The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo X (1513-1521)
Consistory of July 1, 1517 (V)


(9) 1. CONTI, Francesco (ca. 1470-1521)

Birth. Ca. 1470, Rome. Fifth of the ten children of Jacopo Conti, signore of Carpineto and Roman noble; and Elisabetta Carafa della Stadera. His last name is also listed as de' Domicelli. His family gave the Church four popes, Innocent III, Gregory IX, Alexander IV and Innocent XIII. Grand-nephew of Pseudocardinal Lucido Conti (1411). Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Conti (1483). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni dei conti di Segni (1200); Ottaviano dei conti di Segni (1205); Carlo Conti (1604); Giannicolò Conti (1664); and Bernardo Maria Conti (1721).

Education. Studied law (no further educational information found).

Early life. He had six illegitimate children: Ottavio, Stefano, Camillo, Marzio, Giovanni and Giulia (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Conza, October 8, 1494; he was always absent and governed the archdiocese through vicars general. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Vitale, July 6, 1517. Resigned the government of the archdiocese, September 11, 1517. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 11, 1520 to January 7, 1521.

Death. June 29 (2), 1521, Rome (3). Buried in his title (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 14-15; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1410; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 134; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 15, 71 and 175; Panvinio, Onofrio. Onvphrii Panvinii Veronensis Fratris Eremitæ Augustiniani, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati. Venetiis, apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577. Microform, 1960. (Manuscripta, microfilms of rare and out-of-print books; list 18, no. 27) ; Microfilm copy, made in 1960, of the original in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana. Positive./ Negative film in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana, pp. 354 and 360; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6) I, 261; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 382.

(1) This is according to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, I, 261.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 15; the same source, III, 71 and 175, gives also July 4 as the date of death without mentioning its source; both Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1433; and Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, p. 360, say that he died on tertia Nonas Iunii 1521.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 15, which says that he died "in Curia Romana"; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 15; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1433; and Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, p. 360, say that he died in Turrichio (or Turegii in Latin), diocese of Velletri; Chacón adds that he was buried there; and Panvinio, p. 360, says that he was transferred to Rome and buried in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli.
(4) This is according to Cardella, IV, 15, citing Claude Fleury, Histoire ecclésiastique (Paris : chez Emery, 1724-1744).

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(10) 2. PICCOLOMINI, Giovanni (1475-1537)

Birth. October 9, 1475, Siena. Of a patrician and noble family. Second child of Andrea Todeschini Piccolomini and Agnese Farnese. The other siblings were Pietro Francesco, Alessandro, Montania, Caterina and Vittoria, who was sister-in-law of Cardinal Alfonso Petrucci (1511). Grand-nephew of Pope Pius II and nephew of Pope Pius III. Other cardinals of the family were Celio Piccolomini (1664); Enea Silvio Piccolomini (1766); and Giacomo Piccolomini (1844).

Education. "... uomo dottissimo, e consumato in ogni genere di letterature..." (most learned man, accomplished in every type of literature) (1) (No further educational information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Siena, 1503 (2); resigned the government of the see, April 7, 1529. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the V Lateran Council. Abbot commendatario of San Galgano, 1516-1522. Legate a latere in the Republic of Siena, 1516-1522; he was the principal counselor of the regents of the republic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, July 6, 1517 (3). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1521 to February 6, 1523. Opted for the title of S. Balbina, June 11, 1521. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Bishop of Sitten, 1522 (4). Administrator of the see of Aquila, July 6, 1523 until July 3, 1525 (5). Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, July 24, 1524. Administrator of the see of Umbriatico, November 14, 1524 until March 20, 1531. He was mistreated by the imperial troops during the Sack of Rome of 1527. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 22, 1531. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, September 26, 1533. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Legate a latere, together with Cardinal Alessandro Cesarini, to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to congratulate him for his victory in Tunisia. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, February 26, 1535. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. He was a benefactor and protector of intellectuals and artists.

Death. November 21, 1537, Siena (6). Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Siena.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 15-17; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1410-1411; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15, 55, 56, 57, 60, 69, 113, 297 and 323; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 313, 753, 851 and 938; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 763; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 382.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A2 B4 C1.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 15.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 297; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 15, says that an autentico istromento, dated September 11, 1501, clearly indicates that he was already the archbishop of Siena; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 753, says that he was named c. 1501; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he was named in 1502.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 15 and 69; his genealogy, linked above, confuses the title of S. Sabina with the suburbicarian see of Sabina.
(4) This is according to his genealogy, linked above; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 16, who says that this appointment appears in the Vatican registries; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 313 does not mention him among the occupants of that see; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 295 does not mention him either as occupant of that see but says that Cardinal Paolo Cesi, named administrator of Sitten on November 12, 1522, agreed to reserve for Cardinal Piccolomini a pension of 600 ducats out of the rents of the diocese.
(5) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 113; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 851, says that he was named in 1532 and occupied the post until his death, which he indicates happened in 1538.
(6) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 15 and 56; his genealogy, linked above, says that he died on November 25, 1537 in Siena; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 17, also says that he died in Siena.

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(11) 3. DE CUPIS, Giovanni Domenico (1493-1553)

Birth. 1493, Rome. Of an illustrious family originally from Montefalco. Son of Bernardino de Cupis and Lucrezia Normanni (1). His first name is also listed as Gian Domenico; and his last name Cuppi.

Education. Studied law (no further educational information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Secretary to Pope Julius II, 1504. He had four natural children (2).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, July 6, 1517.

Episcopate. Named administrator of the see of Trani, July 30, 1517; resigned, July 3, 1551. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 6, 1523 to March 2, 1524. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Opted for the title of S. Apollinare, August 17, 1524; retained the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina in commendam until September 3, 1529. Administrator of the see of Macerata e Recanati, 1528 until January 29, 1535. Administrator of the see of Adria, August 31, 1528 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, May 24, 1529. Governor of Città delle Pieve, 1529. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, September 22, 1531; retained in commendam the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina until October 10, 1553. Consecrated, Thursday December 21, 1531, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Clement VII, assisted by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, bishop of Ostia, by Cardinal Antonio Ciocchi del Monte, bishop of Porto, and by Cardinal Andrea della Valle. In the same ceremony were also consecrated Cardinals Francisco de los Ángeles Quiñones, Antonio Sanseverino, O.S.Io.Hieros., and Francesco Cornaro. Bishop of Nardo, January 15, 1532; resigned the government of the see, May 22, 1536. Administrator of the see of Montepeloso, November 13, 1532 until April 11, 1537. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, December 16, 1532. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, February 26, 1535. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Administrator of the see of Camerino, July 5, 1535 until March 5, 1537. Legate in Agro Piceno, September 1, 1536. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, November 28, 1537. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Legate in Marca, 1537. Governor of Tivoli, 1537. Named, together with another eight cardinals, to the commission for the celebration of the general council, January 7, 1538 (3). Charged, together with another three cardinals (4), to raise funds for the war against the Turks, February 10, 1540. Named with another eleven cardinals (5) to a commission for the reform of the Roman Curia and its officials, August 27, 1540. Named, together with another ten cardinals, members of the general council, November 2, 1544. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica; he opened and closed the Holy Door during the Jubilar Year of 1550. Protector of Scotland, March 5, 1550. Legate a latere in Bologna, September 9, 1551. President of a supervisory commission of the Annona, December 1551. Protector of France. He maintained a close friendship with Ignacio de Loyola, future saint, in spite of the bad opinion he had of the latter at first; after a two hour conversation with Loyola, he changed his initial opinion and asked for forgiveness. Because of his religiosity and benignity towards others, his contemporaries gave him the title of ottimo tra i mortali (the best among mortals) (6). He had built the church of S. Onofrio al Gianicolo in Rome.

Death. December 10, 1553, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where his father had been buried in 1507. Later, his remains were transferred to Montefalco and buried in the tomb of his family.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 784; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 17-18; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1411; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 64, 95, 149, 249, 256, 231, and 316; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 311; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 382-383.

Webgraphy. Biography by Franca Petrucci, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 33 (1987), Treccani; his portrait (1600-1799), diocese of Matera-Irsina, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait (1700-1749), diocese of Nardò-Gallipoli, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, I, 311, she was the concubine of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, future Pope Julius II.
(2) According to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, I, 311, they were: Girolamo; Bernardino, who was bishop of Osimo e Cingoli, 1551-1574; Paolo, who was bishop of Recanati, 1548-1552; and Celidonia, who married Marco Lepido Orsini in 1558 with a dowry of 3,000 scudi.
(3) The other cardinals were Lorenzo Campeggio, Giacomo Simoneta, Gasparo Contarini, Girolamo Ghinucci, Giacomo Sadoleto, Alessandro Cesarini, Gian Pietro Carafa and Reginald Pole.
(4) These cardinals were Marino Grimani, Alessandro Cesarini and Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora.
(5) These cardinals were Gian Pietro Carafa, Alessandro Cesarini, Giovanni Maria del Monte, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Marino Grimani, Girolamo Aleandro, Niccolò Ridolfi, Gasparo Contarini, Girolamo Ghinucci, Marcello Cervini and Reginald Pole.
(6) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 18.

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(12) 4. PANDOLFINI, Niccolò (1440-1518)

Birth. 1440, Florence. Of a patrician family. Eldest of the five sons of Giannozzo Pandolfini and Giovanna Valori. He is also listed as Pandolfi and as Caponibus.

Education. Studied in Bologna (no further educational information found).

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan chapter of Florence, 1461. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1462-1474. Apostolic scriptor in the pontificate of Pope Paul II. Pope Sixtus IV charged him with the education of his nephew Giuliano della Rovere, future Pope Julius II, naming him preceptor nella pietà e nelle lettere (in piety and letters).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pistoia, December 23, 1474. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Benevento in the pontificate of Pope Sixtus V; confirmed by Pope Innocent VIII. Abbot commendatario of S. Zenobio di Pisa. Sollicitaoris of apostolic letters, May 21, 1513. Auditor of Pope Julius II; he was also adscribed to the pontifical family. Because of his opinions contrary to the will of Pope Julius II, he was not promoted to the cardinalate by that pontiff (1)

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S Cesareo, July 6, 1517.

Death. September 17, 1518, Pistoia. Transferred to Florence and buried in the tomb of his family in the Abbey Fiorentina.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 18-19; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1411-1412; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 216; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15, 61 and 275; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 713; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 383.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 19.

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(13) 5. PETRUCCI, Raffaele (1472-1522)

Birth. 1472, Siena. Of a patrician family. Third of the seven children of Giacoppo Petrucci. Cousin of Cardinal Alfonso Petrucci (1511).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan chapter of Siena, ca. 1497. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Grosseto, August 4, 1497; constituted administrator until reaching the canonical age of 27 years old; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Moderator of the Republic of Siena, 1512-1522 (1). He had two natural children (2). Prefect of Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, March 12, 1513 until March 1516.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of Susanna, December 26, 1517. Administrator of the see of Bertinoro, March 14, 1519 until March 14, 1520. Abbot commendatario of S. Galgano. Named bishop of Sovana, February 6, 1520; occupied the see until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Received, together with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici, Silvio Passerini, Niccolò Ridolfi and Giovanni Piccolomini, the new Pope Adrian VI on his arrival in Italy at the port of Livorno.

Death. December 11, 1522, Rome (3). Buried in the Dominican church in Siena (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 19-20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1412; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 161; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp., 15, 71, 139, 206 and 305; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 751.

Webgraphy. Ludwig von Pastor. Historia de los Papas. León X (1513-1521). Capítulo IV: Conjuración del Cardenal Petrucci y gran creación de cardenales de 1 de Junio de 1517, pp. 151-202, in Spanish.

(1) This is according to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, IV, 751; Pastor, Historia de los Papas, linked above, says that he was named in March 1516.
(2) According to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, IV, 751, they were Eustachio and Pietro, born in 1500 and became bishop of Bertinoro in 1520; he was referred to as nepos Cardinalis.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 15; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 20; and the site of Bibbiano Guglieschi indicate that he died in that village. Cardella adds that some were not sorry about his death because of his avarice and arrogance in the government of that city; and that the people, infuriated, had to be contained from throwing pebbles and stones against his cadaver.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1412: D. O. M. RAPHAELI. PETRVCCIO. CARDINALI. PATRVO. OPTIMO. VITA. FVNCTO. MDXXII. ANTONIVS. MARIA. IOANNIS. FRATRIS. FILVS. PENENDVM. CVRAVIT. ANNO. MDLXX.

