside the church grounds. In 2007, Archbishop Fernando Sebastian Aguilar of Pamplona, finally granted the petition and allowed the remains to be moved back inside the church on the day before the 500th anniversary of his death. The local church was not against the decision. "Whatever he may have done in life, he deserves to be forgiven now," said the local church. The city of Viana commemorated the fifth centennial of his death.

Bibliography. Aldea Vaquero, Quintín. "Borja, César." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, I, 277; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 256-258; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1328; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 14-115; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 120, 211 and 261.

Links. Portrait and biography, in Spanish; portraits and biography, in Italian; portrait and biography, also in Italian; portrait and biography, in English; portraits and biography, in Catalan; his portrait by Altobello Melone, Accademia Carrara, Bergamo, Italy; his portrait by Cristoforo dell'Altissimo, Uffizi, Corridoio Vasariano, Florence, Italy; his portrait by Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli; anonymous copy of his portrait by Altobello Melone, museum of the Carthusian monastery of Douai, France; his engraving by Johann Rudolf Schellenberg, Bibliotheca Hertziana, Max Planck Institute for Art History, Rome; his engraving, Bibliothèque publique et universitaire, Neuchâtel, France; his bust and details of his death and burial, in Spanish the bust is by Fructuoso Orduña, 1965.

(1) This is according to Aldea, "Borja, César." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, I, 277; his biography in Spanish, linked above; and the page, in Spanish, with details about his death and burial, also linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 258; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1328, he was buried in Pamplona. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle; Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, notes the discrepancy about the sources without stating an opinion.
(2) This is the text of the epitaph taken from the page in Spanish with details of his death and burial, linked above:

"Aquí yace en poca tierra
el que toda le temía
el que la paz y la guerra
en su mano la tenía.
Oh tú, que vas a buscar
dignas cosa de loar
si tú loas lo más digno
aquí pare tu camino
no cures de más andar".

Presently, a white marble plaque, in front of the main door of the church of Santa María, marks his tomb: "César Borgia generalísimo de los ejércitos de Navarra y Pontificios. Muerto en campos de Viana el XI de marzo de MDVII".

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(6) 5. CESARINI, iuniore, Giuliano (1466-1510)

Birth. 1466, Rome. Son of Gabriele Cesarini, gonfaloniere of the Roman people, and Godina Colonna, Roman noble. Brother in law of Gerolama Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini, seniore (1426). Uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Cesarini, seniore (1517). Another cardinal of the family was Cardinal Alessandro Cesarini, iuniore (1627).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Saint Lambert, Liège, March 13, 1491.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Sergio e Bacco, September 23, 1493. He visited King Charles VIII on January 2, 1495, in Rome and was received with honors by the monarch. On May 27, 1495, he accompanied the pope to Orvieto and returned to Rome with him on June 27, 1495. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Michel de Cuxa, diocese of Perpignan. Canon of the chapter of the cathedral of Saint-Lambert, Liège, from 1496 until 1500. On August 1, 1497, he constituted procurators to follow up the letters of reserve which he obtained for the sees of Maestricht, Malines and Gheel, and to take up the abbey of Stavelot, diocese of Liège.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Ascoli Piceno, February 14, 1500; occupied the post until his death. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica March 5, 1503. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, November 29, 1503. Abbot commendatario of Nonatola, 1505 until his death.

Death. May 1, 1510, Rome, suddenly. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 263-264; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1330; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 115; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 52, 66, 67 and 96; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 119; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 250.

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(7) 6. GRIMANI, Domenico (1461-1523)

Birth. February 19, 1461 (1), Venice. Of a patrician family. Eldest of the five sons of Antonio Grimani, doge of Venice, and Caterina Loredan. The other sons were Vincenzo, Girolamo, Piero and Marino. Uncle of Cardinal Marino Grimani (1527). Great-great-great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani (1697).

Education. He manifested at a young age a strong interest for culture and humanistic studies, which he followed first in his native city under the most illustrious teachers. Later in Florence, he frequented the most prestigious intellectual circles. He established strong friendships with some of the best exponents of the Florentine cultural elite such as Lorenzo de' Medici (il Magnifico), Angelo Poliziano and Pico della Mirandola. He entered the Grand Council of Venice and was elected senator in 1487. He obtained a doctorate in canon law at the University of Padua on October 23, 1487; he also excelled in arts and philosophy; he defended the doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas (Thomism) in several disputes and obtained a solid reputation in that matter. He remained in Padua until 1489. Desiderius Erasmus dedicated him his work Musica.

Early life. In 1489, he was chosen to be one of the four ambassadors to escort Emperor Friedrich III trough the territories of the Republic of Venice; he accompanied the emperor to Verona, Vicenza, Bassano, Treviso and Aquilea; as a reward, the emperor made him a knight (prince in Germany). He entered the papal court in 1491. On October 1 of that year, Pope Innocent VIII named him papal secretary and, later, protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the red hat and the title of S. Nicola fra imagini, September 23, 1493. Accompanied the pope to Orvieto on May 27, 1495 and returned with him to Rome on June 27, 1495.

