The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503)
Consistory of Wednesday May 31, 1503 (IX)
Celebrated at St. Peter's basilica, Rome


(35) 1. CASTELLAR Y DE BORJA, Juan (1441-1505)

Birth. At the end of 1441, Valencia, Spain. Of a noble family allied to the Borjas. Son of Galcerán de Castellar, señor de Picassent, and Bernardona Borja (1). Cousin of Cardinal Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor. His last name is also listed as Castiglia, Castellà, Castelar and Castellà. Called the Cardinal of Trani and the Cardinal of Monreale.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla; later of that of Naples, of Toledo and of Burgos. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Trani, August 23, 1493. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Perugia. Together with six cardinals and another six prelates, he accompanied Pope Alexander VI in his trip to Piombino on February 17, 1502.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 31, 1503; he was published on June 2, 1503; received the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, June 12, 1503. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Monreale, August 9, 1503; succeeded his cousin Cardinal Juan de Borja, el mayor; never visited the archdiocese; retained all his benefices; occupied the post until his death; King Fernando the Catholic of Spain complained that the provision of the see of Monreale had been made without his previous presentation; Pope Julius II answered that the king should submit a complaint to the patronato real over that see; the king absolutely refused and asked the pope not to revoke what had been done in the past. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II; in the first conclave, he received the mission from the Sacred College of Cardinals, together with Cardinal Federico Sanseverino, to intimate the cardinals to enter the conclave to proceed to the election. On July 7, 1504, he improvisedly left Rome for Naples, and from there to Spain to meet King Fernando the Catholic. Abbot commendatario of Nonantola after the election of Pope Julius II. He became ill in Valencia, remained there for several months and died of mal de piedra (kidney ailment). He had resigned his canonships of Toledo, Sevilla and Burgos in favor of his nephew Jerónimo Castellar and had made his testament, leaving as universal heir his nephew Juan Castellar, señor of Picassent.

Death. January 1, 1505, Valencia. Buried in his family's tomb in the chapter hall of the Augustinian convent of Valencia, as he had requested in his will.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 293-294; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1339 and 1388; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1939. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 127-128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 64, 196 and 254; Goñi Gaztambide. "Castelar, Juan." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), I, 117..

Links. Biographical entry, in English; his portrait; and his drawing by an anonymous artist, Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

(1) She was an aunt of Cardinal Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor, on his father side; and cousin of Pope Alexander VI.

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(36) 2. REMOLINS, Francisco de (1462-1518)

Birth. 1462, Lérida, Spain. He is also listed as Francesc de Remolins i Pardines; and his last name as Remolino. He was called il cardinale Elvensel; and the Cardinal of Sorrento.

Education. Studied law at the University of Lérida; and at the University of Pisa where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. He married very young; he and his wife separated and she entered a convent; the marriage was annulled. He received the ecclesiastical tonsure and served as jurist and secretary of King Fernando of Aragón; he later was ambassador of the king to the Roman court. Preceptor of Cesare Borgia, future cardinal; remained his trusted advisor.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Chantre of the cathedral chapter of Mazzara. Protonotary apostolic. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Auditor of the governor of Rome.

Episcopate. Named auxiliary bishop of Lérida by Cardinal Juan Luis de Milá, bishop of Lérida, 1496. Consecrated, ca. 1496, by that cardinal (1) . At this time, he wrote his juridical work Decisiones. In 1498, he was sent to Florence, together with the master general of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), as apostolic commissary to open the process against Fr. Girolamo Savonarola, O.P., who was sentenced to death; arrived in Florence on May 18, 1498. Because of his closeness to Pope Alexander VI and his family, he resigned as auxiliary bishop of Lérida and went to reside in the papal court. Named governor of Rome, February 1501; he conducted a bloody repression against the pope's rivals, especially the Colonna and the Orsini; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sorrento, March 3, 1501; confirmed, March 31, 1501; resigned the see, January 23, 1512. He was taken prisoner by the Turks and ransomed with the treasures of the church (2).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 31, 1503; he was published on June 2, 1503; received the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo on June 12, 1503. Administrator of the see of Perugia, August 4, 1503; occupied the post until March 1506. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. After the election of the new Pope Julius II, fearing his reprisals against the Borgias, he escaped from Rome the evening of December 20, 1503; the pope, seeing in the cardinal an energetic assistant, wrote him a friendly brief asking him to return to Rome; the cardinal returned and served the pope with great zeal. After several diplomatic negotiations, he obtained the devolution of Romagna from Venice. He also served the interests of the Spanish king in his campaigns in Italy against the French. Named bishop of Fermo in 1504 (3); occupied the see until his death; never visited the diocese. In 1511, he was viceroy of Naples, replacing Ramón Folch de Cardona, viceroy from 1511 to 1513. Opted for the title of S. Marcello, October 27, 1511; retained in commendam the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo until July 6, 1517. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica at the end of 1511 (4). Participated in the V Lateran Council. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Palermo, January 23, 1512; occupied the post until his death; he built the convent of S. Chiara in 1513; and established the tribunal of the Inquisition, of which he was a great supporter. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. He received several benefices in Spain and Italy from the new Pope Leo X. Administrator of the see of Sarno, June 22, 1513; occupied the post until February 11, 1517. In mid-1513, he opposed the clemency of Pope Leo X for the rebellious Cardinals Bernardino López de Carvajal and Federico Sanseverino. Administrator of the see of Gallipoli, September 9, 1513 until his death. Administrator of the see of Lavello, August 8 to December 30, 1515 or January 30, 1516. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, March 16, 1517. In May 1517, he was one of the three cardinals charged with the process against Cardinals Bandinello Sauli and Alfonso Petrucci, accused of plotting against the pope; he presided the tribunal that sentenced Cardinal Petrucci to death on July 16, 1517. On November 4, 1517, he was named member of a congregation of eight cardinals to organize the war against the Turks. Protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary (Servites). Many historians have passed a negative judgement against him for the extreme harshness that he exercised in the different posts that he occupied.