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(14) 6. DELLA VALLE, Andrea (1463-1534)

Birth. November 29, 1463, Rome. Of an illustrious and ancient family of physicians and jurists. Second of the four children of Filippo Della Valle and Girolama Margani. His last name is also lited as de Valle; and as Vallense.

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate. Scriptor apostolic. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1503-1517.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Crotone, December 2, 1496. Consecrated (no information found). Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of SS. Trinità, diocese of Mileto. Regent of the Apostolic Chancery, 1503-1505. Transferred to the see of Mileto, February 23, 1508; resigned the government of the diocese on November 26, 1523 in favor of his nephew Quinzio Rustici. Participated in the Fifth Lateran Council in 1512. Apostolic secretary during the pontificate of Pope Julius II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese in Agone, July 6, 1517. Administrator of the see of Cajazzo, December 2, 1517 to December 10, 1518. Administrator of the see of Gallipoli, February 18, 1518 until October 17, 1524. Administrator of the see of Nicastro, May 5 to 17, 1518. Administrator of the see of Valva e Sulmona, October 26, 1519 until June 18, 1521. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 2, 1524 to January 12, 1526. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, 1520; he opened and closed the Holy Door in the Jubilar Year of 1525. Administrator of the see of Umbriatico, March 20, 1521 to September 10, 1522. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Named bishop of Crotone again September 4, 1522; occupied the see until November 14, 1524. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Legate in Naples. Protector of the Order of Friars Minor of St. Francis, 1523. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, March 27, 1525. He took part in the conflicts between Pope Clement VII and the Colonnas; and between the same pope and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Ss. Vincenzo ed Anastasio a Tre Fontane, Rome. Governor of Rome during the absence of Pope Clement VII in 1529. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Severo in Montenuovo, diocese of Senigaglia, February 9, 1531. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, retaining in commendam the title of S Prisca until his death, April 21, 1533. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 12, 1533. He ordered construction of Palazzo Della Valle, the church of S. Andrea della Valle and Teatro Della Valle.

Death. August 3, 1534 (1), Rome. Buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 20-21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1412-1413; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 139; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 139; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15, 55, 57, 59, 69, 145, 201, 244, 256 323 and 326; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 353.

Webgraphy. Biography by Christina Riebesell, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 37 (1989), Treccani; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait and arms, secolo XIX (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to his epitaph, transcribed in note 2; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 15, says that he died on August 4, 1534.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the addition of Andrea Vittorelli to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, cols. 1412-1423: ANDREÆ. DE. VALLE. CARD. EPISCOPI. PRÆNESTINI. OSSA. HIC. SITA. SVNT. VIXIT. ANN. LXX. MENS. VIII. DIES. V. III. NON. SEXTILIS. ESSE. INTER. NOS. DESIIT. Si tibi par ausis suum matura dedisset. Nacta erat amissum Maria Roma decus.

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(15) 7. FERRERO, Bonifacio (1476-1543)

Birth. 1476, Biella. Fifth of the thirteen children of Sebastiano Ferrero and Tomena Avogadro. His first name is also listed as Bonifazio. Brother of Cardinal Gianstefano Ferrero (1500). Uncle of Cardinals Filiberto Ferrero (1549); and Pier Francesco Ferrero (1561). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Guido Luca Ferrero (1565). Another member of the family was Cardinal Antonio Ferrero (1505).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan chapter of Vercelli, June 6, 1490; later its provost from December 3, 1494. Abbot commendatario of S. Stefano di Ivrea, November 14, 1494 to 1508; and again from 1536 to October 28, 1537.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ivrea, July 28, 1497. Consecrated, 1505, by his brother Cardinal Gianstefano Ferrero, bishop of Vercelli. Resigned the government of the diocese in favor of his brother Cardinal Gianstefano on November 5, 1509; Prior of S. Pietro di Chambéry, 1499-1519. Administrator of the see of Nice, 1501-1504. Transferred to the see of Vercelli, November 5, 1509; resigned the government of the diocese in favor of his brother Agostino Ferrero, September 17, 1511. Prior of Ss. Giovanni e Sebastiano di Benna, 1508-1542. Transferred to the see of Ivrea again, September 17, 1511; resigned the government of the see in favor of his nephew Filiberto Ferrero, May 17, 1518. Participated in the V Lateran Council.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, July 6, 1517. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Abbot commendatario of Santo Stefano of the citadel of Vercelli, 1522-1527. Abbot commendatario of San Michele della Chiusa, 1524-1535. Abbot commendatario of San Benigno di Fruttuaria, 1525 to November 5, 1534. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, December 12, 1533. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 5, 1534. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Named by Pope Paul III legate in Vicenza. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, February 26, 1535. Prior of S. Egidio di Verres from 1535. Administrator of the see of Vercelli at the death of his brother Agostino, September 1 to December 20, 1536, when he resigned in favor of his nephew Pietro Ferrero. Abbot commendatario of S. Salvatore di Casalvolone from 1536. Dean of the Chapel of Santissima Sindone di Chambéry from June 4, 1537. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, November 28, 1537. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Canon and provost of the chapter of of the collegiate church of S. Gervasio di Ginevra from 1537. Provost of S. Bernardo di Montjovet from 1537. Prior of S. Pietro di Nantua from 1537. Legate in Bologna, 1540. Prior of S. Stefano di Robbio until 1542.

Death. January 2, 1543, near midnight, Rome. Deposited in the church of SS. Trinità a Monte Pincio, Rome; later transferred to Biella and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the church of S. Sebastiano.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 21-23; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1413; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 169; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15, 55, 57, 58, 67, 214 and 330; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 387.

Webgraphy. His portrait; another portrait; and I vescovi dell'Arcidiocesi di Vercelli.

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(16) 8. PALLAVICINO, Giovanni Battista (1480-1524)

Birth. 1480, Genoa. Of a patrician family. Son of Cipriano Pallavicino and Bianca Gattilusi. Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Gentile Pallavicino (1489).

Education. Educated under the direction of his uncle the cardinal. Studied law and letters. Obtained a doctorate in law at the University of Padua.

Early life. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Orense; resigned and later returned on March 19, 1513. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Maria di Marola and the Augustinian monastery of SS. Trinità di Campagnola, September 4, 1507. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Rigpalta, diocese of Turin, September 10, 1507.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cavaillon, November 22, 1507 occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Scriptor of apostolic letters, 1511. Participated in the V Lateran Council in 1512. Abbreviator primae visionis, 1513. Canon of the cathedral chapter and prebendary of Como, March 17, 1514.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Apollinare, July 6, 1517. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Named abbot commendatario of S. Michele di Clusa by Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. He prepared his testament on July 22, 1524.

Death. August 13, 1524, Rome (1). Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 23 ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1413-1414; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15, 60 and 161.

Webgraphy. His bust, epitaph and arms, church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 15; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 23; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1414, say that he died in Fabbrica, diocese of Città di Castello and was transferred to Rome; the latter source adds that he was in Fabbrica recovering from an illness.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1414: D. O. M. IO. BAPTISTÆ. PALLAVICINO. GENVENSI. S. R . E. CARD. TITVULVM. S. APOLLINARIS. CARD. CAVALLICENSI. ANTONIOTTI. CARD. S. PRAXEDIS. EX. FRATRE. NEPOTI. EXIMIA. IVRIS. SCIENTIA. ET. BONARVM. LITERARVM. COGNITIONE. PRÆSTANTI. PER. OMNES. FORENSIVM. DIGNITATVM. GRADVS. AD. CARDINALATVM. EVECTO. A. LEONE. X. HADRIANO. VI. CLEMENTE. VII. AD. SVMMAS. RES. ADHIBITO. IN. MEDIO. HONORVM. CVRSV.. IMMATVRA. MORTE. PRÆREPTO. IO. BAPTIST. VTR. SIG. REFER. ET. BABILANVS. PALLAVICINI. FRATRES. PATRVO. MAGNO. BENE. DE. FAMILIA. MERITO. MEMORIÆ. CAVSA. POSS. MDXCVI. VIXIT. ANNOS. XLIV. OBIIT. ANN. SAL. MDXXIV. IDIBVS. AVGVSTI.

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(17) 9. TRIVULZIO, Scaramuccia (ca. 1465-1524)

Birth. Ca. 1465, Milan. Of a patrician family. Son of Gianfermo Trivulzio and Margherita Valperga. Relative of Cardinals Agostino Trivulzio (1517); and Antonio Trivulzio, iuniore (1557). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Giangiacomo Teodoro Trivulzio (1629). Another cardinal of the family was Antonio Trivulzio, seniore, O.C.R.S.A. (1500). His last name is also listed as Trivulce.

Education. Studied law, both canon and civil at the University of Pavia, Pavia.

Early life. Member of Collegio dei Giurisconsulti of Milan, 1489. Lector at the University of Pavia from 1491. Abbot commendatario of S. Stefano del Corno from 1499. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Apostolic notary. Counselor to King Louis XII of France.

Sacred orders. (No information found). Cleric of Milan.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Como, April 14, 1508; occupied the see until January 8, 1518. Consecrated (no information found). Opposed the pseudocouncil of Pisa, which was against Pope Julius II. Assessor to the V Lateran Council.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, July 6, 1517. Protector of France. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Administrator of the see of Piacenza, September 26, 1519 until May 31, 1525. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 12, 1526 to January 11, 1527. When the French were expelled from Italy, Duke Francesco Sforza of Milan deprived the cardinal of all the rents he had in Lombardy; the Spaniards also deprived the cardinal of his rents when King François I of France was taken prisoner in Pavia. Administrator of the see of Vienne, March 18, 1527 until his death.

Death. August 3, 1527, monastery of Magenzano (or Maguzzano), territory of Verona (1), while travelling to Milan to warn the city of the danger in which it was because the Bourbon army was on its way. Buried in that monastery.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 26-28; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1415; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15, 62, 182 and 275; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 67 and 76; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 930.

Webgraphy.The Trivulzio Family, in Italian.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 28; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 15, says that he died in Curia Romana.

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(18) 10. COLONNA, Pompeo (1479-1532)

Birth. May 12, 1479, Rome. Roman noble and Neapolitan patrician. Son of Girolamo Colonna and Vittoria Conti. His first name is also listed as Pompeio. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565). Other members of the family who were elevated to the cardinalate were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405; later Pope Martin V); Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili.

Education. His tutor was his uncle Prospero Colonna and to please him, he entered the ecclesiastical state, for which he did not have a definite vocation; he was more inclined to the military (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Accompanied his uncle Prospero in the expeditions against the Orsini in 1498; and, allied with the Spanish, against the French in Barletta, Cerignola and Garigliano in 1503. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Abbot commendatario of Subiaco, 1507-1513; and Grottaferrata from 1508.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rieti, October 6, 1508; resigned in favor of his nephew Scipione Colonna, March 20, 1514; retained the right to return. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Frascati, 1508. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the Fifth Lateran Council. In 1512, erroneously believing that Pope Julius II had died, he instigated the population of Rome to free itself from papal power; the pope declared him culpable of felony and stripped him of his benefices. Pope Leo X, successor of Pope Julius II, rehabilitated him.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, November 13, 1517. Administrator of the see of Terni, May 14 to December 5, 1520. Administrator of the see of Potenza, January 7, 1521 to November 21, 1526, when he was deprived of the cardinalate. Administrator of the see of Catania, February 27, 1523 to January 18, 1524. Legate a latere to Hungary and Poland, February 27, 1523. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, January 11, 1524 until November 21, 1526. Legate in Ancona. Administrator of the see of Acerno, January 18, 1524 to June 23, 1525. Administrator of the see of Rossano; resigned a few days later. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, January 11, 1524, proper of the vice-chancellor, retaining in commendam the title of Ss. XII Apostoli. Administrator of the see of Aquila, July 3, 1525 to 1532. The enmity between the Medicis and the Colonnas culminated in 1526 when Marcello Colonna with 3,000 soldiers and 800 horsemen entered the Vatican palace and sacked it; Pope Clement VII declared the Colonnas culpable of lesa maestà, rebellion and enemies of the Apostolic See; the pope also excommunicated Cardinal Pompeo and deprived him of the cardinalatial dignity on November 21, 1526; the sentence was read by Benedetto Accolti, archbishop of Ravenna, secretary of the pope, in a consistory attended by twenty cardinals. In March 1527, Pompeo negotiated a truce with the pope in exchange for the restitution of his cardinalate but the Constable of Bourbon, who commanded the imperial troops, did not accept the agreement, entered Rome and sacked it; Colonna entered the city with him on May 6-8, 1527. In spite of this, Colonna tried to paliate the damage of the sack of Rome, providing asylum in his palace of the chancery for as many as he could and obtaining the freedom of hostages, among them the future Pope Julius III. It is not known with certainty when Colonna was restored to his cardinalitial dignity and it could have been before the sack. Bishop of Rieti again from 1528 to August 27, 1529. Administrator of the see of Aversa, April 20 to September 24, 1529. Administrator of the see of Sarno, August 24, 1530 until July 5, 1532 (?). Administrator of the see of Monreale, December 14, 1530 until his death. Named viceroy of Naples by Emperor Charles V in 1530. He was legate in Bologna and Marca Anconitana.

