The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Julius II (1503-1513)
Consistory of March 10, 1511 (VI)
Celebrated in Ravenna

(19) 1. BAINBRIDGE, Christopher (Ca. 1464-1514)

Birth. Ca.1464 (1), Hilton, near Appleby, in Westmorland, England. Nephew of Archbishop-elect Thomas Langton of Canterbury. His last name is also listed as Brambridge, Bambrigo and Bainbridge (2).

Education. University of Ferrara, Ferrara, 1487-1488; University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in civil law, 1492); Queen's College, University of Oxford, Oxford (he had obtained a doctorate in law by 1495).

Early life. Provost of Queen's College. Prebendary of Salisbury; of Lincoln; and of St. Paul's in 1497. Treasurer of the diocese of London. Archdeacon of Surrey, 1500-1502. Dean of the cathedral chapter of York, 1503. Dean of the chapter of Windsor, 1505. Master of the Rolls, 1504-1508.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Durham, August 27, 1507. Consecrated, December 12, 1507 (no further information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of York and named primate of England, September 22, 1508 (3); occupied the see until his death. Ambassador of King Henry VIII of England to Rome in September 1509; one of his charges was to negotiate about the king's position in the dispute between France and the Holy See (4); King Henry had joined the Holy League as an ally of Pope Julius II, who together with Venice and the Swiss wanted to expel the French from Italy; the English king petitioned the pope, through Archbishop Bainbridge, for the title of "Most Christian King", which had been given to the kings of France but which King Louis XII had now forfeited by warring against the pope; the peace signed by the new Pope Leo X with France in 1514 restored that title to King Louis and frustrated King Henry's ambition.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1511; received the red hat, March 13, 1511; and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, March 17, 1511. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, December 22, 1511. The pope named him legate to the papal and Venetian troops besieging the French garrison in Ferrara; the cardinal conducted the operation successfully (5). He was back in Rome in time to participate in the opening of the V Lateran Council in May 1512. Legate a latere in the Papal States. He never returned to York. He vigorously opposed France and French influence in Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X (6). When Pope Leo X pardoned the cardinals who had participated in the schismatic Council of Pisa, he resolutely opposed, in part because he had profited from the confiscation of their benefices. He is said to have had a violent temper, which kept his household in fear of him. He helped the church of St. Thomas of Canterbury in Rome, which belonged to the ancient hospice for English pilgrims and later became the Venerable English College.

Death. July 14, 1514, Rome, poisoned by a servant, Rainaldo da Modena (7), who later committed suicide while in jail. Buried in the chapel of St. Thomas of Canterbury, Venerable English College, Rome (8).

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 41-42; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 57-60; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 340-342; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1381-1382; Chambers, David Sanderson. Cardinal Bainbridge in the court of Rome, 1509 to 1514. London : Oxford University Press, 1965. (Oxford historical series. 2d series); Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 11, 65, 68, 189 and 190; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, p. 43.

Links. Biography by Henry Birt, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; archdeacons of Surrey, British History Online, University of London & History of Parliament Trust; his portrait by G. Francisi, The Queen's College, University of Oxford, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his tomb, chapel of St. Thomas of Canterbury, Venerable English College, Rome.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Bellenger, Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals, p. 57, that says he was born ca. 1562.
(2) Several authors have confused him with Christopher Urswick but they are two different persons as explained by Edward Foss, "Christopher Urswick and Christopher Bainbridge" in Notes and Queries, Vol. XII (302) August 11, 1855, p.105.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 190; Baxter, England's cardinals, p. 42; and Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 43, say that the bull of appointment was dated September 12, 1508.
(4) According to Bellenger, Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals, p. 58, The Western and Central Eurpean powers had united in the League of Cambrai in 1508 to take revenge against Venice, which had built up its territory at the expense of its neighbors during the 15th century; Venice was defeated in tha battle of Agnadello on May 14, 1509; Pope Julius II had placed the republic under an interdict, depriving its citizens of the sacraments; France had been left as the dominant power in the area; the task of Archbishop Bainbridge was to persuade the pope to lift the interdict and to join England and Venice against the French.
(5) This is according to Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 43; Bellenger, Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals, p. 59, says that the cardinal had tried to refuse the appointment but Pope Julius II insisted in sending him as legate; that the troops were demoralized by heavy rain and lack of food; that the campaign was a disaster and that the legate could not hope to emerge from it with any credit.
(6) No English cardinal had taken part in a conclave since Cardinal Simon Langham had participated in in the 1370 papal election.
(7) According to Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 43, he was a bursar of the cardinal's household who was, by one report, insane or, by another account, taking revenge for a blow his master had given him in anger; Bellenger, Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals, p. 60, says that having been poisoned was a way to cover medical incompetence at the time; that initially, Proctor Silvestro Gigli, for whom Cardinal Bainbridge had a violent dislike, was the suspect but he had diplomatic immunity and papal favor; that Rainaldo da Modena had purchased poison in Spoleto and put it in the cardinal's soup on June 15, 1514, feast of Corpus Christi; that the cardinal was ill but recovered; and that he died on July 14, 1514 possibly of totally unrelated causes; the cardinal's secretary, Richard Pace, remained convinced that Gigli should be prosecuted arguing that he was the one who benefitted from his death because it left him as the sole representative of England in Rome.
(8) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     O     M
CHRISTOPHORO ARCHIEP: EBORACEN:
S · PRAXED: PRESB: CARDINALI ANGLIE
A · IVLIO · II · PONT: MAX: OB EGREGIAM
OPERAM · S·R·E· PRÆSTITAM. DVM. SVI.
REGIS LEGATVS ESSET ASSVMPTO ·
QVAM MOX ET DOMI ES FORIS CASTRIS
PONTIFICIIS. PRRFECT: TVTATVS EST
OBIIT · PRID · ID · IVL · A · SAL ·
M · D · XIIII

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(20) 2. CIOCCHI DEL MONTE, Antonio Maria (1461/1462-1533)

Birth. Between late September, 1461, and early September, 1462, Monte S. Savino, diocese of Arezzo. The youngest of the three sons of Fabiano Ciocchi and Jacopa, daughter of Gaspare, whose last name is not known. Fabiano abandoned his last name Ciocchi and took that of Monte San Savino, which soon was shortened to Monte. Uncle of Pope Julius III. He is also listed as Antonio Del Monte.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure (no further educational information found).