Death. February 5, 1518, Rome. The funeral oration was delivered by Roman humanist Battista Casali. Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome; apparently, he was buried alive because, when he was exhumed a few years later, he had an arm placed above his head. His remains were reburied in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. A plaque in the cathedral of Sorrento indicates that he aggrandized the chapel Ss. Filippo e Giacomo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 294-296; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1339-1340; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 70-71; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p.128, no. 36; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 63 and 214; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 55, 65, 196, 201, 221, 268 and 293; Lladonosa, José. "Remolins, Francisco de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), III, 645.

Links. Biographical entry, in English, Enciclopèdia Catalana; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; I Vescovi di Terni, diocese of Terni-Narni-Amelia.

(1) This is according to Lladonosa, "Remolins, Francisco de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, III, 645. None of the other sources consulted, printed and electronic, mention this appointment nor does Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), pp. 44 and 926.
(2) This is according to the article on Sorrento in The Catholic Encyclopedia. None of the other sources consulted mention the incident.
(3) The site of the Bishops of Terni, linked above, says that he occupied that see from 1504 until 1509, year in which the site, erroneously, says that he died.
(4) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936, p.128, no. 36; but his predecessor, Cardinal Robert de Guibé, was nominated to this post on October 4, 1511 and died on November 9, 1513. It was customary to hold this position until death.

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(37) 3. SODERINI, Francesco (1453-1524)

Birth. June 10, 1453, Florence. Of a noble family allied with the Medici. Sixth of the seven children of Tommaso Soderini and Dianora Tornabuoni. He was called the Cardinal of Volterra.

Education. Studied utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Professor of utroque iure at the University of Pisa in 1476. Familiar of Pope Sixtus IV.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Volterra, March 11, 1478; administrator until reaching the canonical age of 27 years old; resigned the see on May 23, 1509 in favor of his nephew Giuliano. He went to reside in the Roman Curia. Joined the confraternity of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, December 7, 1478. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. In November 1480, he was a member of the Florentine embassy before Pope Sixtus IV to request the lifting of the interdict that he had placed against Florence because of the Pazzi conspiracy; he delivered a speech that greatly impressed Pope Sixtus IV. Prelate assistente to the pope, December 5, 1480. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature (1), beginning of May 1481. In 1484, ambassador before Pope Innocent VIII to convey the congratulations of Florence for his election to the papacy. Accompanied King Charles VIII of France to the Council of the Florentins in 1485.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1486, sacristy of the church of S. Lorenzo, Florence, by Rinaldo Orsini, archbishop of Florence. Apostolic secretary, December 31, 1483 (2). Named auditor of contradicted letter on January 1, 1484 (3). Received the episcopal consecration (no further information found); in September 1491, he celebrated mass in the cathedral of Volterra for the first time, assisted by Jacopo Gherardi and Mario Maffei, two friends from the Roman Curia, who were office holders in the diocese; he was an absentee bishop and governed the diocese through vicars general. In the summer of 1494, he left the Roman Curia and returned to Florence to serve as a diplomat at the service of the Florentine state. Sent by Florence as envoy before King Charles VIII of France on December 24, 1495; remained in the post until September 1497. Florentine ambassador to Milan, December 28, 1498; remained in the post until 1499. Named ambassdor of Florence before Pope Alexander VI on October 21, 1500; the embassy lasted under four months; rumors circulated at the time that the pope wanted Cesare Borgia king of the Romagna and to reestablish Piero de' Medici in Florence. Bishop Soderini was sent as ambassador of Florence to another two missions to France, the first one from September 1501 to May 1502; and the second from November 1502 to June 1503; he was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of Louis XII, king of France. On June 22, 1502, he left Florence, accompanied by Niccolò Machiavelli, as ambassador of Florence to Cesare Borgia; the embassy lasted until November of that year.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 31, 1503; he was published on June 2, 1503; received the title of S. Susanna, June 12, 1503. Arrived in Rome on August 30, 1503. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Received several benefices from the new Pope Julius II but refused to try to influence Cesare Borgia. Named bishop of Cortona, March 6, 1504; occupied the see until May 23, 1505. In November 1504, as pontifical commissary, he attributed the commendam of the see of Agde to Cardinal Niccolò Fieschi. On November 27, 1506, he granted a safe-conduct to Michelangelo Buonarotti to go from Florence to Bologna, to where he had been called by the pope to sculpt a bronze statue of the pontiff. Administrator of the see of Saintes, January 27, 1507, according to a promise that the pope had made to the king of France on July 26, 1506; resigned the see, June 12, 1514. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, September 15, 1508. Abbot commendatario of the Camaldolese monastery of S. Salvatore di Valle Cristio, diocese of Camerino, April 11, 1511. Named protector of the Order of Benedictines Camaldolese by Pope Julius II; he was also protector of the Order of Benedictines Cistercense. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, October 29, 1511. Participated in the V Lateran Council. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X, although he was ill; he stayed near the Cantoria, on the second floor of the Vatican Apostolic Palace. Received numerous benefices in Italy from the new Pope Leo X. When the see of Sabina was restored to Cardinal Bernardino López de Carvajal when he was reinstated as a cardinal, Cardinal Soderini was transferred to the see of Tivoli as episcopatus cardinalis on June 27, 1513, until a suburbicarian see became vacant. On November 5, 1513, in Viterbo, he was named legate in Rome during the absence of Pope Leo X, who went to Florence and Bologna. Named bishop of Vicenza, June 12, 1514; occupied the see until March 14, 1524. Administrator of the see of Narni shortly after April 21, 1515 until May 18, 1517. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, July 18, 1516. Administrator of the see of Anagni, 1517 until March 5, 1523. He resided in Rome at the Borgo. In the consistory of June 8, 1517, he was obligated to admit his complicity in the plot of Cardinals Bandinello Sauli and Alfonso Petrucci; and of having offered the papal tiara to Cardinal Raffaele Sansoni Galeotti Riario; he obtained the cardinal's favor by paying 12,500 ducati, amount that was doubled shortly after; fearing for his life, he went to Palestrina to the house of the Colonna; he obtained from the pope, through the mediation of the king of France, to be allowed to go to Fondi promising not to leave the kingdom of Naples and to live in retirement. At the death of Pope Leo X, he returned to Rome in December 1521. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. In the consistory of February 21, 1523, he was one of the three cardinals named to seek the peace. He attended the arrival in Rome of the new Pope Adrian VI, who was in Spain at the time of his election. Named governor of Ravenna; the other cardinals shared the other cities of the Papal States. His grand adversary, Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, having retired to Florence in October 1522, freed Cardinal Soderini of his intrigues; he wrote to the king of France exhorting him to occupy Sicily and to have Pope Adrian VI break with the Medici for whom he had a great affection; he was denounced to the pope, who sent for him in the evening of April 27, 1523; the cardinal was arrested and sent to Castello Sant'Angelo; all his papers and objects of value were confiscated; in a consistory on the following day, his process was commissioned to three cardinals; he fell ill in June 1523; his property and three of his servants were returned to him by the kindness of the pope; the process continued its course in spite of the intervention of King François I of France and several cardinals; at the death of Pope Adrian VI on September 14, 1523, he was freed by the Sacred College of Cardinals and admitted to the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. The new pope, who had promised him his grace, granted Cardinal Soderini a full amnesty. On December 9, 1523, he was one of the three cardinals charged with inquiring about the Lutherans. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, December 9, 1523. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 18, 1523.