Death. June 28 (2), 1532, Naples (3). Buried in the sacristy of the church of the monastery of Monteoliveto, Naples.

Bibliography. Baker Bates, Piers. "A Portrait of Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, Rival and Imitator of the Papal Caesars" in Papers of the British School at Rome, vol. 76, (2008), 183-199, 356; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 23-26; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1415 and 1482; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 104; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 15-16, 60, 64, 93, 113, 126, 159, 213, 250, 279, 283 and 293; Panvinio, Onofrio. Onvphrii Panvinii Veronensis Fratris Eremitæ Augustiniani, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati. Venetiis, apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577. Microform, 1960. (Manuscripta, microfilms of rare and out-of-print books; list 18, no. 27) ; Microfilm copy, made in 1960, of the original in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana. Positive./ Negative film in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana, pp. and 372-373.

Webgraphy. Biography by Franca Petrucci, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 27 (1982), Treccani; his engraving and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his genealogy A1 B7 C5, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving, AllPosters.com; his portrait by Cristofano Dell'Altissimo, Cultura Italia, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his portrait, Galleria Colonna, Roma, Alinari.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 23; this seems odd given the fact that the uncle was an active and dedicated military man.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 104, says that he died on June 29, 1532. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1482; and Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, pp. 373, say that he died on 4 Kal Augusti, which would be July 29. He was succeeded by Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici in the title of S. Lorenzo; and in the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, by Cardinal Alfonso Manrique on July 21, 1532.
(3) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 26; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1482; and Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, pp. 373; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16, says that he died in Curia Romana.

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(19) 11. GIACOBAZZI, Domenico (1444-1528)

Birth1444, Rome. Of a patrician family. Third of the five children of Cristoforo Giacobazzi de Facheschis. His last name is also listed as Giacobacci, Jacobazzi, Jacobatius and Jacobatii. Uncle of Cardinal Girolamo Verallo (1549).

Education. Studied theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law. (No further educational information found).

Early life. Consistorial lawyer, 1485. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1493; later its dean. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1503.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nocera dei Pagani, November 8, 1511; resigned the government of the see in favor of his brother Andrea Giacobazzi, August 14, 1517. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the V Lateran Council. President of the Archgymnasium of Rome. Vicar general of the pope.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Pansiperna, July 6, 1517. Opted for the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, July 10, 1517; retained in commendam the title of S. Lorenzo in Pansiperna until his death. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, August 20, 1519. Administrator of the see of Cassano, December 2, 1519 until March 23, 1523. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 11, 1527 until his death. Named again bishop of Nocera dei Pagani at the death of his brother Bishop Andrea in 1524; occupied the see until his death (1). He composed a treatise on the history of the councils which had several editions.

Death. 1528 (2), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Eustachio (3), Rome.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1099; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 28-30; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1416-1417 and 1482; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 61, 62, 64, 146 and 229-230; Klotzner, Josef. Kardinal Dominikus Jacobazzi und sein Konzilswerk : ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der konziliaren Idee. Romae : Apud aedes Universitatis Gregorianae, 1948. (Analecta Gregoriana ; vol. 45.; Series Facultatis Historiae Ecclesiasticae. Sectio B ; n. 6; Variation: Analecta Gregoriana ; v. 45.; Analecta Gregoriana.; Series Facultatis Historiae Ecclesiasticae.; Sectio B. ; n. 6); Panvinio, Onofrio. Onvphrii Panvinii Veronensis Fratris Eremitæ Augustiniani, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati. Venetiis, apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577. Microform, 1960. (Manuscripta, microfilms of rare and out-of-print books; list 18, no. 27) ; Microfilm copy, made in 1960, of the original in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana. Positive./ Negative film in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana, pp. 355 and 372; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 464.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, indicates that at his death, the cardinal was succeeded in the see of Nocera dei Pagani by Paolo Giovio, who was elected on January 13, 1528.
(2) This is according to all the sources consulted except Bertone, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1099, that says he died on July 2, 1527; Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, p. 372; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1482, add that he died in January 1528; given the state of the city in the second half of 1527, after the sack, it is possible that the death of the cardinal would not have been registered adequately and that it had occurred by January 1528, which could mean that he had died before that date. His title of S. Clemente was given to the new Cardinal Andrea Matteo Palmieri on November 21, 1527, which indicates that it was vacant at that time.
(3) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1416; and Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, p. 372; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, 29, says that he was buried in the church of S. Eusebio and adds that other sources, which he does not mention, say that he was buried in in the church of of S. Eustachio or in the church of S. Trifone.

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(20) 12. BOURBON DE VENDÔME, Louis II de (1493-1557)

Birth. January 2, 1493, château of Ham, Picardy, France. Fourth son of François de Bourbon, count of Vendôme, and Marie de Luxembourg, countess of Saint-Paul. His godfather was Louis de Bourbon, prince of La Rochelle-sur-Yon. Nephew of Cardinals Philippe de Luxembourg (1495); and Charles I de Bourbon (1476). Uncle of Cardinal Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme (1548). Great-uncle of Cardinal Charles III de Bourbon de Vendôme (1583). His first name is also listed as François-Louis and his second last name as Vendocimo.

Education. Studied at Collège de Navarre, Paris (obtained a doctorate).

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found). Received the ecclesiastical tonsure in Faremoutiers from Cardinal Georges I d'Amboise, legate in France.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Laon, April 24, 1510; with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age; granted faculties a quocumque, July 31, 1515; occupied the see until March 23, 1552. Consecrated, May 3, 1517, church of the priorate of Val-des-Ecoliers, Paris, by his uncle Cardinal Philippe de Luxembourg, bishop of Le Mans, assisted by Etienne de Poncher, bishop of Paris, and by Jean Le Veneur, bishop of Lisieux. Attended the coronation of Queen Claude of France at the church of Saint-Denis, Paris, May 10, 1517. Took the oath before King François I of France, June 9, 1517.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite after July 6, 1517. He signed the matrimonial contract of Dauphin François, barely one year old, with Mary of England, who was four years old. Administrator of the see of Le Mans, August 8, 1519; governed the see through vicars general; resigned, August 13, 1535. Opted for the title of S. Martino ai Monti, June 11, 1521. Did not participate in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Legate in Umbra in the pontificate of Pope Clement VII. Administrator of the see of Luçon, January 11, 1524; resigned, March 27, 1527. First abbot commendatario of Saint-Denis, Paris, 1529. Celebrated the funeral of Louise de Savoy, mother of King François I, in the abbey of Saint-Denis, August 18, 1530. Crowned Queen Eléonore of Austria, second wife of King François I of France, abbey of Saint-Denis, March 5, 1531. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, March 3, 1533. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Sens, August 13, 1535 until his death. Celebrated the marriage between Princess Magdalene-Marie, eldest daughter of King François I, and King James V of Scotland in the cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris, January 1, 1536. Attended the assembly of princes and grand officer of the crown celebrated in Paris on February 18, 1536 on the subject of the proposed war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Administrator of the see of Tréguier, June 14, 1538 to April 26, 1542. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Baptized Prince François, future King Henri II of France, in Fountainbleau on February 2, 1542. Celebrated the funeral of King François I in the abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris, on May 23, 1547. Presided over the Assembly of the Clergy of Melun, 1548. Crowned Queen Catalina de' Medici of France in the abbey of Saint-Denis on June 10, 1549. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, February 24, 1550. On March 7, 1550, he notified Louis Guillard, bishop of Chartres and Louis de Lorraine, bishop of Troyes, of the letters of the king concerning the episcopal residence. Named by King Henri II of France general of the French troops, which under his direction maintained the enemies outside the province of Picardy. Received from King Henri II the government of Paris ans Ile-de-France, 1552. Celebrated, through his vicars general, a diocesan synod in Sens in 1554. He held in the baptismal font, in the name of King Henri II of France, Henri de Navarre, future King Henri IV of France, in 1554. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Legate a latere in Savoy. Provisor La Sorbone University, Paris. He was also abbot commendatario of Saint-Vincent de Laon; Saint-Corneille de Compiègne; Notre-Dame de Colombs; Saint Léonard de Ferrières; Saint-Faron de Meaux; Saint-Serge d'Angres; Notre-Dame de Ham; and Saint-Amand-en-Pevèle. He had built the Bourbon Palace in Paris.

Death. March 13, 1557, hôtel Bourbon, abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris (1). Buried in the choir of the cathedral of Laon. Pierre Jumel delivered the funeral oration.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1158; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 34-36; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1418; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 57, 67, 70, 162, 220, 230, 298 and 317; Fisquet, Honoré Jean Pierre. La France pontificale (Gallia Christiana) : histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'etablissement du Christianisme jusqu' à nos jours, divisée en 18 provinces ecclésiastiques. 21 vols. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1874. Contents: [v.1-5] Métropole d'Aix -- [v.6-7] Métropole d'Avignon -- [v.8] Métropole de Bordeaux -- [v.9] Métropole de Cambrai -- [v.10] Métropole de Lyon et Vienne -- [v.11-13] Métropole de Paris -- [v.14-15] Métropole de Reims -- [v.16-19] Métropole de Rouen -- [v.20-21] Métropole de Sens. Other title: Gallia Christiana, XX, 118-121.

Webgraphy. Biography, pp. 118-121, in French; his genealogy, 3.3; another genealogy A2 B2 E4; his portrait by François Clouet, Musée Condé, Chantilly, France; his portrait, École de Clouet Jean, Musée Condé, Chantilly, France; the title of the painting is "Prélat inconnu" (Unknown prelate) and François Bouchot attributes it to the cardinal; his monument, basilica of Saint-Denis, former abbatial church, Île-de-France.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16 and 57; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1158, says that he died on March 11, 1556; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 35-36, says that he died in 1556 in Paris; Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1418, says that he died on May 13, 1557 in Laon and that he was buried in its cathedral, adding that his heart was placed in the church of Saint-Denis in Paris; and his first genealogy, linked above, says that he died in 1556. The discrepancy concerning the year of his death is probably due to the French vieux style, which is always a year later.

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(21) 13. CAMPEGGIO, Lorenzo (1474-1539)

Birth. November 7, 1474, Milan. Of a noble Bolognese family. Son of Giovanni Zaccaria Campeggio, a lawyer, and Dorotea Tebaldini. Father of Cardinal Alessandro Campeggio (1551). His last name is also listed as Campeggi.

Education. Initial studies in Pavia. Studied law under his father at the Universities of Padua and Bologna; obtained a doctorate in canon law 1499; later, he obtained a doctorate in civil law. He was considered one of the best canonists in Europe.