Early life. Went to Rome to join his father and eldest brother. His intellect and legal talents soon attracted the notice of the Roman Curia. He was appointed a consistorial advocate; thorough knowledge of the law accelerated his rise and he became a valued councilor and advisor to both Pope Innocent VIII and Pope Alexander VI. Pope Innocent named him archpriest of Sant'Angelo in Vado, near Urbino. In 1492, the same pope named him archpriest of Arezzo. On March 27, 1493, he was appointed auditor of the Rota. In 1495, he received the rectorship of the church of Sant'Agnese in Arezzo; and the following year, he was made provost of San Luciano, near Monte San Savino. In 1498, after some time devoted to his pastoral duties, he was recalled to Rome by the pope and placed in charge of the daily operations of the Sacred Roman Rota; due to his outstanding performance in this office, at the end of July 1502, Pope Alexander appointed Antonio to be the presiding official of the Rota for all of the territories under the control of the pope's second surviving son, Cesare Borgia; Antonio had his juridical seat in the town of Cesena; with the new office went the new rank of protonotary apostolic. Early in 1503, Antonio was elevated by Cesare Borgia to the post of governor general of Romagna.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Città di Castello, August 4, 1503; unable to take possession of the diocese because the previous incumbent, Giulio Vitelli, who had been deprived of the see by Pope Alexander VI, had never relinquished his claims to it and had maintained his claim by force; the powerful Vitelli was the leading family of the city, and Bishop Giulio had considerable local support; the new Pope Julius II confirmed Bishop Ciocchi's appointment; then, in June, 1505, threatened to place the city under a papal interdict unless it submitted at once in the matter of its bishop; the city capitulated at once; in July, the new bishop finally took possession of his diocese, in the new cathedral of San Florido; occupied the see until February 6, 1506. Consecrated, January 4, 1506, church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, by Tito Veltri di Viterbo, bishop of Castro, Acquapendente, assisted by Nicola Antonio de Piscibus, bishop of Muro Lucano, and by Francesco Filipperi, bishop of Ferentino. In January, 1504, Pope Julius II appointed him governor of Cesena. Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, July 26, 1504. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Siponto (Manfredonia), February 6, 1506; occupied the post until May 30, 1511.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1511; received the red hat, March 13, 1511; and the title of S. Vitale, March 17, 1511 (1). Administrator of the see of Pavia, May 30, 1511; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, March 13, 1521. Shortly after his creation, he was named protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary. The pope entrusted Cardinal Ciocchi del Monte the duty of dealing with the four cardinals who had openly espoused the cause of King Louis XII of France concerning the convocation of the schismatic Council of Pisa (2); he worked diligently to obtain their complete submission to the pope. Legate in Perugia, 1511; he never left Rome to take up his duties because of his work concerning the schismatic council of Pisa and the organization of the V Lateran Council. He induced Pope Julius II to celebrate the V Lateran Council; he worked hard to bring the general council to reality dealt with little else during its assemblage; the cardinal's single-minded vigilance and determination finally came to fruition on May 3, 1512, at the opening of the council; member of the commission for the reform of the Curia and its officials, June 3, 1513; in 1521, he undertook the publication of the acts of the council; the pope granted permission for the publication on May 25, 1521. In 1513, he was sent by the pope to the province of Umbria to restore control and order following the chaos occasioned by the invasion of King Louis XII. Commendatario of the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (3). Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, July 14, 1514 (4). Legate in Perugia, 1514. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1516 to 1517. Administrator of the see of Novara, April 19, 1516; occupied the post until December 20, 1525 In the spring of 1517, a plot of several cardinals to murder Pope Leo X was discovered by men loyal to the pope; Pope Leo X charged Cardinal Ciocchi del Monte to conduct the serious and complicated legal processes in the cases of Cardinals Alfonso Petrucci and Bandinello Sauli, identified as the ringleaders of the conspiracy; Cardinal Raffaele Riario was also implicated, to a lesser extent; the cardinal's masterful marshaling and manifesting of the weighty evidence against the two prelates was so meticulous and methodical that there could be no doubt left in anyone's mind of their obvious guilt (5). When the pope learned of the results of the process, he instantly deposed both men in the consistory of June 22, 1517 (6). Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, July 24, 1521. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI.

In February, 1523, Pope Adrian VI appointed him to a special pontifical commission that was charged with reducing the great expenditure of the Vatican by abolishing the great number of new curial offices which had come into existence under Pope Leo X. In the consistory of July 23, 1523, Cardinal Ciocchi del Monte opposed the creation of a defensive league with the Holy Emperor Charles V, because of the great danger such an alliance would pose to the political and military circumstances of his ally King François I of France. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Named protector of the Oratory of Divine Love (7); the new pope had held this protectorate during his cardinalate; Cardinal Antonio defended the interests of this order until 1529. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 9, 1523; occupied the see until December 18, 1523. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 18, 1523. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, May 20, 1524. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, June 15, 1524. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. After the conclusion of the League of Cognac, on May 22, 1526, in which Pope Clement VII committed himself to a formal anti-imperial policy, with France, Venice, and the Sforza, Cardinal Ciocchi del Monte became one of the leading members of the newly-established pontifical commission that was charged with preparing the Papal States for the coming war; this responsibility occupied him throughout the end of 1526 and the first months of 1527; all the preparations were, however, entirely inadequate to deal with the overwhelming combination of the large Spanish and German forces outside Rome and the enmity of the Colonna within the city; when the sack of the city began, on the morning of May 6, 1527, Cardinal Antonio was one of a small group of cardinals who had remained loyally with the pope throughout his political and personal anguish and who now sought refuge with him in Castello Sant'Angelo; the cardinal struggled to help the pope reach some accommodation with the emperor which would lead, at least to the evacuation of the city by the imperial forces; he was one of the signers of the capitulation of June 5, 1527 under the terms of which his nephew, Giovanni Maria, became one of the seven hostages taken by the imperialists as pledges of Clement's adherence to the agreement; once the person of the pope was firmly in imperial hands, with the arrival of companies of Spanish and German troops in the castle on June 7, 1527, Cardinal Ciocchi del Monte took on the additional responsibility of negotiating with the emperor's representatives to secure a further betterment of Pope Clement's circumstances.