Episcopate. Named administrator of Nicosia, Cyprus, July 3, 1495; resigned the post on September 4, 1495. Promoted to the patriarchate of Aquileia, September 13, 1497; confirmed, February 13, 1498.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 21, 1498, by Georges, bishop of Milopotamo. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, March 28, 1498. Received the episcopal consecration on April 25, 1498, in his palace in Rome, by Francesco Quirini, archbishop of Craina, assisted by Orlando Orsini, bishop of Nola, and by Giorgio, bishop of Milopotamos; resigned the see of Aquileia in favor of his nephew Marino on January 19, 1517. On October 15, 1499, he left Rome for Venice where his father, Antonio Grimani, procurator of S. Marco and admiral of the fleet, having lost Lepanto to the Turks, had been imprisoned; the cardinal offered himself to take his father's place but it was in vain; he defended him in all possible ways; finally, he had the joy of seeing his father freed and later, elected doge in 1514; they died in the same year, 1523. On July 21, 1503, he resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of S. Firmo, diocese of Verona. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Opted for the title of S. Marco, December 25, 1503. On April 15, 1504, he resigned the commendam of the monastery of S. Maria de Sexto, diocese of Concordia, in favor of his relative Pietro Grimani, of the clergy of Venice. Protector of the Order of St. Basil in 1505. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor. Cardinal primo prete from the beginning of 1508 to the following September. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, September 22, 1508; retained in commendam until his death the title of S. Marco. Because of the war between France and Venice, he was not called to the consistory of March 22, 1509. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 3, 1509. He asked Pope Julius II on November 5, 1509, to authorize the departure from Rome of the Venetian ambassadors because of the war. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, January 20, 1511. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. He attended the opening of the Fifth Lateran Council on May 3, 1512; he celebrated the solemn mass before the first session on May 10, 1512. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. On March 19, 1513, he received from the new Pope Leo X a pension of 2,000 ducats and several new benefices. Governor of the city of Bagnoreggio, July 8, 1513. At the beginning of 1514, he was named by the pope judge in the disagreement between two theologians from Mainz and Cologne; he convoked them to Rome on June 8, 1514; the process prolonged itself so long that the decision of the pope was not made until June 23, 1520. He received in commendam the secular priorate and the collegiata of S. Andrea, Orvieto, March 22, 1514; he resigned the post on August 13, 1514. Named perpetual administrator of the see of Urbino, May 29, 1514; resigned the post on July 17, 1523, in favor of his coadjutor Giacomo Nardi, of the clergy of Aquileia. He was the only cardinal opposed to the appointment by the pope of Lorenzo de' Medici , on August 18, 1516, as duke of Urbino and perpetual signore of Pesaro; he left Rome indignant. Named administrator of Ceneda in 1517; resigned the post on March 28, 1520, in favor of his nephew Giovanni Grimani. In the consistory of February 1, 1517, he violently opposed the closure of the Fifth Lateran Council, which was decided in the consistory of March 4, 1517 and took place the following March 16th; the bull closing the council was read by his successor in the patriarchate of Aquileia. In the consistory of June 23, 1517, he was the only one not to declare guilty Cardinals Petrucci, Bandinello Sauli, and Raffaele Sansoni Riario, accused of high treason, and had a violent altercation with the pope. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI; he was ill when he entered the conclave on December 27, 1521; and had to leave, by advice of his doctor, the following December 31st. He was a man of vast culture, lover of the letters, who formed a library of 8,000 volumes, which he donated to the church of S. Antonio of the Canons Regular of the Savior in Venice; it was destroyed by a fire; he also had a rich collection of artistic objects, among which was the precious breviary Miniato. He was also an eminent theologian and authored several works including a translation of the homilies of St. John Chrysostome.

Death. August 26, 1523, at 7 p.m., in his palace of S. Marco, Rome. His epitaph with his arms were placed in the middle of his titular church, S. Marco (2); he was buried in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome (3), where his nephews erected a monument in his memory; later, his remains were transferred to Venice and buried in the church of S. Francesco della Vigna (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 264-266; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1330-1331; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 115-116; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 52, 53, 54, 55, 63, 64, 92 and 203; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 55, 56, 58, 162 and 233; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIII, 35-36; Paschini, Pio. Domenico Grimani, cardinale di S. Marco (1523). Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1943. (Storia e letteratura, 4); Sutherland, Bruce. "Cameo appearances on the Sistine celing" in Source. Notes in the history of art, XXXII no. 2 (Winter 2013), 12-18. Abstract: This article is about whether two cameos formerly in Cardinal Domenico Grimani's collection inspired Michelangelo; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 497.

Links. Biography by Gino Benzoni and Luca Bortolotti, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 59 (2003), Treccani; brief biographical data, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico Friulano; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; Domenico Grimani, un prince de l'Eglise au service de l'Etat by Géraud Poumarhde, in French, Historia; his portrait, Rettorato, Sala del Consiglio, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; and Palazzo Grimani and his arms, Polo Museale Veneziano.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 115, based on the date of his death and his age according to his epitaph transcribed below in note 2. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1330, says that he was born on July 21, 1463. Benzoni and Bartolotti in their biography in Italian, linked above, say that he was born on February 22, 1461.The other three electronic biographies, also linked above, say that he was born in 1461.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1330: DOMINICO. GRIMANO. EPISCOPO. PORTVENSI. CARDINALI. S. MARCI. PATRIARCHÆ. AQUILEIENSI. INCVLPATISSIMÆ. VITÆ. OMNIVM. SCIENTIARVM. PERITISSIMO. TEMPORANEVM. DEPOSITVM. NEPOTES. PIENTISSIMI. POSVERVNT. LVCTV. TOTIVS. VRBIS. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXII. MENSIS. VI. DIES. VIII. OBIIT. XXVII. AVGVSTI. MDXXIII.
(3) Some sources indicate that he was buried in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in Venice, not in Rome.
(4) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 116; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1330, says that he was buried in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome, and gives his epitaph, transcribed above in note 2; Andrea Vittoreli, in his addition in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1331, says that in that church illius tumulum videre non potui; his biography in Italian, linked above, says that his remains were taken to the church of S. Antonio, Venice, to which he had left his library of 8,000 volumes, and later buried in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in that city.

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(8) 7. FARNESE, seniore, Alessandro (1468-1549)

Birth. February 29, 1468, Rome or Canino. Of an old family from the Papal States. Third of the five children of Pierluigi Ranuccio Farnese and Giovannella Caetani. Grandfather of Cardinals Alessandro Farnese, iuniore (1534) and Ranuccio Farnese, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1545). Great-grandfather of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese (1591). Great-great-grandfather of Cardinal Francesco Maria Farnese (1644).

Education. Studied in Rome under Pomponio Leto; completed his humanistic formation in Renaissance Florence; and also studied in Pisa.

Early life. His family induced him to follow the ecclesiastical career. Clerica of Rome ca. 1488. He was jailed because of his attitude in family disputes. By recommendation of Lorenzo de' Medici, he was named papal secretary and protonotary apostolic in 1491. Named treasurer general in 1492. Canon of the chapter of S. Lorenzo, Viterbo, June 22, 1492. At the request of the Romans he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cosmo e Damiano, September 23, 1493. Legate in the province of the Patrimony, November 14, 1494. Accompanied the pope to Orvieto on May 27, 1495 and returned with him to Rome on June 27, 1495. During his legateship, a brief dated July 16, 1496 was issued inviting the inhabitants of Viterbo to welcome him; he was replaced the following September 15th by Juan de Borja as governor. He was among the most assiduous listeners of Nicolaus Copernicus when he went to Rome for the Jubilee of 1500.