Early life. Professor of law at the University of Padua in 1493, before obtaining his doctorate. He married Francesca Guastavillani in 1500 and had five children, two daughters and three sons (1); she died in 1509 and the following year he entered the ecclesiastical state. He worked diligently to convince Bologna to return to the obedience of Pope Julius II. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1511; went to Rome to assume his post. Nuncio to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I; his mission was to make the emperor recall his envoys to the schismatic Council of Pisa, which wanted to depose Pope Julius II; and send them to the V Lateran Council (1512-1517), convoked by the pope; he successfully accomplished his mission.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Feltre, November 12, 1512; Emperor Maximilian granted him the temporal government of the city as well as the privilege to wear the cross and the sword as signs of feudal seignory; resigned the government of the see in favor of his brother Tommaso Campeggio, June 1, 1520. Nuncio before Duke Massimiliano Maria Sforza of Milan; took possession of the nunciature on December 30, 1512; confirmed in his nunciature by the new Pope Leo X. Nuncio before Emperor Maximilian I, September 14, 1513; charged with bringing peace between the emperor and and King Ladislaw of Bohemia and Hungary; and uniting the Christian princes in a crusade against the Turks; the treaty of peace was signed in Vienna on July 28, 1515. Named member of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517. Named palatine count by the emperor, October 31, 1517. Received the red hat, December 12, 1517, cathedral basilica of S. Petronio, Bologna, from Lorenzo Fieschi, bishop of Mondovì; left for Rome, December 29, 1517 and arrived there on January 15, 1518; received the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, January 24, 1518. Legate before King Henry VIII of England to promote a league against the Turks and the ecclesiastical reform in that country, March 3, 1518; the legation ended thirteen months later; the king donated the palace of the English embassy in Rome to the cardinal. Received the episcopal consecration, April 6, 1518 (no further information found). Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, after November 13, 1519. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, December 1519. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. During the pontificate of the new Pope Adrian VI, the cardinal proposed a plan to reform the church and eradicate abuses (2). Governor of the cities of Parma, December 10, 1522. Legate a latere to the Republic of Venice to promote the peace with the emperor, March 10 to August 4, 1523. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Transferred to the see of Bologna, December 2, 1523; resigned the government of the see in favor of his son Alessandro Campeggio; the pope named Cardinal Andrea Della Valle administrator of the see in the consistory of Wednesday December 20, 1525 (3); Alessandro was named to occupy the see on March 19, 1526. Legate a latere to all Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland and the three Northern Kingdoms, January 8, 1524; participated in the Diet of Nüremberg; the purpose of the legation was to limit the spread of the Lutheran heresy; participated in the Congress of Ratisbon, June 24, 1524; left for Austria with Archduke Ferdinand; returned to Rome, October, 20, 1525. Named member of the papal commission on the affairs of the Teutonic Knights. Administrator of the see of Salisbury, December 2, 1524 until 1534 when King Henry VIII deposed him (4). The cardinal was present during the sack of Rome the night of September 18, 1526 and the one by the imperial troops on May 7, 1527, he stayed with Pope Clement VII in Castello Sant' Angelo; after the pope escaped, he was left as legate. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 27, 1528. Legate to England for the proceedings of the question of the divorce of King Henry VIII and Queen Catalina de Aragón, June 8, 1528; arrived in London on February 8, 1529; in March and April, Pope Clement VII sent instructions to the legate asking him to delay passing a sentence and to wait for the opportune moment in which to truncate any hope of obtaining the divorce from Rome; on May 15, 1528, the legate wrote the pope telling him that he would pronounce the sentence after Pentecost; the legate was advised again to find a reason to delay the pronouncement; in the meantime, the pope transferred the cause to the tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota, as Emperor Charles V had requested; this decision greatly irritated and upset the king who not only confronted the legate by word but also deprived him of the see of Salisbury; the cardinal thought he was going to pay with his life; he made his son Ridolfo return to Italy immediately and, a few days later, when he saw that the king was less angry, he requested permission to leave the country; while crossing the strait of Dover, near the French coast, the cardinal was warned that his vessel was being followed by some British ships; fearing that assassins sent by King Henry VIII were on board those ships, he asked the captain of his vessel to confess and receive communion; the captain of the royal ships inspected the cardinal's vessel suspecting that he was transporting treasures donated by the queen; when nothing of that sort was found, he allowed the cardinal to continue his travel.

After crossing through France, he arrived in Bologna and was present at the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V by Pope Clement VII in the cathedral of S. Petronio on February 24, 1530. Pope Clement VII granted the cardinal the title of count of Dozza, for him and his descendants, on March 3, 1530. Named legate to the Diet of Augsburg, March 16, 1530; he accompanied the emperor to the diet departing Bologna on March 22 and arriving in Augsburg on June 15, 1530; because of his bad health, the cardinal asked the pope to be recalled from his legation; Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici replaced him on July 9, 1531. Administrator of the see of Huesca, September 2, 1530 until October 2, 1532. During the farewell visit, Emperor Charles V offered Cardinal Campeggio the see of Majorca, which he happily accepted not for him but for his son Giovanni Battista; he arrived in Bologna on September 17, 1531 in very poor health. On November 9, 1531, the cardinal acquired Palazzo Sanuti (now Bevilacqua) for his children. Administrator of the see of Parenzo, June 6, 1533; resigned in favor of his nephew Giovanni Campeggio, May 28, 1537. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Creta, June 17, 1534 until January 28, 1536. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, September 5, 1534. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, February 26, 1535. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, November 28, 1537. Together with Cardinals Giacomo Simonetta and Girolamo Leandri, he was named legate a latere to the general council to be celebrated in the city of Vicenza; because of the imminent opening of the peace congress of Nice, the council was postponed until April 6, 1539; and on May 21, 1539, the assembly was suspended permanently.

Death.Saturday July 19 (5), 1539, at 5 p.m., of gout and fever, Rome. Buried in the portico of the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome (6).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, ; Cardinal, Edward Victor. Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio : legate to the courts of Henry VIII and Charles V. Boston : Chapman & Grimes, 1935; Centa, Claudio. Una dinastia episcopale nel Cinquecento: Lorenzo, Tommaso e Filippo Maria Campeggi, Vescovi di Feltre 1512-1584. 2 vols. Roma : Centro liturgico vincenziano, 2004. (Chiesa e storia ; 2); Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 55, 57, 58, 59, 66, 71, 136, 181, 195, 264 and 270; Gams, Pius Bonifatius Series episcoporum Ecclesiæ catholicæ. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 197, 401, 676, 777 and 799; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 71, 81, 84 and 92; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 366-376; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 168.

Webgraphy. Biography by Thomas Scannell, in English, The Cayholic Encyclopedia; biography by T. Brieger, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; his portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannic; biography by Stephan Skalweit, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 17 (1974), Treccani; Cronotasi dei vescovi ed arcivescovi dell'arcidiocesi di Bologna, in Italian, archdiocese of Bologna; his portrait, Rettorato, Ufficio Prorettori, University of Bologna, Bologna; his portrait and arms (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); and seal with his effigy, Tudor History; his monument, church of S. Maria dell'Assunzione, Dozza, Emilia-Romagna, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) They were Laudomia; Alessandro, bishop of Bologna and cardinal; Ridolfo; Giovanni Battista, bishop of Majorca; and Leonora.
(2) According to his first biography in English, linked above, of the several plans for reform and eradication of the abuses in the church, one of the best and most thorough was the one of Cardinal Campeggio; he submitted that the main source of all the evils was the Roman Curia; he recommended to greatly diminish the powers of the Datary; that benefices should not be combined, reserved, or kept in commendam; and that only able and virtuous men should be appointed to them. He criticized the fact that the Holy See had, by means of concordats, surrendered the rights of the church to the secular powers; he spoke strongly against the reckless granting of indulgences, especially against those of the Franciscans, and those connected with the contributions towards the building of the Vatican basilica in Rome; he urged the importance of peace between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King François I of France, so that they joined efforts against the common enemy of Christendom, the Turks. The cardinal also strongly advocated for the elimination of the Lutheran heresy by enforcing the Edict of Worms. Unfortunately, the pope's pontificate ended very soon and there was no time to implement any of the reforms.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 136-137; Centa, Una dinastia episcopale nel Cinquecento, II, 1362; Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 371; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiæ catholicæ, p. 676; and Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, I, 168; the "Cronotasi dei vescovi ed arcivescovi of Bologna", linked above, indicates that he occupied the see until his death in 1539.
(4) This is according to Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiæ catholicæ, p. 197; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 292, says that he occupied the post until his death.
(5) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16; and Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 375; his biographies in English and German, linked above, say that he died on July 25, 1539.
(6) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1417: LAVRENTII. TITVLI. S. MARIÆ. TRANSTYBERIM. PATRIS. ET. ALEXANDRI. S. LVCIÆ. IN. SILICE. FILII. EX. LEGITIMO. MATRIMONIO. ANTE. SACERDOTIVM. SVSCEPTI. EX. NOBILI. COMPEGIORVM. BONONIENSIVM. FAMILIA. S. R. E. CARDINALIVM. OSSA. EX. EMINENTI. LOCO. ANNO. SALVTIS. MDLXXI. HVC. TRANSLATA. IN. VNVM. REQVIESCVNT.

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(22) 14. PONZETTI, Ferdinando (1444-1527)

Birth. 1444, Florence. Of a noble Neapolitan family. His last name is also listed as Ponzetta, Ponzeta, Ponzettus, Ponzeti and Puccetti.

Education. Studied theology, philosophy, Greek, Latin and medicine.

Early life. Physician of Pope Innocent VIII. Lector of the Audience of lettere Contraddette. Apostolic secretary of Popes Alexander VI and Julius II. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber; later, its president and dean; and finally, its treasurer, 1513.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Molfetta, April 20, 1517; consecrated, December 21, 1517, at the Vatican, in camera superiore, by Pope Leo X; in the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, future Pope Clement VII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, July 6, 1517. Resigned the government of the see in favor of his nephew Giacomo Ponzetta, July 12 (1), 1518. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Transferred to the see of Grosseto, December 22, 1522; resigned the government of the see, February 25, 1527. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. During the Bourbon sack of Rome in 1526, he lost all his wealth, which was legendary in Rome (2).

Death. September 9 (3), 1527, Rome (4), at an advanced age, 82 years; the mistreatment to which he was subjected by the imperial forces during the sack of Rome accelerated his death. Buried in the chapel of S. Brigida, which he had built, in the church of S. Maria della Pace, Rome (5).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1421; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 38-39; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1419; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 68, 206 and 241; Panvinio, Onofrio. Onvphrii Panvinii Veronensis Fratris Eremitæ Augustiniani, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati. Venetiis, apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577. Microform, 1960. (Manuscripta, microfilms of rare and out-of-print books; list 18, no. 27) ; Microfilm copy, made in 1960, of the original in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana. Positive./ Negative film in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana, pp. 355 and 372.

Webgraphy. Church of S. Maria della Pace, Rome.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 241; his biographical data in Italian, linked above, says that he resigned on May 28, 1518.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 39; the source adds that because of the suffering and melancholy that the loss brought him, he died in Rome in 1527.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16 and 68; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1421; and his biographical data in Italian, linked above, say that he died on September 2, 1527; Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1419; and Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, p. 372, says that he died in Rome in March 1528; this latter source transcribed the text of the cardinal's epitaph, which appears in the following note, and it says that he died on September 2, 1527.
(4) This is according to all the sources consulted except Eubel, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 16, which says that he died extra Curia Romana.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1419: DEPOSITVM. VIRI. OMNIVM. DISCIPLINARVM. OMNIVMQ. ACTIONVM. HVMANARVM. QVÆ. SINGVLAREM. ET. CORPO. ET. ANIMI. VERAM. FELICITATEM. MORTALIBVS. PARERE. SOLENT. REFERTISSIMI. FERDINANDI. PONZETI. SANCTÆ. ROMANÆ. ECCLESIÆ. PRÆSBYTERI. CARDINALIS. TIVLIS. S. PANCRATII. QVI. DIE. II. SEPTEMBRIS. MDXXVII. OBIIT. VICTVRVS. SCILICIT. VITAM. HOMI .... CXX. ANNORVM. NI. SACRAM. DIREPTIONEM. VIDISSET. IACOBVS. PINZETVS. EPISCOPVS. MEPLHITANVS. NEPOS. LACRYMANS. POSVIT.

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(23) 15. ROSSI, Luigi de' (1474-1519)

Birth. August 6, 1474 (1), Florence. Son of Leonetto de' Rossi and Maria de' Medici. Cousin of Pope Leo X on his mother's side.

Education. Educated together with Giovanni de' Medici, his cousin and future Pope Leo X; he had "... maturo giudizio e rara prudenza nel maneggio degli affari..." (mature judgement and rare prudence in the management of affairs) (2). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Abbot commendatario of abad of the monasteries of La Vid, Burgos; and St. Sauveur de Redon, 1514.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, July 6, 1517. Pro-datary of His Holiness.

Death. August 20, 1519, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome (3). Later transferred to the church of S. Felicita, Florence.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 39-40; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1420; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16 and 62.

Webgraphy. His portrait with Pope Leo X and Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, future Pope Clement VIII, by Raffaello Sanzio, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence; and his tomb, portico of the church of S. Felicita, Florence.

