The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Julius II (1503-1513)
Consistory of December 1, 1505 (II)


(5) 1. VIGERIO DELLA ROVERE, O.F.M.Conv., Marco (1446-1516)

Birth. 1446, Savona. Son of Urbano Vigerio and Nicoletta Grosso della Rovere, niece of Pope Sixtus IV. His last name is also listed as Vogerius and Vacchiero.

Education. Studied theology in Savona. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Conventuals, when Francesco della Rovere, future Pope Sixtus IV, was the minister general of the order; changed his baptismal name Emmanuele to Marco, in memory of Marco Vigerio, bishop of Noli, his uncle.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). In 1471, he was named congregant of the Studium of the convent of Padua; and professor of theology at the University of Padua. Pope Sixtus IV appointed him magister of theology, after he had defended himself against some accusations. In 1474, he was named professor of theology and letters at La Sapienza University in Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Senigallia, October 6, 1476; he was also named prefect of Senigallia and of the entire state in the name of Giovanni della Rovere, nephew of the pope, who had the investiture; resigned the government of the see in favor of his nephew Marco Quinto Vigerio, May 9, 1513. Master of the Sacred Palace, 1484. Named suffragan bishop of Bologna. Transferred to the see of Ventimiglia, January 24, 1502; occupied the see until 1511. Governor of Castello Sant'Angelo, November 12, 1503 until July 31, 1506. Named archbishop of Trani, 1506; resigned the see, July 30, 1517

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 1, 1505; published, December 12, 1505; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, December 17, 1505. He received rich benefices. In 1506, he accompanied the pope in the expedition against Giovanni Bentivoglio and participated in the occupation of the Bologna. Legate in Bologna. On December 28, 1507, he was named to preside, as protector of the order, the first general chapter of the Minimi in which the rule of S. Francesco di Paolo was discussed; he solved difficult matters concerning the rules; for his contribution, he was regarded as its second founder. Governor of the burgo of Capranica in the diocese of Sutri, September 20, 1508; resigned the post, March 1514. In the war of the pope with Duke Alfonso of Ferrara and his French allies, he was since December 11, 1510 legate of the papal army and showed his high military talent in the conquest of Concordia on December 17, 1510 and the victory of Mirandola on January 20, 1511. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, October 29, 1511; retained in commendam until his death the title of S. Maria in Trastevere. In the V Lateran Council, because of his theological knowledge, he was named president of several commissions, among the the one for the reform of the Roman Curia, which occupied itself on a project for the reform of the calendar; celebrated the pontifical mass in the third session, December 2, 1512; he delivered his "Apologia Julius II", for the pope, who died on February 21, 1513; the cardinal played an important role against the schismatic council of Pisa; he wrote "Apologia contra il Concilio di Pisa"; the Lateran Council did not accept his suggestions on the reform of the calendar, but he continued to work on this project. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of S. Martino, Viterbo, May 1, 1513. Accompanied the pope in his trip to Viterbo and to the Congress of Bologna that was held from October 11 to 18, 1515; returned ill to Rome. He wrote many works, notably on the life, passion, death and resurrection of Our Lord and on Jesus' shroud and the spear of Longinus. He is believed to have influence the theological aspect of Raffaello Sanzio's painting La Disputa (Disputation of the Holy Sacrament), famous worldwide, because in it, the thinking of S. Bonaventura is found artistically expressed; he appears on the right, with the Franciscan habit and a cardinal's hat.

Death. July 18, 1516, Rome. Buried in the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome. The funeral oration was delivered by Camillo Porcario. His body should have been transported to to Savona but the project never took place. In the 19th century an inscription was placed on his tomb in S. Maria in Trastevere; it is still visible there.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 311-312; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1374-1375; "Marc Vigeri della Rovere" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 80; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 235; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 10, 57, 66, and 298; Odoardi, Giovanni. "Vigerio, Marco." Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-54, XII, col.s 1411-1412; Ritzler, Remigius. "I cardinali e i papi dei Frati Minori Conventuali." Miscellanea Franciscana, LXXI (Gennaio-Giugno 1971), Fasc. I-II, 57-59; Siena, Lodovico. Storia della Città di Sinigaglia. Bologna : Arnaldo Forni, 1977, 1746. (Historiae urbium et regionum Italiae rariores ; 127 : Nuova serie ; 43). Reprint of the 1746 ed. published by Stefano Calvani, Sinigaglia, pp. 237-240.

Links. Biography, in German; and biographical sketch and bibliography, in English.