Death. May 17, 1524, in his house at Torre Sanguigna, Rome. Because of the fear of plague, it was decided that only the cardinals and officiating prelates would participate; it took place in the church of S. Maria del Popolo in the morning of the following day, May 18th; the funeral oration was delivered by Roman humanist Battista Casali; the body was buried next to his brother Piero Soderini, in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 296-299; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 340-1341 and 1482; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, pp. 128-130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 65 and 271; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 56, 58, 60, 107and 179; Lowe, K. J. P. Church and politics in Renaissance Italy. The life and career of Cardinal Francesco Sodarini (1453-1524). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1993. (Cambridge studies in Italian history and culture).

Links. His portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in French, Wikipedia; his image, behind Pope Leo X, in a stained glass window by Guillaume de Marcillat in the Church of S. Maria della Grazie al Calcinaio, Cortona (Arezzo), Italy Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; his portrait (1750-1799), diocese of Vicenza, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his image on a book cover, amazon.com; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) At this time, the tribunal comprised the Signature of Justice and the one of Grace. Pope Alexander VI separated them into two tribunals and Pope Julius II confirmed the separation.
(2) On that date, Pope Innocent VIII, by the bull Non Debet Reprehensibile established the Secretaria Apostolica or Collegio dei Segretari Apostolici and increased the number of papal secretaries, precursors of the Secretariat of State, from six to twenty. The secretaries prepared the papal letters on diplomatic, private and political matters.
(3) According to Lowe, Church and politics in Renaissance Italy. The life and career of Cardinal Francesco Soderini (1453-1524), p. 23, these auditors decided on ambiguities that may have arisen in the wording of, or any controversies that may have resulted from, the bulls issued in response to supplications.

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(38) 4. MECKAU, Melchior von (1440-1509)

Birth. 1440, Meissen, Germany. Of a minsterial family of the diocese of Meissen. His father, Gaspar von Meckau, was councillor of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. He is also listed as Melchior von Cupis and Copis; his-coat-of-arms has three cups; and as von Meggau. He was called the Cardinal of Brixen.