(1) This is according to Ferdinando Ughelli in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1420; Chacón, in that same column, says that he was born on August 6, 1479; if he was 45 at the time of his death in 1519, as the inscription placed by his family indicates (see note 2), he could have not been born in 1479.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 39.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, which was composed by Pope Leo X, transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1420: ALOYSIO. VETVSTISSIMÆ. AC. NOBILISSIMÆ. ROSSIORVM. FLORENTIÆ. FAMILIÆ. ORTO. OB. EIVS. IN. MEDICEAM. FAMILIAM. AFFINITATEM. FIDEM. ET. OBSERVANTIAM. LEONIS. X. PONT. MAXIMO. APPRIME. GRATO. OB. EIVS. INGENTES. ANIMI. CORPORISQ. DOTES. IN. CARDINEVM. SENTVM. ASCITO. ET. MOX. VM. TOTIVS. ROMANÆ. CVRIÆ. LVCTV. IMMATVRA. MORTE. PEREMPTO. IMDE. LEO. X. PONT. MAX. TEMPORANEVM. MONVMENTVM. DONEC. IN. PATRIAM. SEPVLCRO. TANTO. VIRO. DIGNO. TVMUVLANDVS. PORTATERVR. FIERI. FECIT. OBIIT. ANNO. DOMINI. MDXIX. MENS. AVGVSTI. DIE. XX. This is the text of the inscription that his family placed in the church of S. Felicitas, Florence, transcribed in the same addition: ALOYSIO. ROSSO. CARDINALI. PII. GENTILES. HOC. PRO. MERITIS. NEC. SATIS. POSVERE. VIXIT. ANN. XLV. OBIIT. ANN. M. D. XIX.

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(24) 16. PASSERINI, Silvio (1469-1529)

Birth. 1469 (1), Cortona, Tuscany. Of a Florentine family. Third of the seven children of Rosado Passerini and Margherita del Braca. His first name is also listed as Sylvio and his last name as Passerino.

Education. He was raised and educated at the court of Lorenzo de' Medici and became very close to Lorenzo's son Giovanni, future cardinal and future Pope Leo X.

Early life. In 1494, he went to Florence and with help of Mariano Zefferini, a Florentine noble, entered the service of the de' Medici family as well as the ecclesiastical career. He followed Giovanni to the battlefront and fought side by side with him in France, where the two were made prisoners. Protonotary apostolic. Datary of Pope Leo X, September 1513 to June 1517. Papal commissioner and envoy to Perugia and Umbria.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, July 6, 1517.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Sarno, February 18, 1518 until June 20, 1519. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, September 17, 1520. Resigned his title and returned to the one of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, January 5, 1521. Elected bishop of Cortona, November 15, 1521; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). He was named regent of Alessandro de' Medici, as signore of Florence and acted in his stead. He accumulated fifty five benefices during this pontificate. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Received, together with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici, Raffaele Petrucci, Niccolò Ridolfi and Giovanni Piccolomini, the new Pope Adrian VI on his arrival in Italy at the port of Livorno. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Legate in Umbria. Administrator of the see of Barcelona, June 28, 1525 until his death. Administrator of the see of Assisi, January 19, 1526 until his death. When the Medicis fell from power in Florence in 1527, the cardinal had to leave that city as well as Cortona. He was a Renaissance patron who built four villas, il Palazzone (2), one in Bettolle, another one in Petrignano, and a third in Piazzano; he also supported and protected artists such as Giorgio Vasari of Arezzo; Andrea del Sarto and Raffaellino del Garbo. Together with Alessandro and Ippolito de' Medici, he attended the first performance of Niccolò Machiavelli's comedy Il Mandragola.

Death. April 20, 1529 (3), Città di Castello, on the Tiber River (4). Transferred to Rome and buried in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome. His nephew, Silvio Passerini, archbishop of Conza, erected his tomb in 1587 in that basilica (5).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1350; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 51-53; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1424; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 64, 68, 102, 129, 179 and 293; Panvinio, Onofrio. Onvphrii Panvinii Veronensis Fratris Eremitæ Augustiniani, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati. Venetiis, apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577. Microform, 1960. (Manuscripta, microfilms of rare and out-of-print books; list 18, no. 27) ; Microfilm copy, made in 1960, of the original in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana. Positive./ Negative film in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana, pp. 355 and 372; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 166; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 732.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, EconomicExpert.com; his portrait, tomb and biography, in English, CortonaGuide; his cenotaph, epitaph and portrait, basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; larger view of his portrait, Requiem Datenbank; portrait, tomb and biography, in Italian, CortonaGuide; Il Palazzone, villa that he built, CortonaGuide; his portrait, arms and family's arms, Poggio Sant'Angelo.

(1) This is according to his three biographies linked above; Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, IV, 732, says that he was born in 1470.
(2) According to his biography in English, linked above: In Cortona, Cardinal Passerini directed his diocese from the Palazzone on the height above Cortona. Originally the 12th-century Palazzo del Capitano del Popolo, who represented the "tribuni della plebe" (the "tribunes of the people"), in 1514 the "Capitani del Popolo" gave way to Cardinal Passerini, who rebuilt it in Renaissance taste ca 1521-27, and left it, as "Palazzo Passerini," to his heirs (who donated it in 1964 to provide a section of the University of Pisa).
(3) This is according to all the sources consulted except Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, p. 372, that says he died on XII. Cal. Maii 1530.
(4) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1350; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 52; his biography in English, linked above; and the inscription in his tomb, in note 5; Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, p. 372; and his biography in Italian, linked above, say that he died in Rome; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16, says that he died in Curia Romana.
(5) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1424: D. O. M. SYLVIO PASSERINO tit. Sancti Lurentii in Lucina Presbytero Cardinali Cortonensi amplissimo, qui ob eius singulares virtutes a Leone X. cuis Datarius fuerat, Cardinalis creatur, dum Tusciæ Perusii totiusq; Vmbria sub Clemente VII. summa provincialium, omniumq; commendatione legatione fungeretur, ac acerrimum in ea libertatis Ecclesiastica se vindecem proberet, sexagenarius Typherni e vivis, cunctorum moerore excessits nn. MDXXIX. XII. Kal. Maii, in hancque sacram tituli sui adem, quam vivens excoluerat, transferrise condi ex testamento ius sit. Sylvius Passerinus Archiepiscopus Cosentinus ipsius Cardinalis, ex Nicolao Passerino et Francisco Hieronymi Borbonii Marchionis Montis Sanctæ Mariæ filiæ coniugibus, pronepos patruo magno bene merenti atque sibi adhuc vivens ac de morte cogitans faciundum curavit, anno Domini M. D. LXXXVII.

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(25) 17. ARMELLINI DE' MEDICI, Francesco (1470-1527)

Birth. July 13, 1470, Perugia (1). Of very honorable parents. His father was a merchant. He dropped his paternal last name, Pantalissi, and took the last name of Armellini, from the maternal uncle who had instituted him his universal heir.

Education. Educated by his maternal uncle (no further educational information found).

Early life. He established himself in Rome and began to work as a solicitor in litigations and similar affairs. Protonotary apostolic. Secretary of Pope Julius II. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Because he was smart and successful in the exaction of taxes, he made himself known to Pope Leo X, to whom he frequently gave the means to find funds. In gratitude, the pope adopted him into his family; he added the family's last name to his.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, July 6, 1517.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Gerace e Oppido, November 19, 1517 until June 6, 1519 (2). Legate in Marche. Intendent of papal finances. Pro-legate in Umbria. Legate in France. Negotiated with Cardinal Innocenzo Cybo the post of camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; occupied the post from September 13, 1521 until his death; his elevation caused envy and enemies as well as a great displeasure to the people of Rome to whom he had charged all kinds of subsidies; he was exposed to their furor during the pontificate of Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, November 22, 1523. Elected archbishop of Tarento, December 15, 1525; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Named pro-vicechancellor of the Holy Roman Church after November 21, 1526. He lost all his wealth during the sack of Rome of 1527 by the imperial troops; he became very upset for the loss and sought refuge in Castello Sant'Angelo during the sack of the city; having found the gate of the castle closed, he got into a basket which was then lifted with a rope.

Death. October 1527 (3), Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome (4).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 264; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 40-42; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1420; Del Re, Niccolò. La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici. 4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 296; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 61, 81, 209 and 308; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, III, 41; Panvinio, Onofrio. Onvphrii Panvinii Veronensis Fratris Eremitæ Augustiniani, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati. Venetiis, apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577. Microform, 1960. (Manuscripta, microfilms of rare and out-of-print books; list 18, no. 27) ; Microfilm copy, made in 1960, of the original in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana. Positive./ Negative film in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana, pp. 355 and 372.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian in "Personaggi illustri"; another biography, in Italian; his arms; his tomb, church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome; his sarcophagus; detail of the jacent statue in his tomb; complete view of the tomb; and catalog of the bishops of Arezzo.

(1) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 264; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 40; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, III, 41, say that some sources indicate that he was born in Perugia, while others say that he was born in Fossato, diocese of Nocera; neither one mentions the sources; Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, pp. 355 and 372; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1420; and his epitaph, transcribed by Andrea Vittorini, note 3 below, say that he was Peruginus.
(2) The catalog of the bishops of Arezzo, says that he occupied the see from 1518 to 1522; neither Eubel nor Pius Bonfatius Gams Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 742 list him among the occupants of this see.
(3) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 264; and his epitaph, transcribed by Andrea Vittorini, note 3 below; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16, says that he died on January 8, 1528; the same source, III, 308, says that he died in October 1527; Del Re, La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici, p. 296 says that he occupied the post of camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church until June 8, 1528; Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, p. 372, says that he died in September 1527; his second biography in Italian, linked above, says that he died in 1527.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorini in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1420: FRANCISCO. ARMELLINO. PERVSINO. TITVLVS. S. MARCI. POST. S. CALIXTI. PRESBYTERO. CARDIN. S. R. E. CAMERARIO. MARCHIÆ. LEGATO. VIRO. INDEFESSO. ET. INGENII. SVPRA. HOMINEM. ACRIS. QVI. VIXIT. ANNOS. LVII. MENSES. III. DIES. XII. OBIIT. MENSE. OCTOBRIS. MDXXVII. ARCVS. ANTONVS. ET. INNOCENTIVS. AFFINES. POSVERVNT. This text of the epitaph markedly differs from the one that appears in the photograph of his tomb linked above.

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(26) 18. DEDEL, Adriaan Florenszoon (1459-1523)

Birth. March 2, 1459, Utrecht. Of a modest family. Son of Florens Boeyenszoon Dedel (1), a carpenter who specialized in the construction of ships, and his wife Geertruid. His first name is also listed as Adriaen and his papal name as Adrianus VI, Adriano VI, Hadrian VI, Hadrianus VI and Hadriano VI.

Education. Initial studies in Utrecht; his widowed mother (his father had died by or in 1469) sent him to study under the Brethren of the Common Life at Zwolle; in 1476 he continued his studies at the University of Louvain, Louvain, in 1476; studied philosophy for two years and theology and canon law for ten; obtained a licentiate in theology, August 1, 1490; and doctorate in theology, June 8, 1491.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 30, 1490, Louvain. Professor of philosophy and theology at the University of Louvain; Desiderius Erasmus was among his students; dean of the faculty of theology,1493; rector two times, 1493-1494 and 1501-1502; and chancellor in 1493 and 1501. Pastor of the parish of Goedereede; dean of the church of Saint-Pierre of Louvain, 1497. Provost of Utrecht and Liège. In 1507, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I named him preceptor of his grandson Prince Charles, future King Carlos I of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V; from 1510, he dedicated himself exclusively to his pupil. In 1515, there appeared in Louvain his scholastic disputation Quæstiones quotlibeticæ; and in Paris his In quartum Sententiarum præsertim circa sacramenta...; both were reprinted very soon. Princess Margaret of Austria asked him to be part of her council in 1515. In that same year, he was named commissary for the indulgence that Prince Carlos had obtained from Pope Leo X. Furthermore, in the Fall of 1515, he went to Spain to secure the succession to the throne of his disciple, Prince Carlos, and if necessary, to personally assume the direction of the government; in a foreign country, he found in Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, archbishop of Toledo, a protector and an ally; they shared the common aspiration of the reform of the church; both became regents at the death of King Fernando I the Catholic in January 1516.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortosa, August 18, 1516. Consecrated in 1516 by Diego de Ribera, bishop of Segovia (no further information found). Inquisitor general of Aragón and Navarra, November 1516. Inquisitor general of Castilla, 1518; unified de facto the position for all Spain. Governor of Castilla and León. During the minority of Charles, he was associated with Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros as co-regent of Spain.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, after July 6, 1517. After the death of Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros in November 1517, he governed Spain until the arrival of King Carlos. Appointed, on March 14, 1518, general of Castilla and León, in which capacity he acted until his departure from Tarragona for Rome on August 4, 1522. In May 1520, when the king departed for the Low Countries, he named the cardinal his lieutenant general; because of his indecisiveness during the the revolt of the comuneros in Castilla, the king appointed the Constable of Castilla, Íñigo Velasco, as regent. Did not participate in the conclave of 1521-1522 because he was in Spain; he was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on January 9, 1522. Took the name Adrian VI, retaining his baptismal name (2). He arrived at Civitavecchia on August 25, 1522. Crowned, August 31, 1522, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Marco Cornaro, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. He created one cardinal in one consistory. Last pope not born in what today is Italy until the election of Cardinal Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II) from Poland, on October 16, 1978.