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(6) 2. GUIBÉ, Robert (ca. 1460-1513)

Birth. Ca. 1460, Vitrè, Bretagne. Son of Adanet Guibè and Olive Laudais. He is also known under the appellatives Giubè, Vitrè, Britto (1) and Challand. He was known as the Cardinal of Nantes.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Entered the ecclesiastical state and became chantre of the cathedral chapter of Dol in 1475. Archdeacon of Dinan in 1481.

Sacred orders. (No information found)

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tréguier, May 16, 1483; with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age; an administrator was named on May 23, 1483. On August 18, 1483, he took the oath before the duke of Bretagne, who sent him at the head of an embassy to Rome in 1485 to pay homage to the newly elected Pope Innocent VIII. Prior of the Benedictine monastery of Sainte-Croix, Vitré, 1490; resigned when he was transferred to the see of Rennes. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Méen, 1493. Prior of Châteaugiron, 1495. At the time of the Synod of Tréguier, June 11, 1495, he had not yet received the episcopal consecration. Returned to Rome in 1499 by orders from Queen Anne in order to expedite the issuing of the bull of election of Guillaume Gueguien as bishop of Nantes; the bull was issued on September 25, 1500. Abbot commendatario of Sainte-Melaine, Rennes, 1501. Transferred to the see of Rennes, succeeding his late brother Michel Guibè, March 24, 1502; the see had been reserved for him since February 12, 1501. Resigned the commendam of the Benedictine monastery of Sainte-Corix de Quimperié at the same time of his transfer to Rennes. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Gildas de Rhuys, 1503. Returned to Rome for the third time; became ambassador of King Louis XI of France to Rome and was promoted to the cardinalate at the recommendation of Queen Anne of Bretagne.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 1, 1505; published, December 12, 1505; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, December 17, 1505. Transferred to the see of Nantes, January 24, 1507; resigned the government of the see in favor of his nephew François Hamon, reserving its denomination, jurisdiction and collation of benefices, May 30, 1511. Ambassador of King Louis XII of France to the Holy See; in 1511, sided with the pope in his disputes with the king; in retaliation, the latter seized the rents of all his benefices; this action reduced the cardinal, who had been one of the richest prelates, to a real poverty; other cardinals had to aid him. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Victor, Marseille, May 4, 1507. His vicar general celebrated a synod in Nantes, May 27, 1507. Prior commendatario of SS. Trinité de Fougères and of Batz. Rector commendatario of Saint-Julien de Vouvantez. Administrator of the see of Amalfi, beginning of 1510; resigned the post, December 9, 1510. Administrator of the see of Alby, September 30, 1510; occupied the post until his death. Legate in Avignon after the death of Cardinal Georges I d'Amboise, which occurred on May 25, 1510. Administrator of the see of Vannes, March 17, 1511; occupied the post until his death. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, October 4, 1511. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 29, 1512 until February 1513; camerlengo again in 1513 until his death. Participated in the V Lateran Council, 1512. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Julien de Tours, April 17, 1513. Received several benefices in the sees of Sevilla and Tortona, June 16, 1513. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Named legate a latere in France; his mission was to induce the French king to condemn the schismatic council of Pisa and to approve as legitimate that of Letran; he died in Rome a few months after the nomination. Administrator ad vitam of the city of Anagni, Campagna, June 3, 1513. Named by the Apostolic See apostolic vicar general of the spiritual and temporal affairs of the city of Avigon and of Comtat Venaissin; and legate to provinces of Vienne, Arles, Embrun, Dax and Narbonne, July 8, 1513. It is possible that he was not able to occupy several of the posts in France to which he was named in the final years of his life due to the conflict between Pope Leo X and King Louis XII of France.

Death. November 9, 1513, Rome. Buried in the church of Saint-Yves des Bretons, Rome; since the burial was temporary, no monument to his memory was built; each year in his anniversary a memorial service is still celebrated in that church. According to his will, his remains were transferred to Rennes and buried in the chapel of Saint-Armel, that his brother had built near the choir of the cathedral; there are two statues of bishops, Michel and Robert, over the sarcophagus (2).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1064; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 312-313; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1375; "Robert Guibé" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, pp. 80-81; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 222; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 10, 59, 84, 101, 105, 252, 283 and 329; Guillotin de Corson, Amédée. Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes. 6 vols. Rennes : Fougeray, 1880-1886, I, 82-83.

Link. Biographical data, in French, pp. 82-83.

(1) This the Latinization of Bretagne, then still independent from France; it was the equivalent of saying that he was a "Bretton".
(2) According to Guillotin de Corson, Amédée. Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes, I, 82 and 83, when the tomb was opened in 1756, only one coffin containing one body, that of Michel, the cardinal's brother, was found, with a tablet of lead with the following inscription: HIC JACET REVERENDUS IN CHRISTOPATER ET DOMINUS, DOMINUS MICHAEL GUIBOEUS HUJUS ECCLESIAE, CIVITATIS ET DIOCESIS EPISCOPUS, QUI OBIIT DIE DOMINICA PENE ULTIMA MENSIS FEBRUARII.