Education. Studied in Leipzig in 1458; and in 1459 at the University of Bologna, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Provost of Magdeburg in 1470. In 1473, while he was secretary of apostolic chancery in Rome, he was nominated dean of the cathedral chapter of Meissen by Pope Sixtus IV. Between 1473 and 1482, he accumulated benefices, canonships and parishes. From 1473, he also was counselor to Duke Sigismond and in 1481, he became chancellor 1481. In the years 1476 and 1478, he represented the bishop of Brixen, Georg II Gosler, in the ad limina visit to Rome. Abbreviatore of apostolic letters. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Brixen. At the request of the emperor, he was promoted to the episcopate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Named coadjutor, with right of succession, to the prince-bishop of Brixen, Georg II Gosler, April 20, 1482. He rarely was in Brixen, spending most of his time in Innsbruck as chancellor of the duke. In Easter 1488, Bishop Gosler transferred the adiministration of the see and principality to him. Consecrated, July 15, 1488, by Georg Gosler, former bishop of Brixen. Bishop Meckau succeeded to the see at his death on June 20, 1489. In November 1489, he celebrated a diocesan synod in which the principal topics were the Breviary and the Missal of Brixen (1); on July 5, 1501, with the consensus of the cathedral chapter and the emperor, he obtained a coadjutor, with right of succession, Christoph Schrofenstein, who succeeded him at his death. Around 1490, he was named canon of the cathedral chapter of Saint Lambert, Liège, at the recommendation of Emperor Maiximilian of Austria. In 1493, on the occasion of the death of Emperor Friedrick III, Maximilian had to go to Vienna and left the bishop in charge of the territorial government of Tyrol, which he had dominated since 1490. Bishop Meckau was particularly active in the political and economical areas; in all situations he strongly supported the emperor, who received from the bishop large sums of money obtained from the mining industry; in the Engadiner War (1498-1499), he supported the emperor with his soldiers. During his pontificate, the arts, architecture and literature flourished in Brixen and he has been called its first Humanist bishop.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 31, 1503; he was published on June 2, 1503; received the title of S. Nicola fra Imagine, June 12, 1503. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Named by Emperor Maximilian his ambassador before Pope Julius II, he entered Bologna in November 1506 and was received by the pope in Rome on December 16, 1506; he had been charged with preparing the coronation as emperor of Maximilian; then, he went to Venice to negotiate with the republic that was preventing the passage through its territory of the emperor with his army. The cardinal opted for the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio on January 5, 1507. It was in January 1508 that Maximilian was to leave for Rome with an army, but for the refusal of Venice to let him journey through its territory but only with a simple escort of honor, Maximilian had to go to Trent; indignant, the emperor started a war against Venice. In the following month of February, Maximilian proclaimed that he was no more the King of the Romans but emperor; the cardinal was charged with communicating the imperial decision to the pope, who gave his assent. The war against Venice extended and lasted eight years; an alliance was formed between the pope, France, England and Germany in League of Cambrai, in which constitution the cardinal collaborated; he fell ill in Rome.

Death. Saturday March 3, 1509 (2), suddenly, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Araceli, Rome, without any inscription; he was buried in that church because the construction of the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, where according to his will, which he wrote the day before his death, he wanted to be buried, had not yet been finished; in his will, he named the latter church as his universal heir (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 299; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1341; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 130; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 64 and 111; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 68 and 70.

Links. Biography by Hermann Kellenbenz, in German, Neue Deutsche Biographie 17 (1994); biography by Rainald Becker, in German, Sächsische Biografie; biography, in Italian (toward the middle of the page), Leis; his arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; and his image, Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt.

(1) He had had the breviary printed in July 1489 in Augsburg; the missal was printed in 1493. Bishop Meckau ordered all priests to acquire the new breviary, which cost two Renanian florins, while the missal was provided by the diocese; the priests had to follow these liturgical books. The bishop was the first prelate of Brixen to use the new typographical press; as a humanist and book lover, he collected manuscripts and books fresh from the press in theology and the ancient classics.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936, p. 130; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1341; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 25 and 64; the same source, p. 111; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, III, 70; his biography in German, linked above; and his biography in Italian, also linked above, say that he died on March 3, 1509.
(3) Cardinal Meckau had left a considerable patrimony, a great part of which, approximately 153,000 fiorini, was deposited in the bank of Fugger in Augusta. The pope authorized Emperor Maximilian I, who had made some demands, to capture all because it was consigned to the bishopric of Brixen; but on pressures of the monarch, the new bishop, Christoph von Schrofenstein, allowed the emperor to keep part of the sum deposited in the bank as a partial loan, which in 1515 came down to 32,000 fiorini; also, these, the monarch wanted and obtained. For some time, it corresponded to the interests, but neither the bishopric of Brixen nor the German national church of Rome ever received anything of the huge sums left by the cardinal. Therefore, the main heir remained Emperor Maximilian, of whom Bishop Schrofenstein was a friend and for which he did not dare to demand the restitution of the inheritance.