Episcopate. Named administrator of of the see of Corneto e Montefiascone, April 28, 1501 (1); resigned the post on March 23, 1519. Until he was forty years old, he conducted a very dissolute life and had four illegitimate children with Silvia Ruffini (2); they were Costanza, Pier Luigi, Paolo and Rannucio; two of his sons were legitimized by Pope Julius II on July 8, 1505; another son was legitimized by Pope Leo X on March 22, 1518. Named legate in Marche d'Ancona, October 1502; he arrived in his legation on November 26, 1502; named again in 1507. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, November 29, 1503; he retained in commendam the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano until September 25, 1513. On April 12, 1507, he went with the pope and Donato Bramante, the architect, to the construction site of the new basilica of St. Peter. Named administrator of the see of Vence, February 18, 1508 (3); occupied the post until June 5, 1510. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, October 1508. Named bishop of Parma, March 28, 1509; he did not receive the episcopal consecration until July 2, 1519; occupied the see until his election to the pontificate (4). Represented Pope Julius II, who was ill, at the opening of the V Lateran Council on May 3, 1512 and read a brief papal allocution; shortly after, the council entrusted him with the matter of the reform of the church. In 1513, he transformed his life, his customs became irreprehensible and he dedicated himself to the service of the church. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X; he crowned the new pope on March 19, 1513 because the cardinal protodeacon, Federico Sanseverino, had been deposed by the late Pope Julius II. In January 1514, he organized a hunt in which participated the pope and eighteen cardinals. Administrator of the see of Benevento, March 6, 1514; resigned the post on August 31, 1522 in favor of his nephew Alfonso Sforza; when Alfonso died in 1528, Cardinal Farnese succeeded him until January 12, 1530. On May 2, 1514, he received in commendam from Cardinal Bernardo Dovizi, the Benedictine priorate of S. Michele, diocese of Bressanone. Administrator of Saint-Pons de Thomières, July 28, 1514 until his election to the pontificate. On August 20, 1515, he became commendatario of S. Apollinare de Bellaguardia, diocese of Fossombrone. Cardinal protodeacon, August 1516. Conducted a pastoral visitation in his diocese of Parma in 1516 to start its reform; celebrated a diocesan synod in November 1519. On May 19, 1517, he formed part of a commission of cardinals to verify the acts of the process of Cardinal Alfonso Petrucci and Bandinello Sauli. Member of a commission of cardinals for the crusade against the Turks, November 4, 1517. On February 8, 1518, the pope decided that Cardinal Farnese should receive the first suburbicarian see that became vacant with the agreement of his most senior cardinal priests. Named legate before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V on March 13, 1518; at the end of a triduum of prayers and processions, he read a papal bull in favor of a suspension of wars for five years; on March 28th he left for his legation and returned at the end of the year. On December 1, 1518, he was one of the nine cardinals charged with regulating difficult and secret affairs. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 15, 1519.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 26, 1519. Consecrated bishop, July 2, 1519, Hall of the Signatura, Vatican, Rome, by Pope Leo X, assisted by Cardinal Lorenzo Pucci, bishop of Melfi, and by Cardinal Andrea della Valle, bishop of Mileto; celebrated his first mass on December 25, 1519. Named administrator of the see of Valva e Sulmona in 1521 but resigned immediately. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 9, 1523. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, December 18, 1523. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, May 20, 1524. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 15, 1524. Administrator of the see of Anagni, April 3 to June 7, 1525. As archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, he opened and closed the Holy Door for the Jubilee of 1525, according to an inscription existent in the basilica. In 1526, his son Pier Luigi joined the party opposed to Pope Clement VII and was excommunicated; the following year, the cardinal obtained his absolution. In January 1527, he advised the pope to leave Rome because of the grave disturbances but it was in vain; On May 20, 1527, he was sent to see Emperor Charles V together with the Portuguese ambassador; he received a safe conduct the following July 12th; he left but as soon as he arrived in Northern Italy, he returned to Rome and stayed with the pope, who was ill, in Castello Sant'Angelo, after the sack of Rome by the imperial troops. In September 1527, he obtained permission to go to Spain but instead, he joined in Parma the cardinals who had been freed; from Parma, on December 13th, he wrote to the pope, who was in Orvieto to congratulate him for his deliverance. On June 1, 1528, he arrived in Viterbo together with the pope and lived in palazzo Farnese in that city. Named legate for Rome on June 8, 1528. During an illness of Pope Clement VII in January 1529, he was declared the candidate of the kings of France and England to the papacy. On July 24, 1529, he was named legate to welcome Emperor Charles V at his arrival in Italy; the pope wrote to the cardinal on August 10th asking him to hurry because the emperor was arriving in Genoa on August 12th; he received the emperor on November 4th in Borgo Panigale, welcomed him in the name of the pope and accompanied him to the Chartusian monastery and later to Bologna; by papal brief of February 2, 1530, he was invited to attend the coronation of the emperor by the pope in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Petronio in Bologna on February 24, 1530. Administrator of the see of Bitonto, January 24, 1530; on February 1st, he was granted permission to take possession without having received the bull of appointment; he resigned the post on May 17, 1532. On May 24, 1530, Pope Clement VII gave him, for life, the castle of Ronciglione, which belonged to the Apostolic Chamber. In the consistory of November 28, 1530, he declared himself in favor of the celebration of an ecumenical council and carried the Sacred College of Cardinals with him. He contributed to pay for the war against the Turks. On January 15, 1532, he was one of the deputies named to solve a disagreement between Münster and Cologne. Administrator of the see of Soana, April 17, 1532; resigned nine days later, on April 26th, in favor of his nephew Ferdinando Farnesio, Roman cleric. Accompanied Emperor Charles V in his entrance in Bologna on December 13, 1532. Member of a commission of cardinals charged with studying the celebration of an ecumenical council. On September 6, 1533, he became counselor to the pope. On October 1, 1533, in Pisa, he was named legate in Rome during the absence of the pope and to succeed Cardinal Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte. Administrator of Sora, January 19 to June 8, 1534. In February 1534, he was charged, together with two other cardinals, to examine the candidacies to the cardinalate proposed by Emperor Charles V, François I of France and Henry VIII of England. Participated in the conclave of 1534 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on October 13, 1534. Took the name Paul III. Crowned, November 3, 1534 (5), in the presence of thirty five cardinals, by Cardinal Innocenzo Cibo, deacon of S. Maria in Domnica. He created seventy-one cardinals in twelve consistories. He started the Council of Trent in 1545.