Death. September 14, 1523, Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Andrea, between the tombs of Popes Pius II and Pius III, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; on August 11, 1533 (3), his remains were transferred to the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, and buried in the monument built by Cardinal Willem van Enckenvoirt, work of Baldassarre Peruzzi and other Italian artists.

Bibliography. Adrian VI, Pope, 1459-1523. Adriani sexti pont. max. preclarissime questiones quolibetice accuratius nouiter impresse: adiccto omnium principalium incidentium questionus amplissimo indice. Ridgewood : Gregg Press, 1964. Note: Colophon: Venetiis, Lucant. de Giunta, 1522./ Reprint of 1522 ed.; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 36-38; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1418, 1447-1448; Del Re, Niccolò. "Adriano VI." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, 30-31; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 63 and 186; Hocks, Else. Der letzte deutsche Papst, Adrian VI. 1522-1523. Freiburg im Breisgau : Herder, 1939; Hocks, Else ; Jurgens, W. A. Paus Adriaan VI : de Paus uit de Nederlanden. Brugge : De Kinkhoren ; Amsterdam : Strengholt, 1944. (Historische bibliotheek); Hocks, Else. ; Gorkom, L. J. C. van. Paus Adriaan VI (zesde) : een utrechtsche timmermanszoon op den heiligen stoel van St. Petrus. Amsterdam : Strengholt, 1930; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 258-259; Ortiz, Blas. Itinerarium Adriani Sexti : Impreso en Toledo MDXLVI. Vitoria : Editorial S. Católica, 1950. (Publicaciones de la Obra Cultural de la Caja de Ahorros y Monte de Piedad de la Ciudad de Vitoria); Roey, Joseph Ernest van. Adrien VI, le primier Pape de la Contre-Réforme: sa personnalité, sa carrière, son oeuvre. Louvain : Publications Universitaires, 1959. (Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum Lovaniensium, 14); Rosa, Mario. "Adriano VI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, pp. 64-70.

Webgraphy. Biography by James Loughlin, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography, in Dutch; portrait and biography, in Dutch; arms and biography, in Dutch; pictures and biography, in Dutch; biography, in Italian; his episcopal lineage, in English; Hadrianus VI, de enige Nederlandse paus, maar dan gezien door de ogen van de protestant Burmannus (Hadrianus VI, the only Dutch pope, but then seen by the eyes of the Protestant Burmannus).his portrait by Jan van Scorel, Centraal Museum, Utrecht, Holland; his portrait by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Collezione Gioviana, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy; his portrait by Bernaert van Orley, Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum, Hannover, Germany; his engraving by J. Wandelaar and J. Houbraken; his engraving by Gottfried Daniel Berger; four paintings and engravings; his effigy on several medals; coins with his arms; the house where he was born, Wikimedia; his tomb, church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) There are discrepancies among the sources concerning the name of Adrian and his father. The first biography in English, linked above says that his father's name was Florentius Dedel; the second biography in English, also linked above says that is was Adrian Florenszoon Boeyens; his first biography in Dutch, linked above, says that the pope's name was Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens; the second biography in Dutch calls him Adriaan Florenszoon Dedel van Utrecht; the third one says that his name was Adriaan Florenszoon, frequently called Boeyensz because of his father's name; the fourth biography also calls him Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens; his biography in Italian calls him Adrian d'Edel; in part 1, fifth chapter of Ferdinand (Adolf) Gregorovius's Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, he is called Adrian Dedel and his father Floriß Boyens Dedel; his last biography in Dutch indicates that Florenszoon (o Floriszoon) is effectively the patronymic of Adriaan and Boeyensz is the abbreviation of his father's patronymic, Boeyenszoon; finally, Hadrianus VI, de enige Nederlandse paus, also linked above, cites R. R. Post: "Adriaan Florenszoon, Familie, Opleiding" in: Dancwerc, Opstellen aangeboden aan D. Th. Enklaar, Groningen 1959, who indicates that there are doubts that their last name was Dedel and says that a family of that name could have been their friend.
(2) The only subsequent pope so far to use his baptismal name as his papal name is Marcellus II (1555).
(3) This is according to Hocks, Der letzte deutsche Papst, Adrian VI. 1522-1523, pp. 168-169; and Ludwig von Pastor, The history of the popes : from the close of the Middle Ages. Drawn from the secret archives of the Vatican and other original sources, (40 vols. St. Louis, Mo : Herder, 1923-1953), IX, 217; Del Re, "Adriano VI." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 31, says that the remains were transferred on August 12, 1533.

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(27) 19. VIO, O.P., Tommaso (1469-1534)

Birth. February 20, 1469 (1), Gaeta. Fourth and last child of Francesco Vio and Isabella de Sieri. His baptismal name was Jacopo, also listed as Giacomo. He is also called Gaetano because of his place of birth;as Cajetanus, form of his name in Latin; as Tommaso Gaetano; and as Caetano. His parents wanted him to get married but he opted for the religious life.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in the convent of Gaeta when he was 15 years old; changed his name to Tommaso; studied in the Dominican convents of Naples; Bologna, 1488; Padua, 1491; and Pavia; obtained a bachelor's in theology in 1492; and the doctorate in theology in the general chapter of his order celebrated in Ferrara in 1494.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1491. Professor of "Sentences" in Padua, 1493; and of metaphysics, also in Padua, 1494. Professor of theology in Brescia and Pavia 1497. Called to Rome in 1500 by Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, protector of the Dominican Order, and given a chair at the Archginnasio Romano. Named procurator general of his order in 1501; its vicar general, 1507, at the death of the master general. Elected master general of his order in the general chapter of 1509. He worked to impede the celebration of the schismatic Council of Pisa, called to oppose Pope Julius II; he supported the pope and composed the Tractatus de Comparatione auctoritatis Papæ et conciliorum ad invicem. He also promoted Catholic reform at the V Lateran Council, 1512-1517; he played a leading role and in the second session of the council, he brought about a decree recognizing the infallibility of the pope and the superiority of papal authority to that of councils.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, July 6, 1517. Legate a latere before Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and before the king of Dacia, April 26, 1518; the pope blessed the legate and his retinue in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Palermo, February 8, 1518. Consecrated, Saturday May 1, 1518, at the chapel of the consecrator; by Cardinal Niccolò Fieschi, bishop of Albano, assisted by Paride de Grassi, bishop of Pesaro, and by Gabriele Foschi, archbishop of Durazzo and bishop of Acquapendente. He was never able to take possession because of the opposition of the Sicilian senate; resigned the government of the see, December 19, 1519. Legate a latere to the diet of Augsburg in 1518; he was entrusted, at the request of the elector of Saxony, with the task of examining and testing the teachings of Martin Luther; the cardinal had written the year before, without knowledge of Luther's theses, that Luther was justified in his assertion that on the doctrine of dispensation the church had as yet arrived at no firmly established position; with regard to the doctrine of confession, Cardinal Cajetan seemed also to see it as a subject open to controversy; Luther appeared before him at the diet of Augsburg; the cardinal's appearance in all the splendor of ecclesiastical pomp only served to portray him to Luther as the type of Roman curialist strongly disliked by Germans; besides, the Thomist philosophy represented by the cardinal had been traditionally at odds in the church to the Augustian philosophy of Luther's religious order. In 1519, Cardinal Cajetan helped in drawing up the bill of excommunication against Luther. Transferred to the see of Gaeta, April 13, 1519; occupied the see until his death. Legate a latere to Germany to obtain support for the war against the Turks and obtain the return of Martin Luther to the Roman Catholic Church, September 5, 1519; participated in the diets of Augsburg and Frankfurt; he assisted in the diet that elected King Carlos I of Spain as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V; he met with Luther in Augsburg. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Legate a latere before the kings of Hungary, Poland and Bohemia, May 8, 1523. Did not participate in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII, because he was in his legation in Hungary. During the sack of Rome by imperial troops in 1527, he was under grave risk and had to pay 5,000 scudi to recover his freedom. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, March 14, 1534. He was one of the nineteen cardinals who pronounced definitively for the validity of the marriage of King Henry VIII of England and Catalina de Aragón in a consistory held on March 23, 1534. He was a notable philosopher, theologian, and exegete as well as a prolific writer; from 1507 to 1522, he published a commentary on the Summa theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas that still is an important contribution to Thomist philosophy. Pope Leo XIII ordered his commentaries to be incorporated with the text of the Summa in the official Leonine edition of the complete works of Saint Thomas (2). He faced the difficult issues of his time with tact, education and tolerance; he worked to appease the antagonistic, to reform the sinners, to check the spread of heresy, and to avert schism. Pope Clement VII called him "Lamp of the Church".

Death. August 10 (3), 1534, Rome. Buried on the left side of the vestibule of the Dominican church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (4).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1621- 1629; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 42-45; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1421-1422; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 69, 70, 200 and 268-269.

Webgraphy. Biography by John Volz, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography by T. Kolde, in English, under "Cajetan Thomas", New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; biography by A. Bandera González, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Eckehart Stöve, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 39 (1991), Treccani; his portrait arguing with Martin Luther by Ferdinand Wilhelm Pauwels, work painted at the end of th 19th century, Zyklus, Eisenach, Burg, Wartburg, Germany, posterlounge; his portrait (1950-1999), archdiocese of Gaeta, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except his biography in Spanish, linked above, which says that he was born on February 20, 1468; and his third biography in English, also linked above, which gives his date of birth as February 20, 1468/69?; his obituary, below in note 4, says that he died at 65 years and 29 days, therefore, he would have been born on July 11-12, 1469; Ughelli, in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1421, says that he was born Anno igitur 1470, die quo D. Iacobi natalitia celebrantur, sub Ferdinando II. Rege, & Paulo II. Pontifice natus est, which is July 25, 1470.
(2) The works written by the cardinal exceeded 115. Following is a list of some of them taken from his first biography in English, linked above: Opuscula omnia tribus tomis distincta (fol., Lyons, 1558; Venice, 1558; Antwerp, 1612), a collection of fifty nine treatises; Commentaria super tractatum de ente et essentiâ Thomæ de Aquino; super libros posteriorum Aristotelis et praedicamenta, etc. (fol., Venice, 1506); In praedicabilia Porphyrii praedicamenta et libros posteriorum analyticorum Aristotelis castigatissima commentaria (8vo, Venice, 1587, 1599); Super libros Aristotelis de Animâ, etc. (Rome, 1512; Venice, 1514; Paris, 1539); Summula de peccatis (Rome, 1525, and in many other corrected and augmented editions); Jentacula N.T., expositio literalis sexaginta quatuor notabilium sententiarum Novi Test., etc. (Rome, 1525); In quinque libros Mosis juxta sensum lit. commentarii (Rome, 1531, fol.; Paris, 1539); In libros Jehosuæ, Judicum, Ruth, Regum, Paralipomenon, Hezrae, Nechemiæ et Esther (Rome, 1533; Paris, 1546); In librum Job (Rome, 1535); In psalmos (Venice, 1530; Paris, 1532); In parabolas Salomonis, in Ecclesiasten, in Esaiæ tria priora capita (Rome, 1542; Lyons, 1545; Paris, 1587); In Evangelia Matt., Marci, Lucæ, Joannis (Venice, 1530); In Acta Apostolorum [Venice, 1530; Paris (with Gospels), 1536]; In Epistolas Pauli (Paris, 1532); Opera omnia quotquot in sacrae Scripturæ expositionem reperiuntur, curâ atque industriâ insignis collegii S. Thomæ Complutensis, O.P. (5 vols. fol., Lyons, 1639). This is the list of the cardinal's works taken from the addition of Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1422: In Universalia Porfirij; In libros Aristotelis Logicorum, & de Anima; In Pentateucum; In libros historiales Bibliorum; In libros Sapientales Bibliorum; In Psalmos; In tria priora capita Esayæ; In quattuor Evangelia; In Acta Apostolorum; In omnes Epistolas D. Pauli, & Apostolorum; In iibrum D. Thomae de ente & essential; In Summam S Thomae perampla Comentaria; Summulam de peccatis succinctam; De potestae Papae & Concilii; Apologiam pro eodem opusculo; De cambijs; De maleficis; De votis; De circunstantia diei testi; De vsura; De eleecmosyna; De conceptu Entis; De infinitati Dei; De Celatione confessoris; Denominum Analogia; De subiecto naturali philosophiæ; De potentia neutral; De vsu Spiritualium rerum in peccato mortali; De Pontificatus institutione divina; De Simonnia; De Castitate; De Matrimonio; Quaestione de Coelo & mundo, & de sensu agente; De vnione Verbi Dei; De immortalitate animorum; Quomodo Spiritus patiantur ab igne; De Synodorum differentia; De psalmo Virginis; Adversus Lutherum de fide & operibus; De Communione; De Confessione; De satisfactione; De invocatione Sanctorum; Et alia opuscula.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16 and 69; his three biographies in English, linked above, say that he died on August 9, 1534; his biography in German, linked above, says that he died on August 9/10, 1534; his biography in Spanish, also linked above, indicates that he died on October 10, 1534; his fourth biography in English, linked above, says that he died on August 10, 1534?.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1422: HAC. ANTERIORI. POSSVLA. QVAM. LECTOR. INSPICIS. FELICIS. MEMORIÆ. THOMÆ. DE. VIO. ORDINIS PRÆDICATORVM. CARDINALIS. CAIETANI. CONSERVANTVR. OSSA. QVI. DVM. VIXIT. ITA. MORIBVS. ATQVE. OMNI. DOCTRINAM. HVMANO. GENERI. PROFVIT. VT. PRO. TANTO. BENEFICIO. DEO. GRATIAS. AGERE. AC. PRO. EIVS. ANIMA. MERITO. PRECES. FUNDERE. TENEAMVR. HIC. QVORVMDAM. ALIORVM. INANEM. DECLINANS. FASTVM. HVMILI. HOC. SE. CONDI. IVSSIT. TVMVLO. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXV. DIES. XXIX. OBIIT. ANNO. CHRISTI. MDXXXIV. THOMAS. DE. VIO. CAIETANVS. CARDINALIS. S. SIXTI. SACRI. ORDINIS. PRÆDICATORVM.