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(39) 5. FIESCHI, Niccolò (ca. 1456-1524)

Birth. Ca 1456, Genoa. Of the old and noble family of the counts of Lavagna. Of the Savignone branch of the family. Fifth of the eleven children of Giacomo Fieschi and Selvaggia Fieschi de Caneto. Nephew of Cardinal Giorgio Fieschi (1439). The family gave the Church Popes Innocent IV and Adrian V; and Cardinals Guglielmo Fieschi (1244); Luca Fieschi (1300); Giovanni Fieschi (1378); Ludovico Fieschi (1384); Lorenzo Fieshi (1706); and Adriano Fieschi (1834). Brother of S. Caterina Fieschi Adorno da Genova. He is also listed as Nicolaus de Fliscus; his first name as Nicola; and his last name as Flisco. He was called Cardinal Fieschi.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Vicar general and provost of Fréjus in 1482. Archpriest of Genoa. Ambassador of Genoa to France.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Toulon, September 12, 1484. Did not take possession and became provost and sacristan of Toulon on November 27, 1484. Transferred to the see of Fréjus, October 14, 1485; resigned the see before taking possession. Transferred to the see of Agde, October 22, 1488. Pope Innocent VIII planned to create him cardinal but the promotion never took place. Transferred again to the see of Fréjus, February 15, 1495; celebrated a diocesan synod; resigned the see on November 5, 1511 (1), in favor of his nephew Urbano Fieschi, who died on January 23, 1524, before the cardinal. Referendary apostolic; succeeded his brother Urbano. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Louis XII of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 31, 1503; he was published on June 2, 1503; received the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisoloio, June 12, 1503. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Named administrator of the see of Agde, November 28, 1504; occupied the post until his death. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Prisca, October 5, 1506. Accompanied Pope Julius II and architect Bramante da Urbino to the construction site of the new Vatican basilica on April 12, 1507. Administrator of the see of Sénez, 1507-1509 (2). Went with the pope to Ancona in September 1510 to try to negotiate with the French but was rejected. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Embrun, October 12, 1510; resigned the post on July 5, 1518. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Grandment, diocese of Limoges. In August 1511, during the illness of Pope Julius II, he was mentioned as a possible successor. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli on October 29, 1511, retaining in commendam the title of S. Prisca; kept the title of Ss. XII Apostoli until November 13, 1517. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. On March 19, 1513, he received from the new pope the faculty of disposing of his benefices freely as well as several new ones in France, Spain and Italy. Named administrator of the see of Toulon, January 8, 1514; resigned the post on July 30, 1515. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Bonnecombe, diocese of Rodez, December 18 and 20, 1514. In December 1515, he received King François of France at the border of the Papal States. Named archbishop of Ravenna in 1516; the pope wrote to him concerning the recuperation of the possessions of that archdiocese; resigned the see in November 1517 in favor of his nephew Urbano. In January or February of 1517, he was named administrator of the see of Andria; resigned the post the following month of November in favor of his relative Gianfrancesco Fieschi. Administrator of the see of Umbriatico in 1517; occupied the post until March 20 or September 12, 1520. On November 4, 1517, he was named member of a commission of cardinals for the war against the Turks. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, February 5, 1518; retained in commendam the title of S. Prisca until his death. Administrator of the see of Toulon, September 3, 1518 until his death. He was placed in charge of the canonization process of Francesco di Paola, who was canonized on May 1, 1519. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, July 24, 1521. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. In January 1523, he formed part of a congregation of six cardinals to revise the new functions established by Pope Leo X in the Roman curia. In the consistory of July 29, 1523, he opposed a project of alliance between the Italian states against France. In the consistory of May 27, 1523, he was charged with making pay by the following November 1 the sums due to the cardinals because of the shortage of the papal treasury. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, December 18, 1523. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Tre Fontane, Rome, January 11, 1524. Opted for the see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 20, 1524.

Death. June 15, 1524 (3), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 900-901; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 299-302; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1341 amd 1482; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 130-131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25 and 66; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 55, 56, 57, 58, 69, 73, 97, 109, 190, 197, 283, 315 and 323; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 57-60; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXIV, 253-254; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 408; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 377-378.

Links. Biography by Aurelio Cevolotto, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 47 (1997), Treccani; his portrait, Roman School (1600-1649), archdiocese of Genoa, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 197; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 522, says that his nephew was elected in 1512.
(2) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 297, says that he resigned (not giving the date) and Cardinal François-Guillaume de Castelnau-Clermont-Ludève succeeded him (without giving the dates either); then, Jean-Batist de Laigne d'Oraison was named bishop on September 19, 1509; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 627, says that he was named administrator in 1507 and occupied the post for five years until 1512.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936, p. 131; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, III, 56; this latter source, II, 25, says that he died on June 14, 1524; and Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1482, says that he died on 18 Kal Iulii., which is June 14th.

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(40) 6. DESPRATS, Francisco (1454-1504)

Birth. 1454, Orihuela, Spain. His last name is also listed as Desprades, Sprata, Sprats and Spares. He was known with the appelative of Cardinal of León.

Education. Obtained in Lérida a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Canon of the collegiate chapter of Orihuela. Pastor of Almoradí in March 1483. Protonotary apostolic. In 1483, he was already in Rome, with Cardinal Rodrigo de Borja y Borja, future Pope Alexander VI. He received several benefices in Aragón, Castilla and Portugal. Canon schoolmaster of the cathedral chapter of Cartagena, July 1486. He was the first permanent nuncio of the Holy See, sent in 1492 to the Catholic Monarchs, Fernando II and Isabel I.

fue y maestrescuela de la catedral de Cartagena (Julio 1486), discesis a la que pertenecma entonces Orihuela.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Catania, February 14, 1498; confirmed, March 20, 1498. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Astorga, February 9, 1500. Transferred to the see of León, December 4, 1500; took possession of the see, February 5, 1501; occupied it until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 31, 1503; he was published on June 2, 1503; received the title of Ss. Sergio e Bacco (1), deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 12, 1503. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II.