Death. November 10, 1549, in a villa in Quirinale, Rome. The obsequies took place from November 19 to 28, 1549. Buried in a provisional tomb behind the organ in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; on January 15, 1629, his remains were buried in a magnificent mausoleum by Guglielmo della Porta, made between 1550 and 1576, and placed in the basilica in 1628, at the left of the altar of the Chair; inscriptions in his memory were placed in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, and the churches of S. Onofrio, S. Pietro in Montorio and S. Maria dell'Anima as well as in Plazzo dei Conservatore (Campidolgio).

Bibliography. Benzoni, Gino. "Paolo III." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 91-111Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 266-267; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1331; and 1493-1582; Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II; "Essai de liste énérale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 117-118; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 52, 56, 66 and 138; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22-23, 56, 57, 58, 73, 107, 132, 138, 270, 302, 305, 326 and 328; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 261-262; Penteriani, Ulderico. "Paolo III." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, pp. 795-798; Robertson, Clare. Il gran cardinale : Alessandro Farnese, patron of the arts. New Haven : Yale University Press, 1992; Vercruysse, Joseph E. "Die Kardinäle von Paul III." Archivum historiæ pontificiæ. Romæ : Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, XXXVII (2000), 41-96.

Links. Biography, in English; his portrait, arms and biographical data, in English; his genealogy, in English; biography, in Italian; another biography, in Italian; Nel segno del giglio. Breve profilo storico della Famiglia Farnese, in Italian; Viaggio nel Rinascimento tra i Farnese ed i Caetani by Patrizia Rosini (Rome, 2005-2006), in Italian; his portrait by Tiziano Vercellio, Titian, Cathedral Museum, Toledo, Spain; his portrait by Tiziano Vercellio, Titian, Kunshistorishes Museum, Vienna, Austria; his portrait by Tiziano Vercellio, Titian, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia; Paolo III con il camauro by Tiziano Vercellio, Titian, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy; Pope Paul III and His Grandsons Ottavio and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese by Tiziano Vercellio, Titian, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy; Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, by Raffaello Sanzio, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples; his portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo; his portrait by Francesco Salviati, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy; his portrait with Cardinal Reginald Pole, by Jacopino del Conte, church of S. Francesca Romana, formerly basilica of S. Maria Nuova, Rome; his portarit with grandson Ottavio, by Jacopino del Conte, Collezione Alfredo Barsanti, Rome, Italy; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Museo Nazionale di Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome, Italy; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Musée Ingres, Montauban, France; paintings by Sebastiano Ricci, 17th century; his engraving by F. Hülsen; his engraving; another engraving; another engraving, it says "Paulo 4" but the face and arms are those of Pope Paul III; his bust by Guglielmo della Porta, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy; his statue by Simone Cioli, piazza del Popolo, Ascoli Piceno, Italy; another statue, Canino, Italy; fourteen photographs of his tomb; three Vatican stamps commemorating the 4th centenary of the Council of Trent and the founding of the Society of Jesus; his arms; collection of 18 medals with his effigy; collection of 17 coins with his effigy; his effigy on a medal; his effigy on another medal; his arms, porta Romana, Nepi, Italy; his profile in a cameo; and another medal with his effigy, Italian School, Museo Lázaro, Madrid, Spain; Genealogia della famiglia Farnese by Patrizia Rosini (Banca Dati "Nuovo Rinascimento", immesso in rete in 2012).

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 138; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 706, says that he was named in 1499 and resigned in 1534, when he was elected to the pontificate.
(2) According to his genealogy in English, linked above, he possibly had married her secretly before 1510.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, III, 328; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 651, says that he was named in 1508 and resigned in 1511; "Essai de liste énérale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 117, says that he was named on February 18, 1498.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, III, 270; Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 745, says that he resigned in 1516 and was named again in 1522, occupying the see until 1534 when he was elected pope.
(5) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1496; and "I Sommi Pontefici Romani." Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2006. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2006, p. 18*; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, III, 22, says that he was crowned on November 1, 1534; "Essai de liste énérale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 118, says that he was crowned either on November 1 or 3, 1534.

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(9) 8. LUNATI, Bernardino (1452-1497)

Birth. 1452, Pavia. His last name is also listed as Lunate and Lonati.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Created cardinal at the instance of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza of Milan.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the red hat and the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, September 23, 1493.

Priesthood. Ordained right after his promotion to the cardinalate. A friend of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, he was one of his followers in his conflict with the pope; he went to the Apostolic Palace on December 9, 1494 and was detained; participated in the consistory of December 11th and was sent to Ostia; returned and was part of the entourage of King Charles VIII of France when he entered Rome on December 31, 1494; after the agreement between the pope and the French king on January 15, 1495, the cardinal left Rome for Milan together with Cardinal Sforza; returned with him on February 21, 1495. Accompanied the pope to Orvieto on May 27, 1495 and returned with him to Rome on June 27th.

Episcopate. Adminsitrator of the see of Aquino, July 10 to November 13, 1495. In the consistory of October 26, 1496, he was named legate to assist the duke of Gandía and Urbino, captain general of the papal troops, in the war against the Orsinis and other barons who were going to invade Rome; he left the city with the duke on October 28th and participated in the occupation of the cities of Anguillara, Galera, Bassano, SutriCampagnano, Formello, Sacrofano, Cesena, Viana and Bleda.

Death. August 8, 1497, during the siege of Bracciano. His obsequies were celebrated in Rome on August 23, 1497 with the participation of Cardinal Ascanio Sfroza. Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, in a magnificent monument situated in the chapel of S. Catarina in the left transept with his effigy and an inscription (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 267-268; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1331; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 51, 52, 53, 62 and 92.

Links. His tomb in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome; another view of his tomb and epitaph; his sarcophagus and jacent statue; detail of the tomb; and another view of the statue.

(1) This is the text of the inscription taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1331: BERNARDINO. LONATI. S. CYRIACI. IN. THERMIS. DIACONO. CARDINALI. CVI. FORTVNA. GENEROSOS. NATALES. NATVRA. CORPORIS. DIGNITATEM. ANIMIQ. SOLERTIAM. VIRTVS. VERO. VT. IN. PATRVM. HONORATISSIMORVM. COLLEGIVM. COOPTARETVR. INDVLSERAT. QVI. CVM. IN DIES. ET. FORIS. ET. DOMI. EGREGIAM. PRO. SANCTA. ROMANA. ECCLESIA. NAVANDO. OPERAM. PRVDENTIA. CONSTANTIA. FIDE. MAIOR. INSVRGERET. ÆTATIS. SVÆ. XLV. SACERDOTI. VERO. QVARTO. ANNO. E. TANTA. RERVM. EXPECTATIONE. IMMATVRA. MORTE. SVRRIPITVR.   Florauantes Martinellus.