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(7) 3. GROSSO DELLA ROVERE, Leonardo (1464-1520)

Birth. 1464, Savona. Son of Antonio Grosso and Maria della Rovere. Brother of Cardinal Clemente Grosso della Rovere, O.F.M.Conv. (1503). Grand-nephew of Pope Sixtus IV on his mother's side. Relative of Cardinal Galeazzo Franciotti della Rovere (1503). Second cousin of Pope Julius II. His last name is also listed as de' Grassi Della Rovere. He was known as the Cardinal of Agen.

Education. Studied both canon and civil law (no further educational information found).

Early life. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Agen, December 9, 1487; with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age; an administrator was appointed; succeeded his brother Galeotto Grosso della Rovere; resigned the government of the see in favor of Antonio della Rovere, March 22, 1519. Abbot commendatario of S. Giuliano, Spoleto; enthroned in 1492. In 1494, he was named vicar general of his brother Clemente, abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of Notre-Dame de Bonnecombe, diocese of Rodez, 1494.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 1, 1505; published, December 12, 1505; received the red hat and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, December 17, 1505. Accompanied Pope Julius II in his expeditions against the Bentivolgli of Bologna and the Baglioni of Perugia. Went to Viterbo with the pope on August 30, 1506; named legate to that city. Legate in Perugia, by papal briefs of February 1 and 2, 1507. Ambassador of the king of France in Rome, 1507. Opted for the title of S. Susanna, September 15, 1508. Governor of Rome, 1510. Penitentiary major October 5, 1511 until his death. Legate in the province of Patrimonio, 1511. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 1512 until 1513. Participated in the V Lateran Council, 1512; president of the commission of reform. On November 5, 1512, he met Cardinal Mathew Lang, representative of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, in Monte Mario and then they made their solemn entrance in Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Together with Cardinal Lorenzo Pucci, testamentary executor of Pope Julius II, arranged with Michelangelo Buonarroti the construction of the pope's tomb; a contract with the artist was signed on May 6, 1513; Michelangelo sculpted the statue of Moses that is in the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian abbey of S. Maria di Morimondo, Milan, March 19, 1513; he also received a canonship and a prebend in the church of La Cuniga, archdiocese of Compostela, April 25, 1513. The king of France wrote to Pope Leo X requesting the transference of the cardinal to the see of Saint-Malo but it never took place. Archpriest commendatario of San Segundo, diocese of León, January 29, 1514. Received a canonship and a prebend in the cathedral chapter of Bressanone, March 17, 1514. Commendatario of the church of S. Ilario, Asti; and of the Augustinian priorate of S. Agostino di Pondinicho, diocese of Casale-Monferrato, July 10, 1514. Named bishop of Lucca, March 4, 1517; resigned the post in favor of Cardinal Raffaele Riario della Rovere after five days on March 9, 1517(1). Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, March 9, 1517. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, February 1518.

Death. September 17, 1520 (2), Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 313-314; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1375-1376; Durengues, A. "Léonard de La Rovére, cardinal et évêque d'Agen (1487-1519)." Revue de l'Agenais, LVI (1929), n. 3, 111-126; and n. 4, 155-175; "Léonard Grosso della Rovere" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, pp. 81-82 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 82; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 10, 60, 68, 71, 98 and 229; Nicolai, Umberto. I vescovi di Lucca. Lucca : Tipografia Ricchielli, 1966, p. 24, no. 80; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 336.

Link. Biography, in French, pp. 111-126 and 155-175.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 314; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 229, says that he resigned on the same day that he was named, March 9, 1517.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 10; Durengues, "Léonard de La Rovére, cardinal et évêque d'Agen (1487-1519)", Revue de l'Agenais, LVI, n. 4, 174, note 1, citing Paris de Grassis' Diarium pro anno 1520 in Codex Vaticanus, fol. 402, says that the cardinal died on September 27, 1520.