From 1528, he was involved deeply and intimately with the question of the English royal divorce; his name had been put forward as early as January, 1528, as a possible legate to England to resolve the question of King Henry VIII's marriage. At that time, however, there was no real possibility that he would go because he was not only too old for the journey but was in ill health, as well; he involved himself closely with the second English embassy, which arrived in Rome to present the king's cause on January 28, 1529; this embassy failed in its attempt to convince the pope; and a third English embassy was sent; throughout these negotiations, Cardinal Ciocchi del Monte was a leading figure, actively supporting King Henry's cause; in 1533, the cardinal worked so actively on the king's behalf that he was considered seriously for the office of Cardinal Protector of England, as a replacement for Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggi; it was too late for that appointment because on January 25, 1533, King Henry had been married to Anne Boleyn by his new archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer; a few months later, Pope Clement VII made a final decision against the divorce, and secretly excommunicated Henry. Administrator of the see of Rimini, April 7, 1529; occupied the post until May 24, 1529. Administrator of the see of Cajazzo, May 24 to June 18, 1529. Legate in Rome during the absence of the pope, October 1, 1529. Administrator of the see of Alatri, February 4, 1530; occupied the post until July 1, 1530. While the English negotiations were going on, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sent a letter to the pope urging the immediate necessity of convoking a general council to deal with the tumultuous religious situation in Germany; the pope received the letter on November 16, 1530; the emperor's demand was stated in such absolute terms that Pope Clement had to prepare an immediate response; a commission of cardinals debated the question twice and it was the subject of the consistory on November 28, 1530; at that meeting, Cardinal Innocenzo Cibo read another letter from Emperor Charles addressed to the College of Cardinals; Cardinal Ciocchi del Monte was absent from Rome when these events took place, but he hastened back when he learned of the debate; his commitment to reform was strong and he pressed vigorously for the convocation of a council; he advocated an immediate action to accomplish this, in cooperation with Cardinals Egidio Canesio da Viterbo and Alessandro Farnese, seniore; the emperor's agent in the College, Cardinal García de Loyasa, who was present in the consistory, wrote to his master on November 30, 1530, that Cardinal Ciocchi del Monte was one of the strongest supporters of the emperor's wishes. Appointed legate, with absolute jurisdiction, in Rome, while Pope Clement VII went to Marseille to celebrate the marriage between Henri, duke of Orleans, second son of King François I of France, and Catalina de' Medici, between September 6 and 9, 1533; he asked that his nephew, Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, be associated with him in the daily discharge of his new office, and the pope granted this request.

Death. September 20, 1533, Rome. Buried, according to his will, in the church of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome (8). As soon as Cardinal Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte became Pope Julius III, he directed that a family chapel be constructed for the family in S. Pietro in Montorio; and because he was, by then, no longer young himself, he ordered that the work be undertaken immediately and progress towards completion as quickly as possible. The contract for the construction was given to Giorgio Vasari on June 2, 1550, but the terms seem to have been agreed upon as early as March, a few weeks after the pope's coronation. The basic construction was finished within a remarkable schedule of only two months, from October 13 to December 8, 1550. On December 19, or a few days after, the remains of the cardinal were reinterred in the new chapel, near the new grave of his brother, Vincenzo, the father of the pope. The recumbent effigy was sculpted by Bartolomeo Ammannati.

Bibliography. Burkle-Young, Francis A. and Michael Leopoldo Doerrer. The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte : a scandal in scarlet ; together with materials for a history of the House of Ciocchi del Monte San Savino. Lewiston, NY : E. Mellen Press, 1997. (Renaissance studies, v. 2), pp. 11-50; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 342-346; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1382-1383; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 12, 55, 57, 58, 69, 71, 84, 99, 118, 145, 168, 260, 269 and 300.

Links. Biography by Pietro Messina, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 38 (1990), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biographical data, in Italian, Magazzeno Storico Verbanese; portrait, in his youth, by Sebastiano Piombo, Museum of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, S. Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri alle Terme di Roma; his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb, church of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) According to Burkle-Young, The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, p. 18-19, "Because he was the oldest man, and the ranking prelate, of those named to the College on that date, his name should have stood first on the list. However, Julius decided to pay honor to Henry VIII by naming the king's nominee, Christopher Bainbridge, first. There is no evidence that del Monte felt any animosity at all about this very slight matter, and indeed he formed a close friendship with Bainbridge which lasted until the English cardinal's death. Indeed, it was so close that he, much later, in 1529, expressed the wish to be buried beside the English cardinal in the church of Saint Thomas of Canterbury, adjacent to the English College. It is from this time that we can date Antonio's great interest in English affairs and his closeness to Henry VIII, which Bainbridge clearly fostered through his friendship. Bainbridge often wrote to his king commending del Monte. The English cardinal describes Antonio, who in Bainbridge's letters is called "Sanctt Vitall", as one of four close allies and defenders of both England and her king.
(2) In 1511, the French king had successfully engineered the convocation of a general council at Pisa, in blatant defiance of Pope Julius II. The pope immediately reasserted his authority and swiftly and severely disciplined the dissidents. Cardinals Francisco de Borja, Bernardino López de Carvajal, Guillaume Briçonnet, and René de Prie, who had subscribed the document of convocation, were deposed from the cardinalate, and then excommunicated in a consistory on October 24, 1511; a fifth cardinal, Federico de Sanseverino, was deposed on January 30, 1512. After the death of Pope Julius II, four of the cardinals recanted their anti-papal positions, and were restored to the College of Cardinals by the new Pope Leo X, early in his reign. The fifth cardinal, Francisco de Borja, had died on November 4, 1511.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 12, which does not give the date; according to the same source, p. 62, the title was vacant from 1507 until 1528.
(4) According to Burkle Young, The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, p. 27-28, "On July 14, 1514, the man who had become perhaps Antonio's closest friend, Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge, died in Rome. Within hours of the English cardinal's last breath, Antonio requested Leo to transfer him from his cardinalitial title of Santi Vitale, Gervasio, e Protasio to Bainbridge's title of Santa Prassede. There is no explanation that survives for this hasty request, but it surely stemmed from their friendship. Now installed in his old friend's title church, Antonio wished to conduct Bainbridge's funeral there--a funeral which was delayed until July 31, while the question of whether or not he had been poisoned was debated--but he was overruled, and the English cardinal was buried in the church of the English hospice, San Tomasso di Cantorberri."
(5) Burkle Young, The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, p. 30.
(6) On July 31, 1517, Sauli was restored to his dignities and income, but he had been severely affected by the experience. He died just a few months later, on March 29, 1518. Petrucci, whose guilt was greater and whose influence at court was less, was condemned to death and strangled in his cell, early in July.
(7) According to Burkle-Young, The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, p.39, note 143, "The Oratorio del Divino Amore was founded in Rome by Caetano da Chieti soon after the death of Julius II in 1513 as an association of pious priests and prelates. It was one of the earliest spiritual manifestations of the Catholic reform. It became a testing ground for the later foundation of the Theatines, in 1523, with Giovanni Pietro Carafa, later Paul IV."
(8) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1382:

·     D     ·     O     ·      M     ·
ANTONIO Fabiani filio de' Monte S. R. E.
episcopo Cardinali Portuensi,
qui ob Cæsarei & Pontificii Iuris scientiam Vrbanis
sere omnibus I. D. Magistratibus sub Inocentio Octavo. Alexandro
Sexto, & Iulio Secundo Pontificibus Maximis sanctissime gestis ab eodem
Iulio peromnes dignitatum gradus in Cardinalium
ordinem ascitus est; multisq; inde Republicæ muneribus domi
forisque præfectus, ac in Vmbria semel Leonis X. & Clementis VII.
in urbe iterum Legatus, eam semper præse
integritatem, prudentiam, pietatem tulit, ut Romana et Catholica Ecclesia
non iam fratrem, ac membrum nobilissimum
sed caput ipsum, & patrem eius morte amisisse
visa sit.
Vixit ann. LXXII. e vita excessis ann. Christi MDXXXIII.
Iulius III. Pont. Max.
Patruo charissimo ac de se, & Balduino fratre suo optime merenti, fecit.

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(21) 3. ACCOLTI, Pietro (1455-1532)

Birth. March 15, 1455, Florence (1). Fourth of the eight children of Benedetto, il Vecchio, Accolti, patrician of Arezzo and citizen of Florence, and Laura Federighi, from Florence. The other siblings were Michele, Rosello, Benedetto, Bernardo, Elisabetta, Caterina and Lucrezia. Uncle of Cardinal Benedetto Accolti (1527). He was called the Cardinal of Ancona. He is also listed as Petrus de Accoltis de Aretio.

Education. Initial studies in bonas artes; later studied law at the University of Pisa, Pisa.

Early life. Professor of law at the University of Pisa and at the University of Bologna. Went to Rome and worked in the Roman Curia. Abbreviatore di Parco Maggiore, 1485. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1494. Treasurer of the cathedral chapter of Cambrai, 1502 to 1521. Secretary apostolic, 1503. Scriptor of apostolic letters until 1511.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ancona et Umana, April 4, 1505; resigned the government of the see, April 5, 1514. Consecrated (no information found). Vicar general of Rome, 1510. Nuncio in Florence, 1511.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1511; received the red hat, March 13, 1511; and the title of S. Eusebio, March 17, 1511. Administrator of the see of Maillezais, 1511; resigned the post, March 10, 1518. Administrator of the see of Cádiz, June 6, 1511; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Benedetto Accolti, July 24, 1521. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Provost in commendam of S. Marco de Clavasio of the Order of the Humiliati, diocese of Ivrea, November 12, 1513 to February 25, 1514. Prior in commendam of the Benedictine monastery of Rovan, diocese of Quimper, January 13, 1514. Legate a latere to the papal army against the French. Provost in commendam of S. Abondio di Cremona of the Order of the Humiliati, September 4, 1515. Administrator of the see of Arras, March 10, 1518; resigned the post, September 8, 1523. He was the author of the papal bull Exsurge, Domine, published on June 15, 1520, repudiating the 41 propositions of Martin Luther declared heretical. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, December 8, 1523; retained in commendam the title of S. Eusebio until May 5, 1527. Opted for suburbicarian see of Palestrina, May 20, 1524. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Ravenna, June 15 to August, 1524; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Benedetto Accolti. Opted for suburbicarian see of Sabina, June 15, 1524. Administrator of the see of Cremona, August 18, 1524; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Bernardo Accolti, 1528 (2).

Death. December 12, 1532, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo (3), without a monument erected in his memory.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 350-352; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1384; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 12, 55, 63, 57, 58, 107, 122, 200, 234; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, III, 60-61; Sanclemente, Enrico. Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm svb avspiciis prætantissimi antistitis Homoboni Offredi ex authenticis monvmentis avcta et emendata svaqve integritati maxima ex parte restitvta. Cremonæ : apvd Josephvm Feraboli, MDCCCXI, p. 153.

Links. Biographical entry, in English, Christian Classics Ethereal Library; biography by Boris Ulianich, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 1 (1960), Treccani; biography, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana, seventh entry on page; biographical entry, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and his genealogy, A1 B4, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea.

(1) This is according to all the electronic sources linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 350; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1384, say that he was born in Arezzo; Ferdinando Ughelli, in his addition to Chacón, II, col. 1384, says that he was born in Florence on March 15, 1455.
(2) This is according to Pius Bonfatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 790; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 181, does not list him among the administrators of that see.
(3) This is according to Cardella, Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 352; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1384; and his biography in Italian, linked above; Ferdinando Ughelli, in his addition to Chacón, II, col. 1384; and Sanclemente, Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm, p. 153, say that he was buried in the church of S. Eusebio.

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(22) 4. GRASSI, Achille (1465-1523)

Birth. February 16, 1465 (1), Bologna. Of a senatorial family originally from Poland. Son of Baldassarre Grassi, Bolognese patrician, and Orsina Bocchi. Palatine count in 1478; and Bolognese patrician. His last name is also listed as De Grassis. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Carlo Grassi (1570).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the University of Bologna in 1487.

Early life. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria di Montearmato, of the Vallombrosani; resigned in 1512 in favor of his son. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria in Strada, near Bologna. Archpriest of S. Giovanni Evangelista di Pastrino. Rector of S. Clemente di San Giovanni in Persiceto. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna. Went to Rome where his uncle Antonio was auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota; he was introduced to the papal court and became very well known; when his uncle died in 1491, Pope Innocent VIII named him auditor. Chaplain and familial of Pope Julius II in 1503. In that same year, the pope gave him the parish of S. Clemente near Castello di S. Giovanni in Persiceto. In 1504, he received the commendam of S. Maria di Monte Armato and a pension from the priorate of S. Bartolomeo. Referendary of His Holiness. He had four illegitimate children (2).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Città di Castello, February 14, 1506. Consecrated, February 13, 1506 (the day before his nomination), in Rome, by Pope Julius II; he resigned the see in favor of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, future Pope Clement VII, 1516. Papal commissary for the canonical causes of the legation of Spoleto, 1506. The following year, 1507, together with Cardinal Antonio Pallavicino, he was sent as nuncio before King Louis XII of France, who was in Genoa, to induce him to make the peace with Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Sent to France in 1508, after the attempt of Bentivoglio to poison the pope and his nephews was discovered, to ask the king of France to withdraw the protection of the former; Bishop Grassi concluded his mission successfully. Nuncio to Switzerland in 1509, specifically to Berne, to negotiate the drafting of 3000 foot soldiers that the pope intended to hire for the League of Cambrai. In 1510, he was sent before King Ulászló II of Hungary and Bohemia, Zygmunt I, king of Poland, and Emperor Maximilian I to request that they unite their forces against the Turks and for other grave affairs concerning Poland.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1511; received the red hat, March 13, 1511; and the title of S. Sisto, March 17, 1511. Transferred to the see of Bologna, Friday May 30, 1511; took possession, July 25, 1511; resigned the government of the see in favor of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, January 8, 1518; named administrator of the same see, March 3, 1518; occupied the post until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Legate extraordinary in England, November 1514. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, July 6, 1517. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1517 to January 8, 1518. Named bishop of Pomaria, in partibus infidelium, retaining the administration of the see of Bologna, August 9, 1521; occupied the titular see until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII; died three days after the election of the new pope.