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(10) 9. PÉRAULT, O.S.A., Raymund (1435-1505)

Birth. May 28, 1435, Saint-Germain de Marencennes, Surgères, diocese of Saintes, France. Of an obscure family. His last name is also listed as Peraudi, Perauldi and Péraud and his first name as Raimund and Raimondo. He was called the Cardinal of Gurk.

Education. Entered the order of Saint Augustine (1). Collège de Navarre, Paris, 1470-1476 (doctorate in theology, 1476).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of Saint-Gilles, Saintonge. Canon of the chapter of Saintes, August 3, 1476. Archdeacon of Aunis, 1480. He enjoyed the favor of King Louis XI of France. Went to Rome; named protonotary apostolic by Pope Sixtus IV in 1482. In 1486, he was named nuncio to the court of Emperor Frederick to negotiate the crusade against the Turks; he declined the appointment. By bull of May 27, 1487, he was named collector general of offerings for the crusade; after several requests for dispensation, Pope Innocent VIII suspended the collection of tithes in Germany; he went to France in May 1488 to assist Nuncio Cheragato in a similar mission; returned to Germany to attend the Diet of Frankfurt-sur-Mein, July 6, 1489; he obtained an oath of peace between Maximilian, king of the Romans, and Charles VIII, king of France; on February 19, 1490, he negotiated an armistice between Emperor Frederick III and King Matthias Corvin of Hungary, dated for the following September 8th; he also worked towards recruiting the support of King Kasimierz IV of Poland for the crusade against the Turks. Referendary prelate, 1488.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gurk, February 21, 1491; resigned the government of the see, October 6, 1501. Consecrated (no information found). He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of Emperor Maximilian I.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 20, 1493 (2); received the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, September 23, 1493; received the red hat, April 23, 1494. Legate before King Charles VIII of France, November 14, 1494; the king charmed the cardinal and against the pope's will went to Rome; the monarch entered the city with the cardinal, who remained with him, December 31, 1494; by a convention between the pope and the king, dated January 15, 1495, all the cardinal's benefices were confirmed; in April 1495, he went to Naples with the French king. Opted for the title of S. Vitale, ca. 1496. Received in commendam the see of Maguelone on July 4, 1498; resigned the commendam on March 18, 1499. Arrived in Rome on February 10, 1499 and in the consistory of April 29th, he opted for the order of cardinal priests and the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova; he kept S. Vitale, in commendam, until September 28, 1500. Named legate in Perugia and Todi, October 11, 1499. In February 1500, after an ambassador was able to dissuade the pope to pursue the war, the cardinal arrived in Rome on March 6th without papal authorization; he refused to reject the war plans; he returned definitively from his legation on July 27, 1500, when he was recalled to the Roman Curia to assist in the preparation for the war. Named legate in Germany and the Northern countries (Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Prussia) on October 5, 1500; he left Rome on October 29th although he was suffering of rheumatism; he had difficulties arriving to the German border because Emperor Maximilian I had banned his entrance; he spent the entire winter in Roveredo, from where he wrote to all the princes and prelates of Germany, Sweden and Denmark in favor of the crusade; he was finally authorized by Maximilian to enter the empire and started the negotiations; it was not until January 1502 that he reached Southern Germany; at the end of the year, he arrived in Northern Germany; a rheumatic crisis discouraged him and he requested to be recalled several times but had to remain in the post; he granted forty days of indulgence to the visitors of the church of Sankt Maria al Capitolio, Cologne. Administrator of the see of Toul, July 16 to October 22, 1501. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. He finally returned to Rome and on February 18, 1505 sent Pope Julius II a report on his long legation. Administrator of the see of Saintes, July 11, 1505 until his death (3). Legate to the province of the Patrimony.

Death. September 5, 1505, Viterbo. Buried in the Augustinian church of SS. Trinità, Viterbo (4)

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. "Perault, Raymond." Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1359; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 254-256; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1327; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 119-120; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 51, 52, 54, 55, 65, 67, 162, 183 and 258; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 338; Paschini, Pio. "Peraudi, Raimondo." Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-1954, col. 1163-1164; Tropper, Christine. "Peraudi, Raimund." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, p. 523-524.

Links. Biography, in German; and catalog of bishops of Saintes.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 119; none of the other sources consulted mention it.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 255; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 119; and Tropper, "Peraudi, Raimund." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648, p. 523. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1327, says that he was created cardinal priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, title which none of the other sources consulted mention.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, III, 338; the catalog of bishops of Saintes, linked above, indicates that he was bishop from 1503 to 1505.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1327: RAYMUNDVS. PAERAVLDI. PATRIÆ. SVÆ. XANTONENSIS. EPISCOPVS. AC. S. R. E. PRESBYTER. CARD. GVRCENSIS. PROQVE. EA. LEGATVS. ADEO. OPULENTIÆ. CONTEMPTOR. VT. ELARGIENDO. NIHIL. SIBI. RELINQVERET. AB. IVLIO TAMEN. II. PONTIF. MAXIMO. DITATVS. DVM. PATRIMONII. LEGATIONE. FVNGITVR. VITERBII. OBIIT. NONIS. SEPTEMBRIS. ANNO. SALVTIS. MDV. VTQVE. AB IVLIO TRADITA. SLVM. RETINERE. OCCOPERAT. SIC. MNVMENTVM. HOC. HAVD. QVÆSITVM. REVERENTIA. EIVSDEM. APPROBARE. CREDENDVM. EST. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXX.

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(11) 10. MORTON, John (ca. 1420-1500)

Birth. Ca. 1420 , Bere Regis or Milborne St. Andrew, Dorset, England.

Education. He studied under the Benedictines of Cerne Abbey; Balliol College, Oxford University (obtained a doctorate in civil law, 1452).