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(28) 20. VITERBO, O.E.S.A., Egidio da (1472-1532)

Birth. 1472 (1), Viterbo. Son of Lorenzo Antonini and Maria del Testa. He is also listed as Ægidius Canisius; as Giles of Viterbo; and as Gilles de Viterbe.

Education. Entered the Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine (Augustinians) in Viterbo in 1488; took the name Egidio di Viterbo. He studied in Augustinian houses in Ameria, Padua, Istria, Florence and Rome (philosophy); later, he was made doctor in theology. He knew Greek, Hebrew (2), Turk Chaldean and Persian; and studied the Kabbalah for a long time, writing two treatises about it: Schechina and Libellus de litteris hebraicis.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). He became a noted orator and preached before Pope Alexander VI. He travelled extensively, which provided him the opportunity of establishing relationships with literary figures and philosophers of his time such as Marsilio Ficino in Florence, and the intellectuals of the Accademia Pontaniana in Naples; he was also a friend of Giovanni Pontano, who dedicated the dialog Aegidius to him. Named vicar general of the order, June 1506. Elected prior general of his order in Naples in June 1507 (3); resigned the post, February 1518. Accompanied Pope Julius II in two trips to Bologna. Nuncio to Venice and Naples to obtain their participation in the war against the Turks. Nuncio to Perugia that had rebelled against the government of Pope Julius II. Nuncio of Pope Leo X before Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I to induce him make peace with Venice. Also, nuncio before the duke of Urbino. He delivered an oration at the opening of the V Lateran Council in 1512.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, July 6, 1517. Opted for the title of Matteo in Merulana, July 10, 1517. Protector of the of the Hermits of Saint Augustine, 1521. Apostolic legate to Spain, May 24, 1519; legate a latere to promote the war against the Turks, July 6, 1519. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viterbo, December 2, 1523; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated, January 10, 1524, at the house of his consecrator, by Gabriele Foschi, archbishop of Durazzo, assisted by Giacomo Bongalli, bishop of Nepi e Sutri, and by Giovanni Capellanii, bishop of Bovino. Named titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, August 8, 1524; occupied the title until December 19, 1530. Governor of Cingoli in Marche, 1524. During the sack of Rome in 1527 by the imperial troops, he lost his extensive library. After the sack, he retired to Padua for a year. Opted for the title of S. Marcello, May 9, 1530. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Zadar, December 19, 1530. Named bishop of Lanciano, April 10, 1532; occupied the see until his death (4). The study of Jewish literature led the cardinal to a friendly interest in the Jews themselves (5).

Death. November 12 (6), 1532, Rome (7). Buried near the main altar of the church of S. Agostino, Rome.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 986-987; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 47-50; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1423; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 60, 65, 67, 177, 215, 218 and 335; Mariani, Ugo. "Egidio da Viterbo". Enciclopedia Cattolica. , 12 vols. Città del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1949-1954, V, cols. 141-143; Martin, Francis X. Friar, reformer, and Renaissance scholar : life and work of Giles of Viterbo, 1469-1532. With a foreword by John W. O'Malley ; edited by John E. Rotelle. Villanova, PA : Augustinian Press, 1992. (The Augustinian series ; v. 18). Note: Originally presented as the author's thesis (Ph. D.--Cambridge University) under title: Egidio da Viterbo, 1469-1518; Signorelli, Giuseppe. Il Cardinale Egidio da Viterbo, agostiniano, umanista e riformatore, 1469-1532: in appendice l'epistolario in gran parte inedito. Firenze : Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 1929.(Biblioteca Agostiniana ; n. 16).

Webgraphy Biography, in English, 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Augnet, site of Saint Augustine of Hippo and the Order of Saint Augustine; biography, in Latin, under "Canisio Fr. Aegidius"; biography by Germana Ernst, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 42 (1993), Treccani; biographical data, in Italian; his portrait, museum of the cathedral of Viterbo, Vierbo, Italy; and his engraving, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; Viterbo, alla radice della Riforma by Marco Roncalli, in Italian, Avvenire, 22 novembre 2014.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 50, that says he died in 1532 at 60; his biography in English, linked above, says that he was born in 1470; his biography in Latin, linked above, also says that he was born in 1470; and his biographical data in Italian, also linked above, says that he was born in 1469.
(2) He was taught by Elijah Ben Ascher the Levite (c.1468-1549), grammarian and lexicographer of whom the cardinal was a patron.
(3) This is according to his biography in Latin, linked above; and Breton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 986; his biography in English, linked above, says that he was elected in 1503; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 48, says that he was elected in 1508.
(4) His biography in Latin, linked above, indicates that he was also bishop of Sutri and Nepi, and Castro; neither Eubel nor Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), in their catalogs of these sees, list him as one of the occupants.
(5) According to his biography in English, linked above, the cardinal, in a vain attempt which he made in the year 1531, in conjunction with Cardinal Geronimo de Ghinucci, tried to prevent the issue of the papal edict authorizing the introduction of the Inquisition against the Maranos. And aside from minor works on the Hebrew language, the majority of his works by far are of a cabalistic nature. There is scarcely a classic of Jewish medieval mysticism that he has not translated, annotated, or commented upon. Among these works may be mentioned the Zohar (Splendor); Ginnat Egoz (Nut-Garden); Sefer Raziel (Book of Raziel); Ma'areket ha-Elohut (System of Theology); Eser Sefirot (Ten Sefirot).
(6) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16, 65, 215 and 218, which says that other sources, that it does not mention, indicates that he died on November 11, 1532.
(7) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16, that says he died in Curia Romana; his biographical data in Italian, linked above, says that he died in Viterbo.

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(29) 21. NUMAI, O.F.M.Obs., Cristoforo (?-1528)

Birth. (No date found), Forlì. Of a rich and famous family. Second of the five sons of Francesco Numai and Cassandra Ercolani. His last name is also listed as Numali and Numajo.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Observants (Franciscans) in Bologna, where he studied; went to France and obtained a doctorate at La Sorbonne University, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Confessor of Queen Louise de Savoy (1), mother of King François I of France. Elected superior general of his order in the general chapter celebrated in Rome on June 1, 1517; occupied the post until 1518.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, July 6, 1517. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, July 10, 1517. He travelled to France a month after his promotion.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Alatri, 1517; occupied the post until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Administrator of Isernia, April 17, 1523; resigned the government of the see in favor of his nephew Antonio Numai, December 19, 1524. Consecrated, July 5, 1523, Rome, by Pope Adrian VI, assisted by Cardinals Nicolò Fieschi, Antonio Maria Ciocchi, Lorenzo Pucci, Paolo Cesi, and Giacomo Salviati. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Administrator of the see of Riez, April 27, 1526; resigned the post, March 18, 1527. During the sack of Rome in 1527, he was mistreated by the troops when they did not find anything to steal in his house.

Death. March 23, 1528, Ancona (2). Transferred to Rome and buried in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1279; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 45-47; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1422; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 16, 65, 67, 99, 214 and 284; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 1000.

(1) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1279; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 46, says that he was the confessor of Queen Claudia, wife of King François I of France.
(2) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1279; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 47; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1422; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 16, says that he died in Curia Romana.

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(30) 22. VICH Y DE VALTERRA, Guillén-Ramón de (1460/1470-1525)

Birth. 1460/1470, Valencia. Of an illustrious family. Son of Luis de Vich y de Corbera, señor of the Valles de Gallinera y Ebo and mestre racional (general controller of accounts) of the kingdom of Valencia; and his third wife. His first names are also listed as Gualterio, Guillermo and Raimundo; and his last name as Vic.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. In recognition of the merits of his brother Jerónimo de Vich during his long embassy in Rome, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, November 13, 1517.

Episcopate. Named administrator of the see of Cefalù, October 22, 1518; occupied the post until June 7, 1525. Elected coadjutor bishop with right of succession of Bishop Martín García of Barcelona, June 24, 1519; succeeded to the see of Barcelona (no date found); took possession of the see, March 20, 1521; he resided in Rome most the time (1); occupied the see until his death. Abbot commendatario of the Premostrantense monastery of Bellpuig de las Avellanas, September 11, 1521; he resigned the commendam in favor of Cipriano Benet, O.P. Consecrated, Sunday September 22, 1521, Rome, by Paris de Grassis, former bishop of Pesaro, papal chaplain. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII.

Death. July 27 (2), 1525, in the Cistercian monastery of Casamari, diocese of Veroli (3). Transferred to Rome and buried in the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 50-51; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1423-1424; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 65, 129 and 163; Goñi, J. "Vich, Guillén Ramón de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, IV, 2754-2755; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 34; Villanueva, Jaime ; Villanueva, Joaquín Lorenzo. Viage literario á las iglesias de España. 22 vols. Madrid : Imprenta real, 1803-1852. At head of title : Real Academia de la Historia, XVIII, 51-53.

Webgraphy. Biographical data, in English; biographical data, pp. 51-53, in Spanish; The Vich family, in Catalonian; and his seal, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France.

(1) The only news known about his activity in Barcelona is that he ordered that the canons should go by order of seniority in public celebrations.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 17and 65; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 34; and his biographical data in Spanish, lined above, say that he died on July 25, 1525; Goñ, "Vich, Guillén Ramón de", IV, 2754, says that the duke of Sessa, Spanish ambassador in Rome, communicated to Emperor Charles V on July 30, 1525 the news of the death of the cardinal.
(3) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 51; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1424; and Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 34; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 17, says that he died in Curia Romana.

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(31) 23. ORSINI, Franciotto (1473-1534)

Birth. 1473, Rome. Eldest son of Orso Orsini di Monteredondo and Costanza Savelli. Nephew of Pope Leo X, on his father's side. Signore of Monterotondo. The family gave the church several popes and cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Nicholas III (1277-1280); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. Educated in Florence by Lorenzo il Magnifico de' Medici.

Early life. Participated in several military enterprises; he fought against Cesara Borgia. He married Violante Orsini di Mugnano and had five legitimate children and one natural (1); after the death of his wife, he entered the ecclesiastical state. Roman cleric. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, July 6, 1517. Administrator of the see of Nicastro, September 18, 1517; resigned the post, May 5, 1518. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Episcopate. Named administrator of the see of Boiano, January 18, 1519; occupied the post until July 24, 1523. Deposed from the cardinalate on August 8, 1519 (?). Later reinstated. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin after 1519. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Administrator of the see of Fréjus, June 15, 1524; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Leone Orsini, December 15, 1525. Administrator of the see of Rimini, March 23, 1528; occupied the post until April 7, 1529.

Death. January 10, 1534 (2), Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1296; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 53-54; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1424; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 73, 74, 118, 136, and 197; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 745.

Webgraphy. Cronotassi dei vescovi di Nicastro ora Lamezia Terme.