Death. November 22, 1523, Rome. Buried in the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 352-355; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1384-1385; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 12, 66, 70, 84, 136, 168 and 277; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 258-364; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 483.

Links. Biography by Stefano Tabacchi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 58 (2002), Treccani; his portrait and arms (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; The De Grassis Family, in Italian, Sapere.it.

(1) This is according to his biography in Italian linked above. Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 359; and the site about his family, linked above, say that he was born in 1463. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 354, says that he died in 1523 at 60 years of age. His epitaph, below in note 3, also says that he died at 60 years of age. If he died on November 23, 1523 at 60, he must have been born between November 23, 1463 and November 22, 1464.
(2) They were Orsina, who married Senator Antonio della Volta, count of Vico; Senator Girolamo, who married Mattea Rasponi; Corrado, O.S.B., abbot of S. Spirito di Ravenna and other abbeys; and Baldassare, doctor in utroque iure, bishop of Città di Castello, governor of Faenza, and abbot commendatario of S. Spirito di Ravenna.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1384: ACHILLI. DE. GRASSIS. EPISCOPO. BONONIENSI. HVIVS. BASILICÆ. CARDINALI. MORVM. GRAVITATE. ET. LEGVM. PERITIA. NVLLI. SECVNDO. IN QVO. NVLLVM. IVSTITIÆ. MODESTIÆ. AC. LIBERALITATIS. GENVS. VNQVAM. DESIDERATVM. EST. VISIT. ANNOS. LX. CLEMENTI. VII. ET. VNIVERSÆ. CVRIÆ. MAXIMO. DE. SE. DESIDERIO. RELICTO.

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(23) 5. ARGENTINO, Francesco (ca. 1450-1511)

Birth. Ca. 1450, Venice. His father was a poor and humble man from Strasbourg (Argentinensis in Latin), who adopted the name of his city as his last name; he married a Venetian woman.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law at the University of Padua, where Doge Giovanni Mocenigo of Venice had sent him recognizing his extraordinary talent.

Early life. Returned to Venice after obtaining his degree and practicing law. At that time, Cardinal Giovanni de Medici was exiled in that city; Argentino was able to obtain the cardinal's benevolence and obtained a canonicate in the cathedral chapter of S. Marco, Venice; or in that of Padua. Pastor of Salzano, 1494. He went to Rome and became a familial of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, future Pope Julius II.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Concordia, August 24, 1506; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Datary of Pope Julius II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1511; received the red hat, March 13, 1511; and the title of S. Clemente (1), March 17, 1511. He authored several works, among them a treatise on the ecclesiastical immunity which was never printed.

Death. August 23, 1511, Rome. Transferred to Concordia and buried in its cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 355-356; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1385; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 12, 62 and 174; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, III, 19-20.

Link. Biography, in Italian, third entry on page; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait (1700-1710), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1385, that says he occupied the title of S. Vitale first and then opted for that of S. Clemente; at that time, the title of S. Vitale was occupied by Cardinal Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, who was the titular from 1511 until 1514 as mentioned in his biographical entry above, (20) 2.

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(24) 6. SCHINER, Matthäus (ca. 1465-1522)

Birth. Ca. 1465, Muhlbach in the Canton of Valais, Swtizerland. Son of Peter Schiner, a farmer and carpenter, and Anna Weischen (1). He was called the Cardinal of Sion. His first name is also listed as Matthæus; and as Mathias; and his last name as Schinner; and as Scheiner.