Death. September 10, 1504 (2), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, Rome, in a mausoleum erected by the executors of his will, Cardinals Francisco de Borja and Juan Vera.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 302; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1342 and 1388; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 67, 98, 122 and 174; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 220.

Link. Biographical entry, in English.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 25, calls the title Ss. Quirino e Bacco; and on II, 67, Ss. Sergio e Bacco, like all the other sources.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936, p. 131; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 25 and III, 220, says that he died on September 9, 1504; and on II, 174, says that he died on November 10, 1504.

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(41) 7. CASTELLO, Adriano di (ca. 1458-1521)

Birth. Ca. 1458, Corneto. Of a large and obscure family. His last name is also listed as Castellesi, de Corneto. He was called the Cardinal of Hereford, the Cardinal of Bath and the Cardinal of Corneto.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Named collector of the Peter's-pence in England in 1489; occupied the post until 1514. Sent by Pope Innocent VIII, toward 1490, to England to reestablish the peace between that country and Scotland; he earned the trust of King Henry VII Tudor of England. At his return to Rome, he was named clerk of the Apostolic Chamber and secretary of Pope Alexander VI. He departed from Rome on June 4, 1498 as a member of the papal legation, headed by the archbishop of Ragusa, sent to bring the felicitations of the pope to the new King of France Louis XII. Named papal treasurer in 1500. Ambassador of England before the Holy See. At the request of the king of England, he was promoted to the episcopate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hereford, February 14, 1502; occupied the see until August 2, 1504. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 31, 1503; he was published on June 2, 1503; received the title of S. Crisogono, June 12, 1503. On August 5, 1503, he received in his villa Pope Alexander VI and Cesare Borgia; he is accused, probably erroneously, of having poisoned the pope; the cardinal himself fell ill while the pope did not get sick until six or seven days later, dying on August 18th. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. On August 4, 1504, he sent King Henry VII of England a relation of the conclave in which he told the monarch that he had a pure heart and clean hands. Named administrator of the see of Bath and Wells, August 2,1504; occupied the post until his deposition on July 5, 1518. He accompanied Pope Julius II in his journey to Bologna; he left Rome with the pope and eight other cardinals on August 26, 1504; he described the trip in a poem, Ite Julii Pont. Ro., which was published. Because of a dispute with the English ambassador, he displeased the pope and fell in disgrace; without papal authorization, he left Rome on September 1, 1507 and sought refuge near the lake Garde. His name appeared in a document of May 10, 1511 convoking Pope Julius II to a council in Pisa; he protested the use of his name without his authorization and refrained from attending the schismatic council. On September 16, 1512, Emperor Maximilian I declared that the cardinal had revealed to him his plans for the papacy in view of a serious illness of the pope, who was believed the be dying; at the time, the cardinal was in Tyrol. At the death of the pope, Cardinal Castello traveled to Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. He was named protector of the Order of the Humilliati. He participated in the plot of Cardinals Bandinello Sauli and Alfonso Petrucci to assassinate Pope Leo X; he was forced to admit his mistake in the consistory of June 8, 1517; he asked for forgiveness and the pope granted it; he had to pay a fine of 12,500 ducati, which was doubled shortly after; fearing the worse, he escaped during the night of June 20 disguised as a harvester and went to Tivoli, then to Naples and finally to Venice, where he arrived on July 13th; on November 4th, he received orders from the pope to return to Rome but he did not obey; on March 3, 1518, the pope started a process against the cardinal; on April 12th, he was tried for contumacy; he was deposed as a cardinal and deprived of his episcopal see for disobedience by Pope Leo X in the consistory of July 5, 1518; he was ordered to sell his possessions, notably the magnificent palace that he had built in Borgo, attributed to architect Bramante da Urbino and called the English palace because the cardinal had left it to the king of England. He stayed in Venice in the palace of his friend Giacomo di Pesaro, at the Grand Canal. Pope Leo X died on December 1, 1521 and he planned to start for Rome to try to participate in the conclave. He was a friend of Polydore Vergil, Renaissance historian and man of letters. The cardinal was one of the best Latinists of his time, also very able in Greek and Hebrew; and a distinguished humanist. Among his works are a poem in Latinity, entitled "Venatio" (Aldus, 1505), and treatises, "De vera philosophia ex quatuor doctoribus ecclesiae" (Bologna, 1507); and "De Sermone Latino et modo Latine loquendi" (Baste, 1513).

Death. Between December 1521 and January 1522, Venice, assassinated, probably by a servant. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 302-304; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1342 and 1432; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 131-132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 62 and 163; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 130 and 209; Paschini, Pio. Tre illustri prelati del Rinascimento : Ermolao Barbaro, Adriano Castellesi, Giovanni Grimani. Romae : Facultas Theologica Pontificii Athenaei Lateranensis, 1957. (Lateranum ; nova ser., an. 23, n. 1-4).

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, also in English; A letter by Cardinal Adriano of Castelli to Henry VII, 4 January 1504, in Latin; and his autograph.