Early life. In his younger days he was a distinguished ecclesiastical lawyer and practiced in the Court of Archesan. He was an ardent supporter of the Lancasters. Cardinal Thomas Bourchier, archbishop of Canterbury, was his kind patron.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Pastoral ministry in the dioceses of Salisbury, Huntington and Leicester; prebendary of Salisbury and Lincoln.In 1453, he was appointed principal of Peckswater Inn (now Christ Church), Oxford. He was made a prebendary of Salisbury, and also of Lincoln, in 1455, the year in which the Wars of the Roses started. Named sub-dean of Lincoln on May 9, 1458, but he did not occupy the post. He was archdeacon of Norwich from 1461 to 1462; and 1472 to 1477. King Henry VI named him privy councillor, and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. He took part in the battle of Towton and fled the consequent massacre; he was one of the two hundred who followed Queen Margaret of Anjou and her son by King Henry VI, Prince Edward, in her passage to Flanders in 1462. There he busied himself in sending such support as he could to the royalists at home. Morton accompanied the expedition of the earl of Warwick to England in 1470. The Yorkists fled and the Lancastrians occupied London, which was never favorable to the king. Their success was brief, for King Edward IV landed, seized London, and Morton had to flee towards the coast. He took the queen and Prince Edward to safety at the Abbey of Cerne and later to the Monastery of Beaulieu. King Edward IV had an act of attainder passed against him. When the war ended at the Battle of Tewkesbury, in 1471, the King escaped but Morton recognized that his future was hopeless and no longer defensible; he submitted to the Yorkists. King Edward IV granted his request for pardon, had the attainder against him reversed, and showed appreciation of his integrity by favoring his interests. The lawyer became a prebend of St. Paul's, in 1472, and a year later was made Master of the Rolls. Archdeacon of Chester from May 1474; of Winchester from March 1475; of Berkshire from November 1476; and of Norfolk from 1477. In 1474 he went on an embassy to the king Hungary and the emperor to form a coalition of powers to attack King Louis XI of France; the plan failed and the English king considered a different policy; he had Morton accompany him to Calais, where they, together with Archbishop Thomas Bourchier of Canterbury, negotiated the Treaty of Pecquigny in 1475; by the treaty, the French king agreed to pay King Edward an annual tribute in recognition of him as overlord. Three years later, on August 8, 1478, King Edward asked the cathedral chapter of Ely to postulate the archdeacon of Norfolk bishop.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ely, October 30, 1478. Consecrated, January 31, 1479, Lambeth, by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier, archbishop of Canterbury; he walked barefooted and fasting from his residence at Downham to Ely to be installed on August 29, 1480. During the protectorate of Richard, duke of Gloucester, he was imprisoned by Richard first in the Tower of London and then in Brecknock Castle; the duke received a Petition from Oxford in favor of Bishop Morton but refused to relent his enmity; the bishop escaped to Ely and from there to Flanders and vigorously assisted the Lancastrians; the bishop helped plot the unsuccessful uprising led by Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham in October 1483. An attainder was passed against the bishop by the duke of Gloucester, who was reigning as King Richard III. The exile bishop renewed association with the dowager queen, Margaret, and opened communications with friends at King Richard III's court. From them he learnt of the duke of Brittany's plot to seize Henry, duke of Richmond, and hand him over to the English king. By a message from Bishop Morton, the duke of Richmond avoided the danger and found refuge at the court of King Charles VIII of France. When the duke invaded Wales and, as a Tudor, received strong support, Duke Henry moved on into England, and destroyed King Richard III's forces at Bosworth Field, on August 22, 1485. Duke Henry established himself as King Henry VII, reversed the attainder against Bishop Morton and summoned him in 1485 back to the realm; he became one of the most trusted and influential royal advisers as a member of the Privy Council and chancellor of the duchy of Cornwall. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Canterbury, October 8, 1486; occupied the see until his death. He gathered a council at St. Paul's church, London, in 1486, to regulate the discipline and customs of the clergy. The archbishop's visitations to the Southern dioceses produced a thorough reformation of the secular and religious clergy to the great benefit of the church. Resigned the post of Master of the Rolls. Lord Chancellor of England, March 6, 1487 (2).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, September 23, 1493. He was in Rome and attended the consistory of May 11, 1495 in which he was named legate to accompany King Charles VIII of France in his travel through the Papal States; later, when Pope Alexander VI sought refuge in Orivieto on May 27th, he was left in Rome as legate in the absence of the pope; in that capacity, he received King Charles VIII on June 1st and placed the Vatican at his disposition but the king preferred to lodge in the Borgo. He returned to England in that same year, 1495, and was named chancellor of Oxford University. In 1496, he participated in the preparation of the commercial treaty "Intercursus Magnus" between Flanders and England, which was very important. He was an ardent patron of literature; Thomas More, future chancellor and martyr, was a page in the cardinal's household from 1491; the archbishop sent Thomas to study at Oxford; later, he paid tribute to memory of his patron mentioning him in his Utopia (3). The cardinal was a skilled engineer and architect, constantly repairing or building churches and residences; the twelve-mile drain of Fen country, diocese of Ely, was largely due to his enterprise and planning and thus its name "Morton's Dyke". At Glastonbury he helped Prior Goldstone II, O.S.B., with the completion of the cathedral's central tower; in Oxford, he repaired the school of theology and rebuilt the church of St. Mary; he also built a residence for himself at Knole, where he died.

Death. September 15 (4), 1500, of a quartan ague, Knole, near Sevenoaks, Kent. He bequeathed generous amounts to Cambridge and Oxford. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Canterbury in the shrine of the Blessed Lady, in the monument he had built; in the middle of the 18th century, his remains were exhumed and dispersed and his tomb mutilated. His skull and skeleton were given by the archbishop of Canterbury to some of his relatives.

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 39-41; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 53-57; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 249-251; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1325; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 120; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 55, 61, 117 and 150; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, pp. 83-88; Morton, John. The register of John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1486-1500. 3 vols. Edited by Christopher Harper-Bill. Corporate author: Catholic Church. Province of Canterbury (England). Archbishop (1486-1500 : Morton) ; Canterbury and York Society. Leeds ; Woodbridge, England : Privately printed for the Canterbury and York Society ; Boydell Press, 1987-2000 (Canterbury and York Society, vol. 75, 78, 89; Variation: Canterbury and York Society (Series) ; v. 75, 78, 89); Mozley, Thomas. Henry VII, Prince Arthur and Cardinal Morton : from a group representing the adoration of the three kings on the chancel screen of Plymtree church in the county of Devon. London : Printed for T. Mozley, by R. Clay, Sons, and Taylor, 1878; Newman, Margaret Ella. Cardinal Morton's interest in the new learning .... Thesis (A.M.)--University of Chicago (Dept. of English), 1924; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, pp. 40-42; Seward, Desmond. The Wars of the Roses : through the lives of five men and women of the fifteenth century. New York : Viking, 1995. Contents : Beaufort, Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, 1443-1509; Edward IV, King of England, 1442-1483 -- Relations with women; Hastings, William Hastings, Lord, 1430?-1483; Oxford, John de Vere, Earl of, 1442-1513; Morton, John, 1420?-1500; Shore, Jane, d. 1527?; Woodhouse, Reginald Illingworth. The life of John Morton, archbishop of Canterbury. London ; New York : Longmans, Green & Co., 1895; Young, Robert Henry. Cardinal Morton's Register : authority, administration, and allegiance in the early Tudor church. Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2002.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in German; biography, in English; another biography, in English; his tomb, engraving by an anonymous artist, National Portrait Galler, London, England; and painting of his tomb, crypt of Canterbury cathedral by Joseph Mallord William Turner, Tate Collection, England.