Education. He attended the cathedral school in Sitten; and later, from 1485-89 studied with the Italian humanist Teodoro Lucinus in Como.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 21, 1489 in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima in Rome. He became an altarist in Ernen. In 1492, he was named secretary of his sponsor (and later embittered opponent) Georg Auf der Flüe (Supersaxo), as well as a notary. From 1493 to 1495 he was chaplain of Obergesteln. In 1496 he became a pastor in Ernen and titular canon of the cathedral chapter of Sitten. The pope named him dean of Valeria in 1497. He had three natural children.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sitten (Sion), September 20, 1499; he was named without the consent of the cathedral chapter; he succeeded his uncle Nikolaus Schiner, who resigned the see in his favor; took possession in 1500; occupied the post until his death. Consecrated October 15, 1499 (2), in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome. From 1510 a violent rivalry between the bishop and George Supersaxo divided le Valais. In 1510, he concluded a five-year alliance between the pope and the twelve Swiss federal cantons as well as the control of the churches of St. Gallen, Appenzell and Wallis. In 1510 and 1512, he recruited Swiss mercenaries for Pope Julius II to drive the French out of Milan.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1511; received the red hat, March 13, 1511; and the title of S. Pudenziana, September 22, 1511. Named papal legate to Italy and Germany after March 1511; he was named commander of a Swiss and Venetian army; established Massimiliano Sforza as duke of Milan. Provost of Würzburg, 1511-1513. Administrator of the see of Novara, February 6, 1512; resigned the post in 1516. After the death of Pope Julius II, the French took Milan again; Cardinal Schiner led the Swiss forces to victories against France in Pavia; and in Novara in 1513; the Sforza dynasty was re-instated in Milan; the cardinal was rewarded by the duke of Milan with the margraviate of Vigevano. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Participated in the V Lateran Council and was a member of its reform commission; the detailed reform decree was accepted with 130 to 10 votes but it remained ineffective and only on paper; he was ardently dedicated to the reform of the Church. When Milan was conquered by Louis XII, king of France, the cardinal stood, for political and personal reasons, on the side of the duke of Milan; and worked strenuously to prevent his comrades from taking the oath of war service for France and supporting instead taking it for Milan; and to keep France away from the Lombardy. After the defeat of his allies in the Battle of Marignano in 1515, he put together another army with the help of England in 1516, but could not reconquer Milan; that same year, he went to London seeking to organize an alliance between the pope, the emperor, England, and Spain; the reconciliation of the Swiss Confederation and the emperor with France made the alliance impossible. During the cardinal's long-absence from home, the French party under his enemy George Supersaxo organized a rebellion and drove him from Sion the night of August 30, 1517. He went to Zurich and from there he operated his anti-French policy from 1517 to 1519; he was never able to return to le Valais; after 1519, he mostly lived in the imperial court. He was one of the three governors of Italy appointed by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in 1516. When the emperor wanted to resign, he sent Cardinal Schiner to England, in order to negotiate the succession with King Henry VIII. After the death of the emperor in January 1519, he had an influential role in the choice of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor and became his advisor. Administrator of the see of Catania, November 1, 1520; never visited the diocese personally; occupied the post until his death. He attended the Diet of Worms in 1521 and was one of the most influential opponents of Martin Luther; he co-authored the Edict of Worms. Also in 1521, he led an army of Swiss Confederates in the imperial campaign against King François I of France for the possession of Milan. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Appointed him legate for the city of Rome and administrator of the States of the Church but he died shortly after. He had the trust of Maximilian, duke of Milan, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Henry VIII of England; and always opposed the king of France. He was a friend of Desiderius Erasmus. He was a diplomat and a politician but above all, a bishop, probably the best of the Sittener bishops; he visited parishes, enforced church discipline, preached personally, was interested in the training of the clergy, created new parishes and placed different churches under the episcopal jurisdiction even outside of le Valais; he built and renovated numerous churches in Bagnes, Ardon, Sitten, Salgesch, Leukerbad, Niedergesteln, Raron, Visp, Glis, Naters, Ernen, Münster; and a palace in Loèche-les-Bains. He was also a promoter of science and education. He maintained contacts and relations with several Humanists and even a close friendship with reformer Ulrich Zwingli until 1520; he supported the appointment of the latter as Leutpriester in Zurich in 1518. With his extensive legal knowledge, he issued in 1511, after consultation of several weeks, a new law of the land, which adjusted le Valais customs and general legal rules.

Death. September 30, 1522 (3), of the plague, in Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, without a monument erected in his memory.

Bibliography. Baur, Hans. Der rote kardinal Matthäus Schiner der träumer von der grossmacht Schweiz. Basel : J. Frehner, 1929; Bruce, A. K. Matthäus, cardinal Schiner; statesman, soldier and humanist. London ; [s.n.], 1952; Büchi, Albert. Kardinal Matthäus Schiner als Staatsmann und Kirchenfürst. Ein Beitrag zur allgemeinen und schweizerischen Geschichte von der Wende des XV.-XVI. Jahrhunderts. 2 vols. Zürich : Verlag Seldwyla, 1923-1937. (Collectanea friburgensia; Veröffentlichung der Universität Freiburg (Schweiz) Neue Folge ; Fasc. 18, 23 (27., 32. der ganzen Reihe); Variation : (Collectanea friburgensia ; 27); Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 346-349; Le Cardinal Mathieu Schiner. Introduction de Gonzague de Reynold. Genève : Boissonnas, 1923. Publié par les deux sociités d'histoire du Valais sous les auspices du Conseil d'état; Carlen, Louis. Kaiser Maximilian I und Kardinal Matthäus Schiner. Wien : Verlag der Österreichische Akadamie der Wissenschaft, 1980; Carlen, Louis. Das Landrecht des Kardinals Schiner; seine Stellung im Walliser Recht. Freiburg : Universitätsberlag, 1955. (Arbeiten aus dem iuristischen Seminar der Universität Freiburg Schweiz ; 14); Carlen, Louis. "Schiner, Matthäus." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 635-637; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1383-1384; Chastonay, Paul de. Kardinal Schiner : Führer in Kirche und Staat. Zürich : Schweizer Bücherfreunde, 1939, ©1938; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 234; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 12, 69, 159, 260 and 295; Kalkoff, Paul. Kardinal Schiner : ein Mitarbeiter Aleanders auf dem Wormser Reichstage. Leipzig : [s.n.], 1921. (Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte ; Nr. 71/72, Jahrg. 18); M|ller-Büchi, Emil Franz Josef.Philipp Anton von Segesser' Versuch einer Schiner-Biographie. Brig : Stockalper-Archiv, 1971. (Schriften des Stockalper-Archivs in Brig ; Heft 19); Variation : (Stockalper-Archiv in Brig. ; Schriften ; Heft 19); Schinner, Mathäus ; Geschichts forschenden Verein von Oberwallis. Kardinal Matthäus Schiner und sein Zeit : Blätter aus der Walliser Geschichte. Brig : G.V.O., 1967-1968. (Blätter aus der Walliser Geschichte ; 14. Bd., Jhrg., 1967-1968); Schinner, Mathäus ; Büchi, Albert, ed. Korrespondenz und Akten zur Geschichte des Kardinals Matth. Schiner. 2 vols. Basel : R. Geering, 1920-1925. (Quellen zur Schweizer Geschichte ; n. F., 3. Abt.: Briefe und Denkwürdigkeiten, Bd. 5-6). Contents: 1. Bd. Von 1489 bis 1515. 2. Bd. Von 1516 bis 1527.

Links. Biography by Albert Büchi, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; engravings and biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography, in Norwegian, Wikipedia; engraving and biography, in Italian, Associazione Culturale Zivido; biography, in Italian, Magazzeno Storico Verbanese; his engraving, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his statue, Restaurant St. Georg, Ernen, Switzerland, Stiftung Alfred Grünwald; detail of the same statue, picswiss.ch; his engraving, Bibliothèque publique et universitaire de Neuchâtel, Besançon, France; and his picture addressing the Swiss troops, Werlen.

(1) This is according to Carlen, "Schiner, Matthäus." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648, p. 635; his first biography in German, linked above, says that his mother was Katharina Zmitweg.
(2) This is according to Carlen, "Schiner, Matthäus." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648, p. 636; his first and second biographies in German and his first biography in French, linked above, say that he was consecrated on October 13, 1499.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, II, 234; and III, 295; the same source, III, 12; and his second biography in Italian say that he died between September 30 and October 1, 1522; the first three biographies linked above say that he died on October 1, 1522.