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(42) 8. CASANOVA, Jaime de (ca. 1435-1504)

Birth. Ca. 1435, Játiva, diocese of Valencia, Spain. His first name is also listed as Jaume. He was called Cardinal Casanova.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cardinal Rodrigo de Borja y Borja, future Pope Alexander VI, was his protector. Abbreviatore di parco minore. Papal notary. Protonotary apostolic. Officiali audientie contradictarum, 1497. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, 1498. He was a witness at the dissolution of the marriage of Lucrezia Borgia and the count of Aversa in 1492; and of her wedding with Giovanni Sforza in 1493. In 1498, the pope granted him the first canonship that would become vacant in Spain; when the vacancy happened in the cathedral chapter of Barcelona, King Fernando the Catholc opposed the papal disposition because he had given the post to another person; although the pope issued a brief naming Casanova to the vacant canonship, the king prevailed.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 31, 1503; he was published on June 2, 1503; received the title of S. Stefano in Monte Celio, June 12, 1503. He was present at the mass celebrated before the dying pope in August 1503; the day the pope died, his son, Cesare Borgia, who was ill, sent Michelotto Corglia with numerous men to the papal apartments; once they had closed all the entrances to the apartments, one of the men pulled out a knife and threatened Cardinal Casanova that if he did not give them all the money, he would kill him; the cardinal, very scared, gave him the keys; the men took all the money; the scare affected the health of the old cardinal, who from then on, never had a good day. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III; he entered the conclave on September 16th but because of bad health could not participate in the mass of the Holy Spirit celebrated the following day; he did vote in the conclave and took part in the consecration of the new Pope Pius III but not in his coronation. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II; his ballot was written by his personal secretary; he officiated as assistant in the mass of coronation of the new Pope Julius II but could not attend his first consistory or the congregation of all the cardinals who were present in Rome. In the Spring 1504, he recovered a little and was able to accompany the pope, riding on a horse, to the Roman churches of S. Maria sopra Minerva, S. Marco and Ss. XII Apostoli. The pope wished to compensate the Spanish cardinals that had voted for him, beginning with Cardinal Casanova, who was poor; he told the Catholic Monarchs that he planned to name him to the first Spanish diocese that would become vacant but the cardinal died before receiving an episcopal see.

Death. June 4, 1504, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 305-306; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1342 and 1388; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25 and 65; Goñi Gaztambide, José. Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), I, 116.

Link. Biographical data, in English.

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(43) 9. LLORIS Y DE BORJA, Francisco (ca. 1470-1506)

Birth. Ca. 1470, Valencia, Spain. Son of Perot-Jàfer de Lloris and Isabel de Borja i Navarro de Alpicat. He is also listed as Francesc Galceran de Lloris i de Borja; and his last as Hiloris, Iloris, Loriz, Loritz, Loris and Willoritz. Grand-nephew of Pope Alexander VI. Nephew of Cardinal Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor (1492). He was known by the appellative of Cardinal of Elne.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cubiculario; prosecretary in 1500; and treasurer of Cardinal Rodrigo de Borja, future Pope Alexander VI. General treasurer. On June 4, 1497, he accompanied the papal legation that went to Paris to present to King Louis XII the condolences for the death of King Charles VIII. In October 1497, he accompanied the Venetian ambassador, Gerolamo Donati, in his entrance in Rome.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Terni, March 19, 1498; resigned the see, April 17, 1499. Consecrated (no information found). On May 5, 1499, when Pope Alexander VI went to the patriarchal Liberian basilica surrounded by the cardinals, Bishop Lloris headed the procession riding on a black horse and leading 1,500 footmen. Transferred to the see of Elne, September 6, 1499; occupied the see until his death. Provost of Hildesheim, November 1499. At the beginning of 1500, the pope named him abbot in commendam of the monastery of S. Salvatore della Placa, in Sicily; King Fernando of Spain had given the commendam to the son of a viceroyal counselor; Bishop Lloris resigned the post in favor of the latter.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 31, 1503; he was published on June 2, 1503; received the title of S. Sabina, declared deaconry pro illa vice, June 12, 1503. Occupied the see of Terni in commendam from December 4, 1504. Opted for the deaconry of Maria Nuova, December 17, 1505. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Trani and named titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, August 9, 1503; occupied the see until his death. Named bishop in commendam of Valence and Die shortly after January 3, 1503; occupied the see until February 13, 1505. Participated in the first conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Pius III. Participated in the second conclave of 1503, which elected Pope Julius II. Abbot commendatario of Ripoll in 1506, shortly before his death.

Death. July 22, 1506, Rome, víctima de su vida inmoral (victim of his immoral life) (1). Pope Julius II asked his master of ceremonies, Paris de Grassis, to give the late cardinal a solemn and honorable burial (2). Buried in the chapel of Pope Callistus III in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 306; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1342 and 1388; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 132-133; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 67, 150, 168, 254 and 262; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 69 and 213; Goñi Gaztambide, José. Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), II, 456.

Links. Biographical entry, in English, Enciclopèdia Catalana; and catalog of the bishops of Terni, Diocese of Terni-Narni-Amelia..

(1) Goñi, Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, II, 456.
(2) Goñi, Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, II, 456, transcribes the relation of Paris de Grassis: "Llevamos su cuerpo a la iglesia de San Pedro. Acudió tan gran muchedumbre de gentes de ambos sexos con mi gran sorpresa, que apenas pude apartar al pueblo de la iglesia hasta que los canónigos hicieran la absolución. Infinitas gentes de diversas naciones le besaron la mano; pero despedía un olor, que yo no me pude aproximar a él." (We took his body to the church of San Pedro. So great a crowd of people of both sexes to my great surprise went, that I barely could separate the town people from the church until the canons gave the absolution. Infinite people of diverse nations kissed his hand; but he sent forth an odour, that I could not go near him.).