(1) This is according to most of the sources consulted, printed and electronic, except "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 120, which says that he was born in 1410; and Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 40, which says that he was born about 1400.
(2) According to Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 41, "his speeches at the opening of parliament are said to foreshadow forms of government which were long afterwards realized in the British Constitution. To repair the bankrupt treasury, Henry VII devised various taxes, ignoring that principle of our constitution whereby the sovereign may not impose taxation without the consent of Parliament. Into this work Henry pressed Archbishop Morton, whose name is recorded in school textbooks as the inventor of Morton's Fork. In brief, he is said to have applied the fiscal policy of the King by saying that people who paid heavy taxes were obviously wealthy and could be asked for more, whereas those who pleaded inability to pay were manifestly concealing their treasure. Like Henry VI's 'madness', it is another example of a plausible invention being copied by writer after writer.
The fact is that Archbishop Morton took a firmer grip on the King's policy than on its victims. He prevented the King from unconstitutional taxation by a system under which people were asked to pay Benevolences or gifts towards the treasury. These gifts were, of course, enforced but enabled Morton both to prevent the King's uncontrolled taxation and to lessen the severity with which he would have applied it. To the income so raised, Morton added the fines which he imposed on the clergy whom, in his Visitations in southern dioceses, he found as disordered in their clerical lives as were the laity through the aftermath of civil war. A thorough reformation of secular and religious clergy was effected to great benefit to the Church and some assistance to the Exchequer."
(3) Heseltine, The English cardinals, p. 83-84, indicates that More's Utopia, it may be read of "that reverend prelate John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal, and Chancellor of England; a man (for Mr. More knows well what he was) that was not less venerable for his wisdom and virtues, than for the high character that he bore; he was of a middle stature, not broken with age; his looks begot reverence rather than fear; his conversation was easy, but serious and grave; he took pleasure sometimes to try the force of those that came as suitors to him upon business, by speaking sharply, though decently to them, and by that he discovered their spirk and presence of mind; with which he was much delighted, when it did not grow up to an impudence, as bearing a great resemblance to his own temper; and he looked on such persons as the fittest men for affairs. He spoke both gracefully and weightily; he was eminently skilled in the law, and had a vast understanding and a prodigious memory; and those excellent talents with which nature had furnished him were improved by study and experience. When I was in England, the King depended much on his counsel, and the Government seemed to be chiefly supported by him; for from his youth up, he had been all along practised in affairs; and having passed through many traverses of fortune, he had acquired to his great cost a vast stock of wisdom; which is not soon lost, when it is purchased so dear." And, according to Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 42, "Morton is one of the few real life people who talk with Hythlodaye in More's Utopia. It is possible that the Latin 'History of Richard III' attributed to More was written by Morton, and that More was responsible for its English translation."
(4) This is according to most of the sources consulted, printed and electronic, except his second biography in English, linked above; and Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 42, which say that he died on October 12, 1500.

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(12) 11. JAGIELLOŃCZYK, Fryderyk (1468-1503)

Birth. March 27, 1468, Kraków, Poland. Ninth of the thirteen children of King Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk of Poland, and Elżbieta Rakuszanka Habsburżanka, also known as Elisabeth von Habsburg or Elisabeth of Austria. He was the brother of four kings (1). He was baptized on May 8, 1468. He was called the Cardinal of Poland. Related to Pseudocardinal Aleksander Mazowiecki (1440); and to Cardinals Jan Olbracht Waza, S.J. (1629); and Jan Kazimierz Waza, S.J. (1646). Uncle of Jan Ochstat de Thelnicz, bishop of Wilno (1519-1536) and Poznań (1536-1538); Wilhelm von Brandenburg, archbishop of Riga (1539-1563); Jan Albrecht von Brandenburg, archbishop of Magdeburg and Halberstadt (1545-1550); Fryderyk von Brandenburg, canon in Würzburg and Salzburg and Gumprecht, canon in Bamberg. Grand-uncle of Zygmunt Hohenzollern, bishop of Magdeburg (1552-1566) and Halberstadt (1557-1566).

Education. Educated at the Polish court.

Early life. He saw his brother Saint Kazimierz, pretender of the Hungarian throne, die in Vilnius on March 4, 1484. Cleric of Kraków.

Episcopate. Named bishop of Kraków, April 19, 1488; confirmed by the pope, May 2, 1488; he received the see in administration until reaching 25 years of age.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on March 23, 1493, Kraków, from Bishop Pavel, O.P., auxiliary of Kraków; and the diaconate on the following day also in Kraków and from the same bishop.

Priesthood. Ordained on March 24, 1493, Kraków, by Bishop Pavel, O.P., auxiliary of Kraków. Created cardinal at the request of his brothers Wladislaw II, king of Bohemia and Hungary, and Jan Olbrecht, king of Poland.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 20, 1493 (2); received the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolo, September 23, 1493; received the red hat in Rome on April 19, 1495. Promoted to the metropolian see of Gniezno, October 2, 1493; he retained the see of Kraków; he occupied both sees until his death. Primate of Poland. Consecrated, probably on December 21, 1493, Wawel cathedral, Kraków. He celebrated a diocesan synod in Gniezno. At the end of 1501, he crowned his brother Aleksander, duke of Lithuania, elected king of Poland, in the cathedral of Kraków; he replaced both his king brothers during their absence from the realm. He defended the rights of the clergy, gave large gifts to the church and founded a hospital. His arms were those of Jagiellońian dynasty.

Death. March 13, 1503, at night, Kraków. Buried in a magnificent bronze mausoleum sculpted by Peter Visher, from Nuremberg, in the metropolitan cathedral of Kraków.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 262-263; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1329-1330; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 120-121; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 22, 139 and 160; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 103; Nowakowska, Natalia. Church State and Dynasty in Renaissance Poland: The Career of Cardinal-Prince Fryderyk Jagiellon (1468-1503). Surrey, UK : Ashgate Publishing, Limited, 2007; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 53-61.