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(25) 7. SAULI, Bandinello (ca. 1494-1518)

Birth. Ca. 1494, Genoa. Of a noble and patrician family. Fourth of the six children of Pasquale Sauli and Mariola Giustiniani Longhi. Another cardinal of the family was Antonmaria Sauli (1587). His first name is also listed as Bendinello.

Education. He was a litterati uomine (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic participantium. Abbreviatore minutæ pariter and scriptor of apostolic letters until 1511.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Named administrator of the see of Malta on October 5, 1506; occupied the post until being named bishop of Gerace and Oppido. Elected bishop of Gerace and Oppido in 1509; resigned the government of the see on November 19, 1517. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 10, 1511 (2); received the red hat, March 13, 1511; and the deaconry of S. Adriano, March 17, 1511. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, October 24, 1511. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Administrator of the see of Albenga, August 5, 1513; resigned the post, November 19, 1517. Canon commendatario and prebendary of the archdiaconate of Saldaña, diocese of León. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, July 18, 1516. Deposed as a cardinal and incarcerated in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, on June 22, 1517, by Pope Leo X for not disclosing to him the assassination plot of Cardinal Alfonso Petrucci. The same pope restored his cardinalate on July 31, 1517; sed non ad vocem activam et passivam; these were restored on December 25, 1517.

Death. March 29, 1518, Monterotondo (3), under suspicion of having been poisoned. Transferred to Rome and buried in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 356-358; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1305-1306; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 12, 66, 69, 72, 101 and 209; Hyde, Helen. Cardinal Bendinello Sauli and Church patronage in sixteenth-century Italy. Woodbridge, UK ; Rochester, NY : Royal Historical Society ; Boydell Press, 2009. (Royal Historical Society studies in history. New series; Variation: Royal Historical Society studies in history.; New series). Abstract: This volume contains a detailed examination of the life and career of Cardinal Bendinello Sauli - notorious for his involvement in a plot to murder the Pope; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 853.

Links. His portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait, with his secretary, and two geographers, by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1516, Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., United States; his engraving, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 356.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 356, Pope Julius II intended to promote him to the cardinalate in the consistory of 1505 but when he could not obtain a unanimous consent as he wished, the pope did not proceed with the promotion.
(3) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 357-358; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 12, says that he died in Curia Romana.

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(26) 8. PETRUCCI, Alfonso (1491-1517)

Birth. 1491, Siena. Second of the eleven children of Pandolfo Petrucci, signore of Siena, and his second wife, Aurelia Borghese. The other siblings were Giulio, Borhese, Ludovico, Fabio, Girolama, Sulpizia, Francesco, Giulia, another daughter, and Porzia. Cousin of Cardinal Raffaele Petrucci (1517).

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. Cleric of Siena. (No further information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop elect of Sovanna, October 1, 1510; with dispensation for not having reached yet the canonical age; resigned the post, July 27, 1513. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1511; received the red hat, March 13, 1511; and the title of S. Teodoro, March 17, 1511. Transferred to the see of Massa marittima, 1511; occupied the see until June 22, 1517, when he was deprived of all his benefices. Participated in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. After the death of his father, he fought his cousin Rafaello for the government of Siena; Pope Leo X sided with the latter, who was an old friend of his and companion during his exile; and granted him the government of the city; this provoked a fiery hatred in the cardinal against the pope. The cardinal, in revenge, tried to assassinate the pope; he first thought of killing the pope in the open but later decided to do it by poisoning him through the medication administered by a physician to cure a sore; the cardinal sent several letters from Lazio, to where he had retreated, to his secretary Domenico de' Nini of Siena, in which he revealed his plans; the letters were discovered and the secretary was sent to the gallows. The cardinal was arrested; he confessed in public in the consistory of June 22, 1517; he was deprived of the cardinalate and all his benefices; sentenced to die, he was strangled in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, the following 16th of July (1).

Death. July 16, 1517, Rome. Buried in the Campo Sancto of the castle.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, III, 358-359; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1386; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 12, 76, 237 and 305; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 749 and 763.

Links. Alfonso Petrucci, cardinal and conspirator; an historical tragedy in five acts by Robert Charles Jenkins, London : K. Paul, Trench, 1882; his portrait in Leo the Great confronts Attila by Raffaelo Sanzio, Stanza di Eliodoro, Vatican; the cardinal is the first from the left, wearing the red hat, Christus Rex, Inc., and Michael Olteanu, MS; same fresco and explanation, in Italian; his engraving, Wikimedia; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 12 and 305; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 359, says that he was strangled on July 6, 1517; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1386, says that he was executed in 1517; Andrea Vittorelli, in his addition to Chacón, same citation, says that he was executed in 1514.

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(27) 9. LANG VON WELLENBURG, Matthäus (1468/1469-1540)

Birth. 1468/1469, Augsburg. Son of Hans Lang, probably a goldsmith, businessman and occasionally a city soldier, and Margareta Sulzer; they had twelve children.

Education. Studied in Ingolstadt with the boys choir of Duke George; completed his studies at the Universities of Ingolstadt (bachelor, 1486}; Tübingen (magister, 1490); and from 1493 in Vienna. Because of his training in Roman law, he received from Maximilian I, king of the Romans, the legal "licentia doctorandi", December 18, 1494.

Early life. He entered the chancery of Berthold von Henneberg, archbishop of Mainz; he became secretary in 1494; and in 1498, chamber secretary. He had three natural sons with Sibilla Millerin between 1490 and 1495; he legitimized Matthäus and Markus and included them in his will. Secretary of King Maximilian I in 1494. Cleric of Augsburg. Provost of the cathedral chapter of Augsburg in 1500. First imperial councillor in 1501; in his capacity, he acquired by diplomatic services large sums of money and numerous benefices. Provost of Maria Woerth in Kaernten; canon of the cathedral chapters of Aschaffenburg and Eichstätt; provost of the cathedral chapters of Augsburg, Eichstätt and Konstanz.