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JOHANN (?-1499)

Birth. (No date and place found). His last name is not known.

Education. He distinguished himself for his eloquence, congiunta con molto sapere (1) (together with great knowledge).

Early life. Ambassador of Frederick II the Wise, duke and elector of Saxony, to the Holy See.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal ca. 1499; received the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (?). Some sources call him a "secret" cardinal.

Death. 1499, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 306; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 133.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 306.

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CIERA, Pietro (1441-1501)

Birth. 1441, Venice. Of civili ed onesti parents.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal sub silencio on April 17, 1501; he was never published.

Death. 1501 (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 307; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 133.

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BUSLEIDEN, François (1450-1502)

Birth. 1450, Bauschleiden (Bulaide), duchy of Luxembourg, France (1). Second of the eight children of Gilles I, seigneur de Guirsch, and Elisabeth ou Isabelle de Musse. The other siblings were Gilles, Jerôme, Valerian, Jacqueline, Catherine, Marguerite and François. He is also known as Franciscus de Toleto. His last name is also listed as Busleyden.

Education. Initial studies in Cologne, 1468; University of Dôle, Dôle (bachelor, 1471; master of arts, 1473); Collège d'Italia, Paris (canon law); University of Perugia, Perugia, 1474 (doctorate in canon law); also studied canon law in Rome, where he obtained another doctorate.

Early life. Frequented the Roman court from 1475. Published Oratio funebre Leonardi de Robera (Leonardo della Rovere), 1476; the work had four consecutive editions. Pope Alexander VI sent him in missions to Paris and to Granada, before Emperor Maximilian, who attached him to his court and entrusted him with the education of his son Philippe the Fair, who became archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy and governor of the Low Countries; he was named counselor of the archduke and gained great ascendency over him. Grand provost of the cathedral chapter of Saint Lambert in Liège in 1485. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Cambrai, Bruxelles and Anderlecht. Provost of Saint-Donatien, Brugge, 1490. Treasurer of Sainte-Gudule de Bruxelles. He was present at the marriage of Archduke Philippe and Princess Juana de Castilla, daughter of Fernando and Isabel of Spain, celebrated on October 22, 1496 in Lierre (2). Dean of Anvers, 1498. He was presented as archbishop of Besançon by his former pupil the archduke. Chancellor of the Low Countries and administrator of Franche-Comté.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Besançon by the cathedral chapter at the instance of Emperor Maximilian, October 12, 1498; accepted, November 19, 1498; confirmed by the pope, March 14, 1499; took possession through Canon Hugues Odierne, May 29, 1499; enthroned, November 22, 1499. Consecrated (no information found). After the death of Infante Don Miguel on July 20, 1500, Philippe and Juana were declared heirs of the Spanish crown; the following year, they decided to go to their new kingdom and asked Archbishop Busleiden to accompany them; the archbishop entrusted the spiritual affairs of the archdiocese to Jean Favel, O.P., titular bishop of Nazaret and went to Spain. He was sent to France by the archduke to ask King Louis XII the hand of his daughter Claudine for Charles de Luxembourg-Ligny. Administrator of the see of Coria, November 26, 1501; occupied the post until his death. The pope reserved for him the right of succession to the see of Cambrai, where he would have replaced Archbishop Henri de Berghes, who was very ill. The archbishop accompanied the royal couple throughout Spain, arrived in Toledo after having been suffering from fever for several days and his condition worsened.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal secretly after 1501 and never published. Called to Spain by Archduke Philippe.

Death. August 23, 1502 (3), of fever, Toledo. Buried in the Bernardine monastery near Toledo; his heart was taken to Besançon and deposited in the church of Saint-Etienne during a funeral celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral on August 26, 1502.

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 133; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 54, 106 and 123; Tribout de Morembert, H. "François de Busleyden, archevêque de Besançon." Biographie nationale du pays de Luxembourg depuis ses originees jusqu'a nos jours. Collection présentée par Jules Mersch. 22 vols. Luxembourg : Imprimerie de la Cour Victor Buck, 1947-1979 , fascicle XIII, pp. 132-135.

Links. Biography, in French, Biographie nationale du pays de Luxembourg : Fascicule 13 - page 132-135; François de Busleyden, Homme d'Église et Homme d'État, in French, Samuël Lucas; his genealogy, by E. Tandel. Les communes luxembourgeoises. Publications de l'Institut Archéologique du Luxembourg 1889 Tome XXII des annales. Réédition Editions Culture et Civilisation 1979; and catalog of the archbishops of Besançon, in German, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to Tribout de Morembert, "François de Busleyden, archevêque de Besançon." Biographie nationale du pays de Luxembourg depuis ses originees jusqu'a nos jours, p. 132; the same source adds that other authors, which he does not mention, say that he was born in Arlon, Belgium.
(2) They were the parents of Carlos and Fernando, both future emperors.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936, p. 133; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II, 106; Tribout de Morembert, "François de Busleyden, archevêque de Besançon." Biographie nationale du pays de Luxembourg depuis ses originees jusqu'a nos jours, fascicle XIII, 135, says that he died on August 21, 1501.

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