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(8) 4. FERRERO, Antonio (?-1508)

Birth. (No date found). Savona. Of a poor family. He was known as the Cardinal of Gubbio. Other cardinals of the family were Gianstefano Ferrero (1505); Bonifacio Ferrero (1517); Pier Francesco Ferrero (1561); and Guido Luca Ferrero (1565). His last name is also listed as Ferrerio; and as Ferreri.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Squire of Cardinal Girolamo Basso della Rovere. Entered the service of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, future Pope Julius II, who named him protonotary apostolic and majordome of the Pontifical Household.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Noli, January 8, 1504. Consecrated, April 9, 1504, at the Vatican, Rome, by Pope Julius II, assisted by Cardinal Antonio Pallavicini, bishop of Orsense, and by Cardinal Giovanni San Giorgio, bishop of Parma; in the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Raffaele Sansone Riario, bishop of Albano; Cardinal Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere, bishop of Lucca; and future cardinals Francesco Alidosi, bishop of Mileto; and Gabriele de' Gabrielli, archbishop of Urbino. Transferred to the see of Gubbio, August 13, 1504; occupied the see until his death. Master of the Papal Household. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 1, 1505; published, December 12, 1505; received the red hat and the title of S. Vitale, December 17, 1505; many cardinals who knew him well opposed his promotion; soon the pope had to regret his decision. Legate in Perugia, January 23, 1506. Named bishop of Perugia, March 30, 1506; occupied the see until his death. Pro-datary. Legate in Bologna, February 20, 1507; he exercised an intolerable tyranny over the inhabitants, had several of them executed and extorted thirty thousand gold ducats. He also conspired to have the pope assassinated; the latter recalled him to Rome to answer for his abuse of authority; the cardinal arrived in Rome on August 1, 1507; the pope deprived him of his dignity and had him arrested in Castello Sant'Angelo and did not allow him to see the pope or any of the cardinals; he was fined twenty thousand scudi; from the castle, he was transferred by papal order to the convent of S. Onofrio in Gianicolo and remained under custody; he tried to retire to the household of Cardinal Girolamo Basso della Rovere but the latter did not accept; the cardinal died of sorrow and confusion.

Death. July 23, 1508 (1), probably poisoned, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, without a monument; the exequies were celebrated at night without pomp by order of the pope. The pope sold his properties to pay his victims.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 899; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 316; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1377; "Antoine Ferreri" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 82; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 10, 71, 193, 254 and 271; Gozzadini, Giovanni. Di alcuni avvenimenti in Bologna e nell'Emilia dal 1506 al 1511 e dei Cardinali Legati A. Ferrerio e F. Alidosi. Bologna : Tipi Fava e Garagnani, 1886.

Links. Biography by Raffaella Cascioli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 46 (1996), Treccani; his portrait (1800-1899), diocese of Gubbio, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 10, 71 and 271. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1377, syas that he died on July 22, 1508, at hora noctis quarta, which means that he died on July 23, 1508 at 4 a.m. Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 899, says that he died on July 13, 1508; his biography in Italian, linked above, says that he died the night between July 22 and 23, 1508.

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(9) 5. ALIDOSI, Francesco (ca. 1455/1460-1511)

Birth. Ca. 1455/1460 (1), Castel del Rio, diocese of Imola. Third son of Giovanni Alidosi, signore of Castel del Rio, and Cipriana Franceschi. He was known as the Cardinal of Pavia.

Education. "... all'ingenio ed elegante aspetto, che mostrava al di fuori, non sepe a motivo della troppo libera educazione, che ebbe la disgrazia di fortire, non seppe accopiare quel candore, e quella modestia, che fatto ne avrebbe il più bello, e vago ornamento..." (2). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Familiar of Pope Sixtus IV, who named him apostolic scriptore. Went to France with Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, future Pope Julius II, in 1494; later became his secretary. Named privy chamberlain and treasurer general of the Holy Roman Church by Pope Julius II in 1503. He became the right hand of the pope, who allowed him to combine the Alidosi arms with the Della Rovere's. Abbot commendatario of the S. Salvatore di Spungia, diocese of Volterra.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mileto, March 6, 1504. Consecrated, April 9, 1504, at the Vatican, Rome, by Pope Julius II, assisted by Cardinal Antonio Pallavicini, bishop of Orsense, and by Cardinal Giovanni San Giorgio, bishop of Parma; in the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Raffaele Sansone Riario, bishop of Albano; Cardinal Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere, bishop of Lucca; and future cardinals Antonio Ferrero, bishop of Noli; and Gabriele de' Gabrielli, archbishop of Urbino. Transferred to the see of Pavia, March 26, 1505; on that same day the pope wrote to the king of France asking him to approve the transfer; occupied the see until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 1, 1505; many cardinals opposed the promotion; published, December 12, 1505; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, December 17, 1505. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, August 11, 1506. He served as intermediary between Michelangelo Buonarroti and Pope Julius II in 1506 and signed in the name of the pope the contract for the frescos of the Sistine Chapel; and later, for the statue of the pope in Bologna. Abbot commendatario of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome. Legate in Viterbo, March 1507; received the legatine faculties, January 1508. Administrator of the see of León, 1507; took possession on March 25, 1508; occupied the post until his death. Legate in the province of Patrimonio di San Pietro, 1507. Legate in Bologna and Romagna, May 19, 1508 until 1509; the papal briefs concerning his faculties were issued on May 22 and 26, 1508, and June 1, 1508; he distinguished himself for his cruelty (3) and actively strove to destroy the political influence of the Bentivoglio (4). On September 22, 1508, the cardinal went to Viterbo to visit the pope, who gave the legation in Bologna to Cardinal Ippolito d'Este of Ferrara. The following November, the pope recalled Cardinal Alidosi from the legation. Named legate in Romagna and Marche at the beginning of 1509; he took possession of Ravena on May 29, 1509 and left his brother Obizzo as governor. Sent as envoy before the king of France, he arrived together with Cardinal François Guillaume de Castelnau-Clermont-Ludève at Mantua on June 19, 1509. Nominated bishop of Cremona by the king of France, without papal approval, 1509. On January 4,1510 the cardinal was recalled to Rome in order to answer to Pope Julius II about the complaints of the Bolognese. But more probably, the pope recalled him in order to make use of his experience and laboriosity to negotiate peace with Venice, reached on February 24, 1510; and in order to consult with him on the new attitude that, after the peace with Venice, the pope was forced to take towards King Louis XII of France, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and the duke of Ferrara for the independence of the Church and the freedom of Italy from the foreigners.