Episcopate. Named coadjutor, with right of succession, of the bishop of Gurk, 1501. Succeeded as prince-bishop of Gurk, October 6, 1505; occupied the see until 1522; he continued to reside in the court; did not receive the episcopal consecration; and never visited his diocese. King Maximilian I entrusted him with several diplomatic missions; he traveled twice to Paris and Rome and once to Bologna. In 1505, he solved the Landshuter succession controversy. He was elevated to the nobility with the title of von Wellenburg in 1507. In 1508, he became royal chancellor. As imperial ambassador, he directed the emperor's negotiations with France, Venice, Hungary, and the Papacy from 1508 to 1515. After the conclusion of the League of Cambrai with France in 1508, he was involved in that year in the acceptance by King Maximilian I in Trent of the title "Erwählter Römischer Kaiser " (Chosen Roman emperor); the title was without coronation/culmination in Rome. Named bishop of Cartagena, September 30, 1510 (1); occupied the see until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore, March 10, 1511; published in the consistory of November 24, 1512 (2); received the red hat and the title of S. Angelo in Pescheria, deaconry assigned as a title, before March 22, 1514. Named archbishop coadjutor of Salzburg, with right of succession, April 5, 1512; the cathedral chapter was prohibited from making a new election; the archbishop of that see, Leonard Keutschach, expressed his opposition to the appointment (3). He initially supported the schismatic Council of Pisa but later joined the Fifth Lateran Council on December 3, 1512. Did not participate in the conclave of 1513, which elected Pope Leo X. Canon and prebendary commendatario of the cathedral chapter of Würzburg, March 22, 1514. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of Viktring, archdiocese of Salzburg, April 23, 1514. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Salzburg, June 28, 1519; received the pallium, August 8, 1519; occupied the see until his death.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1519, Salzburg. Received the episcopal consecration, September 25, 1519, Salzburg, from Philipp bei Rhein, bishop of Freising, assisted by Berthold Pürstinger, bishop of Chiemsee, and by Leonhard Pewerl, bishop of Lavant. He had a decisive influence in the election of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor. In a meeting of the German counsel, that he presided in 1520 in the presence of the papal nuncio, Girolamo Aleander, he seemed to have advised against energetic measures in opposition to Martin Luther; with the appearance of Luther in the Diet of Worms in 1521, where the cardinal was present, he manifested himself as a decided opponent of the reformer's movement. He convinced the emperor in 1521 to take measures against Martin Luther. After the Diet of Worms, on January 30, 1521, he lost his dominant role as imperial diplomat. Did not participate in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. He promoted the reform of the church in the synods of Mühldorf of 1522 and 1537. He forbade the writings of Luther and his teachings in 1524, and promoted the execution of the Edict of Worms; he also effected a visitation to the archdiocese.Did not participate in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Cardinal Lang joined the league of Catholic princes at Ratisbon on July 7, 1524. He negotiated the Treaty of Vienna of 1525 by which Bohemia and Hungary were annexed to the House of Habsburg. The cardinal suppressed the Peasants' War in his archdiocese between 1525 and 1526. To calm down the sympathies of the residents of Salzburg for Lutheranism, he asked Martin Luther's former superior, the Augustine provincial, Johannes Staupitz, to come to Salzburg and named him the cathedral minister. The Salzburger Landesordnung, 1526, was drafted at the request of the cardinal. Received the title of Primas Germaniae in 1529, after the archbishop of Magdeburg became a Protestant; the title was formerly given to the occupant of the see of Magdeburg. He participated in the Diet of Augsburg in 1530 and the one of Regensburg in 1532. In the contracts of 1533 between King Ferdinand I and Cardinal Lang, the relations between Tyrol and Salzburg were regulated; the questions of the fixing of the boundaries and sovereignty rights achieved a durable solution. In 1535 followed the clarifying of the Salzburgean possession questions in Kaernten, Stelermark and Lower Austria; and also the way that the Habsburgs represented the last appellation instance in these countries, while the archbishop remained responsible for certain controversies. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, February 26, 1535. In 1535 he concluded a contract with King Ferdinand I ending the controversy over the presidency of Fürstenbank; they agreed that Austria and Salzburg should alternate the presidency. Administrator of the see of Chiemsee, 1535-1536. He had a decisive influence on European policies and his ecclesiastical reforms grew out more of political than religious interests. The Humanists, whom he promoted generously, regarded him as one of theirs; he also was a patron of the sciences and music.

Death. March 30, 1540, Salzburg. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Salzburg before the Rupertalrar, beside the tomb of Archbishop Johann Beckenschlager of Salzburg.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 359-361; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1386-1387; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 162; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 13, 55, 72, 154, 207 and 291; Legers, Paul. Kardinal Matthäus Lang : Ein Staatsmann im Dienste Kaiser Maximilians I. Dissertation; Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Bonn, 1906; Ortner, Franz. "Lang von Wellenburg, Matthäus." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 406-410; Sallaberger, Johann. Kardinal Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg (1468-1540) : Staatsmann und Kirchenfürst im Zeitalter von Renaissance, Reformation und Bauernkriegen. Salzburg ; München : Anton Pustet, 1997.

Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in German; his family, portrait and biography, in German; pictures and biography, in German, Salzburg Coins Interactive; his arms, drawing and on a coin, Salzburg Coins Interactive; his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his effigy and arms on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy and arms on a coin, 1521, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy and arms on another coin, 1521; his effigy and arms on a coin, 1529, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy and arms on a coin, 1538, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 154. Ortner, "Lang von Wellenburg, Matthäus." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648, p. 406; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 24; and his second biography in German, linked above, say that he was named bishop of Cartagena-Murcia by Emperor Charles V in 1521; his fourth biography in German, linked above, says that he was named bishop of Cartagena on September 5, 1512.
(2) This is according to Ortner, "Lang von Wellenburg, Matthäus." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648, p. 407; and his biography, in English, linked above; his second biography in German, linked above, says that he was named cardinal in 1511/1512; his fourth biography in German, also linked above, says that he was promoted on March 10, 1511; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1305-1306, lists him as the last cardinal created in 1511; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 13, says that he was created in the seventh promotion of Pope Leo X on November 19, 1512; in note 1 on the same page, Eubel adds that according to Josephus Card. Hergenröther, Leonis X Regesta, (Friburgi, 1884), I, 367, 1513 Dec. 17: Card. Gurencis ordinatur a papa in capella secreta.
(3) The new coadjutor succeeded in obtaining a majority of the cathedral canons by promising the secularization of the chapter; after this, the chapter, on June 27, 1514 in Braunau, obtaining the relevant warranties, postulated him for the post; Archbishop Keutschach was not willing to accept the secularization of the cathedral chapter, which was rejected also by the Landständen and the provost of the chapter; Pope Leo X recognized the secularization by a bull of September 8, 1514; the secularization contract was signed on September on 22, 1514; Archbishop Keutschach instituted legal proceedings at the Curia against its execution; a papal brief decided in favor of the secularization.

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