Links. Biography, in Polish, Grupa Onet.pl; his engraving and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A4 B10 C3 D9, Genealogy EU; and his arms, akromer.republika.pl.

(1) They were Wladyslav II, king of Bohemia (1471-1516), king of Hungary (1490-1516) as Ulászló II -cr 18.9.1490, and king of Croatia (1490-1516); Jan I Olbrecht, king of Poland (1492-1501); Aleksander I, king of Poland (1501-1506); and Zygmunt I "Stary" (Sigismund "the Old"), king of Poland (1506-1548).
(2) This is according to Prokop, Polscy kardynałowie, p. 58; and his second biography in Polish, linked above. All the sources consulted indicate that he was created cardinal deacon. Since he was already bishop of Kraków and had already been ordained to priesthood, it is most probable that he was created cardinal priest.

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(13) 12. ESTE, Ippolito I d' (1479-1520)

Birth. March (or November) 20, 1479, Ferrara. Fifth of the nine children of Ercole I d'Este, duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio, and Princess Eleonore d'Aragona, daughter of Ferdinand I d'Aragona, king of Naples. Known as the Cardinal d'Este or the Cardinal of Ferrara. Uncle of Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este (1538). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Luigi d'Este (1561). Other cardinals of the family are Alessandro d'Este (1599); Rinaldo d'Este (1641); and Rinaldo d'Este (1686).

Education. Studied in the Hungarian court for seven years when he went to the country after having been named administrator of Esztergom; praticed the military arts.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Pomposia, diocese of Ferrara, December 12, 1485; resigned, May 2, 1492. At the insinuation of his aunt, Beatriz de Aragón, wife of King Matthias of Hungary, he was nominated archbishop of Esztergom when he was nine years old; Pope Innocent VIII did not want to confirm such premature election; the pope acquiesced at the instance of Duke Ippolito I with the condition that the episcopal consecration would not take place until he reached the canonical age. He had two illegitimate sons.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Esztergom, May 21, 1487; coadministered the see together with Beltramo Costabile, cleric of Ferrara and doctor in decrees, until turning 18 years old; sole administrator until turning 25; then archbishop (1); occupied the post until December 20, 1497. Consecrated (no information found). Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine abbey nullius of S. Genes de Brixello, May 2, 1492. Chancellor of the king of Hungary. Promoted to the cardinalate at the instance of the duke of Ferrara.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 20, 1493; received the deaconry of S. Lucia in Silice, September 23, 1493. On September 28, 1497, he wrote to the pope indicating that he was going to go to Rome, where he had been convoked, after a long delay; arrived in Rome on December 11, 1497; received the red hat on January 8, 1498. Administrator of the see of Milan, November 8, 1497; resigned the post on May 20, 1519 in favor of his nephew Ippolito d'Este. Administrator of the see of Eger, December 20, 1497; occupied the post until his death. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 1501. On December 9, 1501, he departed from Ferrara with a cortege of 500 people to accompany Lucrezia Borgia, daugther of Pope Alexander VI, fiancee of his brother Alfonso, on her trip to Rome, where they arrived on December 23rd; the wedding took place at the Vatican on December 30, 1501; he returned to Ferrara after the consistory of February 15, 1503. Administrator of the see of Capua, July 20, 1502; occupied the post until his death. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III; in his haste to go to Rome, he fractured a leg and was unable to attend. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Administrator of the see of Ferrara, October 8, 1503; occupied the post until his death. Administrator of the see of Modena and abbot commendatario of Nonantola, 1507 until his death. Because of the politics of Pope Julius II, he left the Roman Curia in 1507; the pope thanked him however on January 24, 1508 because his part in the repression of the plot of the Bentivogli. During the war of Venice and the pope against the House of Este, he conducted himself with great dexterity at the side of his brother Duke Alfonso I d'Este; he participated in the victorious battle of Policella, December 22, 1509; called to Rome by Pope Julius II on July 27, 1510, he pretended during the trip to have been stricken by a serious illness because he was afraid about the consequences of his conduct against the pontiff; not feeling secure in Italy, he went to his see in Hungary under the pretext that he had been recalled by the king. He was one of the cardinals who, on May 16, 1511, signed a document citing the pope to appear before the schismatic Council of Pisa, to be opened the following September 1st; he detached himself from the other schismatic cardinals in October and the pope allowed him to go to Ferrara; his brother the duke advised him not to participate in the council. Did not participate in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Enjoying the trust of the new Pope Leo X, he went to Rome; the new pope saw with pleasure the reconciliation between the Bentivogli and the Estensi; on April 22, 1514, the cardinal and all his relatives were pardoned of all the censures they had incurred for having taken part in the wars of Italy. The pope sent him to François I of France and he entered with the monarch in Bologna on December 11, 1515. He went to Poland to attend the marriage of his cousin Bonne Sforza with King Zygmunt I Stary; he returned through Hungary and France. On January 29, 1518, he received from the pope the faculty of accepting from his brother the duke of Ferrara church properties for him and his heirs and successors. Cardinal protodeacon, June 1519. He was very generous with the poor, friend of writers and artists, and protector of Ludovico Ariosto, "the Italian Homer". His biography was written by Alessandro Sardi.

Death. September 3, 1520, Ferrara. Buried in the cathedral of Ferrara. In 1607, his remains were transported, within the same cathedral, to the feet of the sepulchre of Pope Urban III, together with those of Cardinal Giovanni Salvati, and placed in a marble urn.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 241-245; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 258-262; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 218-220; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1328-1329; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 121-122; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 23, 56, 66, 83, 118, 153, 188 and 242; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 98, 151, 196, 240 and 252; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 367, 380, 695, 758, 797 and 868; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, II, 145-157; Vita del Cardinale Ippolito I. d'Este : Scritta da un Anonimo. Milano : [s.n.], 1843.

Links. Biography by Lucy Byatt, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 43 (1993), Treccani; biography, in Italian, Italica; biography, in Italian, Arte in Ariostea; genealogy, Partie 2, 7.A.e.V, Genroy; his portrait by an unknown artist, Arte in Ariostea; another genealogy, Il Castello di Ferrara; and his effigy on a medal, Új Ember, Catolikus Hetilap; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 242, note 2. None of the other sources consulted mention it.

Note. According to Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1935, p. 122, a cardinal was created secretly in this consistory and his name was never published.

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