In April 1510, to the amazement and dismay of many Bolognese notables, the pope returned the legation of that city to Cardinal Alidosi. While the fight against Venice was taking place and the discontent of the Bolognese was increasing due to his extortions and rigors, the Bolognese suspected that the legate was dealing with the French; on October 7, 1510, when the cardinal went to the papal field near Modena, the duke of Urbino had him captured, handcuffed and led back to Bologna escorted by 150 horsemen; outside the door of S. Felice, twelve balestrieri removed the handcuffs and led him to the piazza as a culprit of high treason because of his intelligence with the French; instead of punishing the legate, as the duke of Urbino and the citizens of Bologna hoped and expected, the pope allowed hin to justify himself (5) and named him apostolic administrator of the see of Bologna on October 18, 1510; occupied the post until his death. On October 28, 1510, Cardinal Alidosi was taken prisoner again by the duke of Urbino for having found letters of intelligence which he secretly had traded with the king of France and with the duke of Ferrara, protector of the Bentivoglio; the trust and necessity that the pope had of his legate made him soon to be freed and given back all his honors. On May 14, 1511, while the war against Ferrara was still going on, the pope, for greater security, moved his own residence from Bologna to Ravenna, lodging in the monastery of S. Vitale of the Benedictines Cassinesi. Immediately, the supporters of the Bentivoglio and all those who opposed the power of the church, revolted with great impetus; at 10 p.m. on May 20, Cardinal Alidosi, in disguise, escaped to Castel del Rio, taking all the precious objects and valuables that he could carry. The duke of Urbino, who was at the doors of the city, hurriedly abandoned the field, all the artillery, and nearly all the provisions and numerous flags into the hands of the enemy. On May 23, 1511, Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, at the head of a French army, entered Bologna with the Bentivoglio, who restored their own signoria. The pope notified the cardinals of the serious loss, and charged the citizens and the duke of Urbino of treason, saying that he wanted to execute the latter. Instead, Duke Francesco Maria charged the cardinal with treason. From Castel del Rio, the cardinal went to Ravenna, and there he saw the pope to explain what had happened; he was accompanied by his brother-in-law, Guido Vaini, and 100 horsemen of the legatine guard. Pope Julius II was convinced that the traitor had been his grandson. On May 24, 1511, the duke of Urbino went to an audience with the pope, who reproached him very sourly; the duke exited from the audience with eight of his faithfuls and went towards the residence of Cardinal Marco Vigero, near S. Vitale, where Cardinal Alidosi was lodged. In via S. Vitale, the two rivals met again; it was already evening. Cardinal Alidosi was accompanied by his guard and was going to have supper with the pope, who had invited him. The escort was headed by Vaini; the cardinal, either for courtesy or prank, made a graceful salute to the duke; Francesco Maria, a youngster, burned with anger, dismounted his horse and advanced towards the cardinal; took with the left hand the bridles of the mule that the cardinal was riding and stabbed him on the side while screaming: Traditore, sei qui finalmente, ricevi quell che ti meriti (Traitor, you finally receive what you deserve). The action was so unexpected that Guido Vaini, surprised, did not succeed in helping his brother-in-law, who fell off the saddle. Once on the ground, Captain Mondolfo, with the dagger, cut the cardinal's cheek and one of his ears, while Filippo Doria gave him the mortal blow in his head. Then, the murderers left undisturbed. Antonio Cavalli, gentiluomo Ravennatese, had the wounded cardinal carried home; the cardinal, with the crucifix in hand, exclaimed several times: propter peccata mea, propter peccata veniunt adversa (for my sins, for my sins adversity came). After approximately an hour of agony Cardinal Francesco Alidosi died at 10 p.m. on May 24, 1511. He was a protector of Desiderius Erasmus and patron of the arts.

Death. May 24, 1511, at 10 p.m., Ravenna. The remains of the cardinal were honored by Pope Julius II with solemn exequies in the cathedral of Ravenna, where they were interred at the feet of the ambon. When in 1745 the old cathedral was demolished in order to reconstruct it, Dr. Gaspare Desiderio Martinetti, a physician, prevented that the cardinal's skull got mixed with the bones of the other bodies and gave it to the Benedictines of S. Vitale, from whom it passed to the Classense Library and exposed to the public. Later on, the legate, Cardinal Agostino Rivarola, had it removed and and interred. In 1863 in via S. Vitale 2 in Ravenna, in the place where the fact happened, a commemorative plaque was placed (6). From a recognition made on June 20, 1968, the traces of cleaving that he received on the head could still be noticed. In the cathedral of Imola, there is a cenotaph surmounted by the effigy of the cardinal in a bass relief, and under it, a marble plaque that remembers him and others of his family.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 219; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 316-319; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1377; "François Alidosi" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, pp. 82-83; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 10-11, 61, 67, 136, 221, 244 and 269; Gozzadini, Giovanni. Di alcuni avvenimenti in Bologna e nell'Emilia dal 1506 al 1511 e dei Cardinali Legati A. Ferrerio e F. Alidosi. Bologna : Tipi Fava e Garagnani, 1886; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 21; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 348-356; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, I, 263.

Links. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 2 (1960), Treccani; brief biographical entry, in Italian, Sapere.it; biographical entry, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana, 13th entry on page; his portrait by Raffaelo Sanzio, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain (the identification of the painting is not certain), Web Gallery of Art; his effigy on a bronze medal, Museo Lázaro Galdiano, Madrid, Spain; and his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait and arms (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to "François Alidosi" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, p. 82; Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 349, says that he was born between 1450 and 1460.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 316-317.
(3) After taking possession of the legation, on June 27, 1508, he made Alberto Castelli, Innocenzo Ringhieri, Salustio Guidotti and Bartolomeo Magnani to be strangled, accused of lesa maest` for having supported a conspiracy to favor the Bentivoglio; and for having worked with the Venetians against the pope. More than thirty other persons, supporters of the Bentivoglio, were also executed. These actions unleashed a great indignation among the Bolognese. According to the page on his family, linked above, he was avaricious, bloodthirsty and corrupt and choked his political or personal adversaries. Humanist and cardinal Pietro Bembo described him with these strong words: "Faith meant nothing to him, nor religion, nor trustworthiness, nor shame, and there was nothing in him that was holy."
(4) The pope excommunicated the assassin, Francesco Maria, his grandson; deprived him of his estate and ducal dignity; and subjected him to trial by four cardinals. The accused was defended by Filippo Beroaldo, whot was a lector in the studio of Bologna and then in Rome. The process, that was carried out in September, acquitted Francisco Maria for serious political reasons, more than for the arguments adduced by the defense.
(5) According to Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 352, the pope did not punish the legate because this would have increased the number of the schismatic cardinals; and, perhaps, because the pope did not find justified the accusations of high treason made against his favorite.
(6) This is the text of the inscription on the plaque:

QUI
FERITO A MORTE
DA
FRANCESCO MARIA DELLA ROVERE
DUCA D'URBINO
CADDE
FRANCESCO ALIDOSIO
CARDINALE
IL XXIV MAGGIO DEL MDXI
FREMENTE DI SDEGNO
GIULIO II P.M.

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(10) 6. GABRIELLI, Gabriele de' (1445-1511)

Birth. 1445, Fano. Of a noble family. He was called the Cardinal of Urbino.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Named protonotary apostolic in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VI. Agent of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, future Pope Julius II, when he was in France as a voluntary exile during the dispute between Pope Alexander VI and the Della Rovere family; his familiar when Cardinal Giuliano was elected pope.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Urbino, March 27, 1504; enthroned in 1505; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated, April 9, 1504, at the Vatican, Rome, by Pope Julius II, assisted by Cardinal Antonio Pallavicini, bishop of Orsense, and by Cardinal Giovanni San Giorgio, bishop of Parma; in the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Raffaele Sansone Riario, bishop of Albano; Cardinal Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere, bishop of Lucca; and future cardinals Francesco Alidosi, bishop of Mileto; and Antonio Ferrero, bishop of Noli. Papal secretary. Abbot commendatario of S. Salvatore, Perugia; and of S. Leonardo, Fermo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 1, 1505; published, December 12, 1505; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, December 17, 1505. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Prassede, September 11, 1507; retained in commendam his deaconry until his death. Legate in Perugia; had to resign shortly after because of poor health; returned to Rome. Legate to the conference between King Louis XII of France and King Fernando I of Aragón, celebrated in Savona. At his request and that of Guidubaldo, duke of Urbino, Pope Julius II established a tribunal of the Rota in that city.

Death. November 5, 1511 (1), in the Apostolic Palace, Rome (2). Buried in his titular church of S. Prassede, Rome. His brief epitaph was placed by Lodovico Galeotto and his nephews and heirs, Pietro and Andrea de' Gabrielli.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 945-946; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 321-322; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1378; "Gabriel Gabrielli" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 83; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 11, 68, 72 and 233.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 11; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1378, says that he died on November 6, 1511.
(2) This is according to all the sources consulted except Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 11, that says he died extra Curia Romana.

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(11) 7. SANTORI, Fazio Giovanni (1447-1510)

Birth. 1447, Viterbo. Of honesti, ma miserabili genitori (1). His last name is also listed as Sanctori, Sanctorius and Santorio. He was called the Cardinal of Cesena.

Education. University of Perugia, Perugia.

Early life. Cleric of Viterbo. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Saint Lambert, Liège, in 1485. Pedagogus of Giuliano della Rovere, future cardinal and Pope Julius II, who made him his familiar immediately after his promotion to the cardinalate. Datary of His Holiness, November 1503 to December 1505. Dean of the clerics of the Apostolic Chamber, 1503.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cesena, July 22, 1504; occupied the post until his death (2). Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 1, 1505; published, December 12, 1505; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, December 17, 1505. Administrator of the see of Pamplona, September 17, 1507; occupied the post until his death.

Death. March 22, 1510, Rome. Buried in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome; later, transferred to the chapel of the choir of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome; finally, during the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII, his remains were transferred to the chapel of SS. Sacramento in the same basilica; a plaque on the floor, donated by Forcella, has the date August 25, 1635 (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1500; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 319-321; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1378; "Jean Fatius Santori" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 83; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 11, 69, 144 and 267; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p.166.

Link. His tomb, patriarchal Vatican basilica, together with Cardinal Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 319, of honest but miserable parents.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 144; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 682, says that he resigned the government of the diocese in favor of his nephew Christoforo de Spiritibus on February 15, 1510; Eubel adds that De Spiritibus was elected on April 8, 1510.
(3) This is the text of his brief epitaph, taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1378: DEPOSITVM. FATTII. SANCTORII. CARDINALIS. S. SABINÆ. In the same tomb is buried Cardinal Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere; the epitaph on the plaque placed in 1926, says DEPOSITVM. FATTII. SANCTORII. CARDINALIS. S. SABINÆ. ET EPSIC. CÆSENATESE. LIPSANA. HVC. TRANSLATA. E. SACELLO. S. S. SACRAMENT. IDIBVS. DECEMBRIS. MCMXXVI.

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(12) 8. DEL CARRETTO, Carlo Domenico (1454-1514)

Birth. 1454, Finale, Genoa. Son of Giovanni I Lazzarino, marquis of Finale and Noli (1), and Viscontina Adorno daughter of Barnaba Adorno, doge of Genoa. He was called the Cardinal of Finale.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Captain of the papal troops from 1485. Clerk of the Roman Curia. Protonotary apostolic. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Pietro di Villanova, diocese of Verona. Promoted to the episcopate at the request of King Louis XII of France.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Cosenza, April 24, 1489. Consecrated (no information found). Administrator of the see of Angers, October 10, 1491; resigned the post, May 15, 1499. Transferred to the titular see of Tebe, August 16, 1499. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Sainte-Croix de Bourdeaux, 1500. Nuncio in France, 1503; arrived in Lyon, January 12, 1504; returned to Rome, April 1504; went back to France, with more precise faculties, May 16, 1504; attended the signing of the Treaty of Blois in the French court, September 22, 1504; went to Haguenau in 1504; returned to Rome in 1505.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 1, 1505; published, December 12, 1505; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, December 17, 1505. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Nicola inter Imagines, January 4, 1507. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Reims, September 16, 1507. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Tours, April 5, 1509; occupied the see until July 3, 1514. Legate in France; he received many favors from Kings Louis XII and François I; when he saw his name in the document convoking the schismatic Council of Pisa, he vehemently protested because he supported Pope Julius II. Participated in the V Lateran Council; he was a member of the commission to establish the union among the Christian princes; he worked with great zeal and prudence. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Confirmed as prior commendatario of Dommarie, Toul, May 30, 1513. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, between May 30 and October 5, 1513. Named bishop of Cahors, July 3, 1514; resigned the government of the see in favor of his brother Louis del Carretto, August 12, 1514.

Death. August 15, 1514 (2), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Cecilia, Rome. Pope Leo X announced by letter the death of the cardinal to his brother, Fabrizio del Carretto, grand master of the knights of Rhodes.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 635; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 314-316; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1376; "Charles-Dominique de Carretto" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, pp. 83-84; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 87, 142 and 249; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 11, 61, 68, 76, 160, 284 and 321; Storia di Finale. Saggi di Attilio Bislenghi ... [et al.] ; introduzione di Leonardo Botta. 2d ed. Savona : Daner, 1998. (Piccole patrie ; 2). Note: Originally published: Comune di Finale Ligure, 1997.

Link. His portrait, Cahors, France, painted at a later day.

(1) This is according to Storia di Finale, p. 127-128; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 635; and "Charles-Dominique de Carretto" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, p. 83 say that he was the son of Galeotto del Carretto, marquis of Finale.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 11; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1376, says that he died on 19 Kalend. Septemb., which was August 14; Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addtition to Chacón, II, col. 1376, says that he died on 10 Kal. Septemb., which was August 23.

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(13) 9. GONZAGA, Sigismondo (1469-1525)

Birth. 1469, Mantua. Third of the six children of Federico I "il Gobbo" Gonzaga, third marquis of Mantova, and Margherita, duchess of Bavaria and Monaco. Venetian patrician. Uncle of Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga (1527). Grand-uncle of Cardinals Francesco Gonzaga (1561) and Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.S.Io.Hier. (1578). Other cardinals of the family are: Francesco Gonzaga (1461); Pirro Gonzaga (1527); Scipione Gonzaga (1587); Ferdinando Gonzaga (1607); and Vincenzo Gonzaga (1615).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure in 1479. He distinguished himself first in the military career and later in the ecclesiastical one. Commander of the troops of his brother, Francesco Gonzaga, duke of Mantua, sent to assist Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Primicerio commendatario of S. Andrea, Mantova, resigned in his favor by his uncle Francesco Gonzaga. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 1, 1505; published, December 12, 1505; received the red hat, December 17, 1505; and the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, December 16, 1506. Protector of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Carmelites).

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Mantua, February 10, 1511; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Ercole Gonzaga, May 10, 1521. He gained the esteem of the schismatic cardinals who unsuccessfully tried to make him take their side; he supported the the rights of Pope Julius II against the attacks of the schismatic Council of Pisa. Legate to the army of the League, 1512. Legate in Bologna, 1512; he replaced Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, who had been named on October 1, 1511 and was made prisoner by the French in the battle of Ravenna in 1512; Cardinal Gonzaga entered the city as legate on June 13, 1512; when Cardinal de' Medici was freed in that same year, he occupied his post as legate in Bologna and Cardinal Gonzaga retired to Mantua. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Invested of Salarolo by the pope in 1514. Legate in Marca d'Ancona, 1521. Named by Pope Leo X legate a latere in Mantua. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Administrator of the see of Aversa, at the beginning of 1524; resigned the post, July 1, 1524. He was a good friend of the Franciscans.

Death. October 3, 1525 (1), Mantua. Buried on October 13, 1525 in the cathedral of S. Pietro, Mantua (2). Pope Clement VII sent his condolences on October 13, 1525. His remains were transferred to the new cathedral of Mantua by Bishop Francesco Gonzaga.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1021; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 322-323; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1378-1379; "Sigismond Gonzaga" in "Essai de liste générale des Cardinaux. VIII. Les Cardinaux du XVIe siècle." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 84; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 11, 74, 126 and 234.

Links. His portrait in Leo the Great confronts Attila by Raffaelo Sanzio, Stanza di Eliodoro, Vatican; the cardinal is the second from the left, wearing the red hat; same fresco and explanation, in Italian; fresco depicting the encounter between the duke of Mantua and his son Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga, dated 1470-1474, by Andrea Mantegna, Camera degli Sposi, Palazzo Ducale, Mantova; painting of Cardinal Sigismondo Gonzaga as a child with his father in that same fresco; enlarged image of the cardinal's face; explanation of the Camera degli Sposi, in Italian.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, 11 and 74; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1378, says that he died on October 9, 1525; Andrea Vittorelli, in his addition to Chacón, II, col. 1379, says that he died on October 4, 1525.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1378: SIGISMVNO. GOZAGA. CARDINALI. QVI. CVM. GENERIS . SPLENDORE. BONTATEM. ADEQVAVIT.

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