(1) They were: Costanzo, Ottavio, Orso, Clarice, Cecilia and a natural son, Annibale, who was archbishop of Nicosia and canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.
(2) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1296; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 54, says that he died at the beginning of 1534; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 17, says that he died before January 14, 1534; his epitaph, transcribed in note 2, below, says that he died QVARTO. IDVS. IANVARII. MDXXXIII; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col.1482, says that he died on pridie Non. Ian. anni 1534.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in his addition to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1424: FRANCISCO CARDINALI VRSINO LEONIS. X. PONTIF. MAXIMI. AMITINO. QVI. DVM. ANNVM. PROPE. LXI. AGERET. DIEM. CLAVSIT. EXTREMVM. QVARTO. IDVS. IANVARII. MDXXXIII. OCTAVIVS. VRSINVS. PATRI. OPTIMO. POSVET.

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(32) 24. CESI, Paolo Emilio (1481-1537)

Birth. 1481, in a fief of his family in Umbria. Eldest of the twelve children of Angelo Cesi, Roman noble, and Francesca (Franceschina) Cardoli. Brother of Cardinal Federico Cesi (1544). Second cousin of Cardinal Pierdonato Cesi, seniore (1570). Relative of Cardinals Bartolomeo Cesi (1596) and Pierdonato Cesi, iuniore (1641). His last name is also listed as Cesa, Cesio and Cæsi.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. After finishing his studies, he went to Rome. Notary of the V Lateran Council, 1512-1517. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Protonotary apostolic. Regent of the Apostolic Chancery.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola inter Imagines, July 6, 1517. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Lund, February 6, 1520; resigned the post, July 12, 1521. Administrator of the see of Sion, November 12, 1522; occupied the post until September 8, 1529. Administrator of the see of Todi, June 1, 1523; resigned the post in favor of his brother Federico Cesi. Pope Adrian VI named him one of the judges in the cause against Cardinal Francesco Soderini. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Administrator of the see of Narni, May 20, 1524; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Bartolomeo Cesi, June 1, 1524. Administrator of the see of Orte e Civita Castellana, April 7, 1525; occupied the post until his death. Administrator of the see of Cervia, 1525; resigned the post in favor of Ottavio Cesi, March 23, 1528. He lost all his possessions in the sack of Rome by the imperial troops in 1527. Governor of Rome in the absence of the pope, 1529. Administrator of the see of Massa marittima, October 6, 1529; occupied the post until October 21, 1530. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustacchio, September 5, 1534. Prefect of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Clement VII. Protector of the duchy of Savoy. Vice-protector of England and Ireland. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Member of the commission for the reform of the Roman Curia, August 23, 1535.

Death. August 5, 1537, Rome. Buried in the chapel of his family in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 650; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 54-57; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1425; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 67, 73, 163, 211, 237, 253, 295 and 321; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 230.

Webgraphy. His tomb, Cesi Chapel, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome; another view of the tomb; and the altar of the Cesi Chapel.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1425: D. O. M. PAVLO. CÆSIO. SANCTI. EVSTACHII. DIACONO. CARDINALI. A. LEONE. X. ELECTO. LIBELLIS. GRATIÆ. SIGNANDIS. PRÆFECTO. A. CLEMENTE. VII. AD. PRÆCIPVAS. RES. AGENDAS. ADHIBITO. BASILICÆ. HVIVS. ARCHIPRÆSBYTERO. FEDERICUS. CARD. FRATRI. BENE. MERENTI. POS. VIXIT. ANNOS. LVI. OBBIT. ANNO. SALVTIS. MDXXXVII. QVINTO. NONAS. AVGVSTI.

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(33) 25. CESARINI, seniore, Alessandro (?-1542)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Second of the three sons of Agabito Cesarini. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini, seniore (1426). Nephew of Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore (1493). Great-grand uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Cesarini, iuniore (1627).

Education. "... grand'amatore delle lettere, e della più colta erudizzione..." (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. He became a close friend of the Medici family and especially of Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, future Pope Leo X. He had a natural son, Ascanio Cesarini, who was bishop of Oppido from 1538 to 1542. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Sergio e Bacco, July 6, 1517.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Gerace e Oppido (2), June 6 to 15, 1519. Administrator of the see of Pamplona, December 27, 1520; resigned the post, June 5, 1538. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI; he was a member of the commission of cardinals who went to Zaragoza to pay homage to the new Pope Adrian VI in the name of the Sacred College of Cardinals and the Roman people. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, December 14, 1523. Cardinal protodeacon. Administrator of the see of Otranto, April 9, 1526; occupied the post until March 22, 1536. Administrator of the see of Alessano, July 20, 1526; occupied the post until November 15, 1531. In the sack of Rome by imperial troops in 1527, he was one of the cardinals kept as hostages. Administrator of the see of Gerace, again, August 21, 1534; resigned the post, February 20, 1538. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Administrator of the see of Catanzaro, May 15, to August 18, 1536. Administrator of the see of Oppido, again, September 2, 1536; resigned in favor of his son Ascanio Cesarini, February 20, 1538. Legate to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to congratulate him for the victory against the Tunisians, 1537. Legate to King François I of France to negotiate the peace with the emperor. Together with Cardinals Lorenzo Campeggio and Mariano Grimani, he was named member of the commission to oversee the officials and ministers of the Papal States. Administrator of the see of Cuenca, May 24, 1538; occupied the post until his death. Member of the commission of cardinals for the celebration of the general council. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, May 31, 1540. Consecrated (no information found). Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, November 14, 1541. He was highly esteemed by Cardinal Jacopo Sadoloeto and Paolo Manuzio for his patronage to literary figures and artists.

Death. February 13, 1542, Rome. Buried in the tomb of his family in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 57-58; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1425-1426; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 55, 57, 75, 76, 103, 158, 174, 209, 212, 262 and 268, ; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 250.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 58.
(2) The sees were united from 1472 until 1536.

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(34) 26. SALVIATI, Giovanni (1490-1553)

Birth. March 24, 1490, Florence. Eldest of the eleven children of Jacopo Salviati and Lucrezia de' Medici. Brother of Cardinal Bernardo Salviati (1561). Nephew of Pope Leo X, on his mother's side. Uncle of Cardinal Antonmaria Salviati (1583). Uncle of Cosimo I, grand duke of Tuscany. Other cardinals of the family were Bernardo Salviati, O. S. Io.Hier. (1561); Alamanno Salviati (1730); and Gregorio Salviati (1777).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, November 13, 1517.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Fermo, February 8, 1518; occupied the post until October 16, 1521. Administrator of the see of Ferrara, September 12, 1520; occupied the post until May 1, 1550. Administrator of the see of Oleron, August 24, 1521; occupied the post until March 18, 1523. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Legate before the emperor in Spain. Legate in France; in 1526 signed the Holy League with King François I of France. Twice legate before the king of France to request his intervention in favor of Pope Clement VII, detained in Castello Sant'Angelo after the sack of Rome. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Sauveur de Redon, Vannes, from 1528. In 1529 conducted difficult negotiation of peace between Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V. Administrator of the see of Volterra, July 20, 1530; occupied the post until March 15, 1532. Administrator of the see of Teano, June 21, 1531; occupied the post until April 30, 1535. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Santa Severina and abbot commendatario of Nonantola, November 15, 1531; occupied the post until June 14, 1535; retained the monastery of Nonantola. Administrator of the see of Bitetto, January 10 (or 8), 1532; occupied the post until March 5, 1539. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Legate in Parma and Piacenza. Administrator of the see of Saint-Papoul, August 12, 1538; resigned the post in favor of his brother Bernardo Salviati, June 5, 1549. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, January 8, 1543. Consecrated (no information found). Legate in Umbria, 1543-1553. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, October 17, 1544. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, October 8, 1546. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III; Emperor Charles V opposed his election to the pontificate because of the cardinal's affinity with the king of France. Opened and closed the Holy Door at the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura in the Jubilar Year of 1550. He was a distinguished patron of arts and letters.

Death. October 28, 1553, monastery of Porto of the Canons Regular Lateranensi, Ravenna. Transferred to Ferrara and buried in its cathedral at the foot of the tomb of Pope Urban III, on the right side of the main altar.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1500-1501; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 58-61; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1426; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 55, 57, 58, 73, 134, 196, 262, 269-270, 298, 311 and 337; Hurtubise, Pierre. Une famille-témoin, les Salviati. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1985. (Studi e testi ; 309 ; Variation: Studi e testi (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana) ; 309); Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 837.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in English; his portrait by Pier Francesco Foschi, Puschkin Museum, Moscow, Russia; and probably his portrait with his secretary by Girolamo da Carpi , Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Germany.

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(35) 27. RIDOLFI, Niccolò (1501-1550)

Birth. 1501, Florence. Of a noble family. Fourth of the seven children of Piero Ridolfi and Contessina de' Medici. Nephew of Pope Leo X, on his mother's side. Relative of Cardinal Ottavio Ridolfi (1622).

Education. He had "... un'ingegno vivace, e una rara dottrina, accompagnata dalla scienza delle lingue greca e latina, da costumi integerrimi, e da tutte quelle qualità, che concorrono a formare un Principe ecclesiastico..." (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Governor of Spoleto, 1514-1516.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Vito e Modesto, July 6, 1517. Abbot commendatario of abad Fonte Avellana, 1518-1533.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Orvieto, August 24, 1520; hosted Pope Clement VII for six months after the sack of Rome by the imperial troops in 1527; occupied the post until September 3, 1529. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Received, together with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici, Silvio Passerini, Raffaele Petrucci and Giovanni Piccolomini, the new Pope Adrian VI on his arrival in Italy at the port of Livorno. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Elected archbishop of Florence, January 11, 1524; received the pallium, July 1, 1530; resigned the government of the archdiocese, October 11, 1532. Consecrated (no information found). Administrator of the see of Vicenza, March 14, 1524; occupied the post until his death. Administrator of the see of Forlì, April 16, 1526; occupied the post until August 7, 1528. During the sack of Rome by the imperial troops in 1527, he was one of the cardinals given as hostage to Ugo Moncada. Administrator of the see of Viterbo, November 16, 1532; occupied the post until June 6, 1533; administrator again, August 8, 1538; occupied the post until May 25, 1548. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Salerno, February 7, 1533; occupied the post until December 19, 1548. Administrator of the see of Imola, August 4, 1533; occupied the post until May 17, 1546. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, January 19, 1534. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, May 31, 1540. Named with another eleven cardinals (2) to a commission for the reform of the Roman Curia and its officials, August 27, 1540. Cardinal protodeacon. Named archbishop of Florence again, January 8, 1543; resigned the government of the archdiocese, May 25, 1548. Legate a latere in the province of the Patrimony. Entered the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III, but had to leave because of illness and died before the election of the new Pope Julius III took place on February 7, 1550 (3).

Death. January 31, 1550, of an apoplexy, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Agostino, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 61-63; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1426-1427; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 74, 75, 76, 197, 198, 213, 289, 323, 333 and 335-336; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 821.

Webgraphy. His bust, as Brutus, by Michelangelo Buonarroti, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, Italy.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 61.
(2) These cardinals were Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, Gian Pietro Carafa, Alessandro Cesarini, Giovanni Maria del Monte, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Marino Grimani, Girolamo Aleandro, Gasparo Contarini, Girolamo Ghinucci, Marcello Cervini and Reginald Pole.
(3) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 62, Pope Paul III recommended Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, iuniore to try to have Cardinal Ridolfi elected pope in the next conclave at any cost.

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(36) 28. RANGONE, Ercole (ca. 1491-1527)

Birth. Ca. 1491, Bologna, where his family, originally from Modena, was residing temporarily. Of a noble family. Sixth child of Count Niccolò Rangone of Gordiguano and Bianca Bentivoglio. His last name is also listed as Rangoni.

Education. Studied in Modena under Lelio Giraldi and Demetrio Moscopulo.

Early life. When his mother became a widow in 1500, she took the family back to Modena. When he finished his studies, he went to Rome and entered the service of Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, future Pope Leo X. When the cardinal, who was papal legate, was taken prisoner by the French in 1512 in Ravenna, Ercole, who was in Rome, was sent by his mother to assist the cardinal with gifts and help; he wanted to remain with the cardinal and share with him his prison but the latter did not allow it and asked Ercole to return to the Medicis; when the cardinal was being transported to France, helped by Andrea Guidone, a Modenese, he escaped and went to Piacenza and then to Modena, where Donna Bianca received him in Palazzo Rangone and gave him vestments, money, horses and a considerable sum of silver; the cardinal was later elected to the pontificate and then invited her to Rome and treated her as if he was her own son. The new pope named Ercole his privy chamberlain and gave Andrea Guidone the title of chamberlain. Soon afterward, Ercole was named protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, July 6, 1517.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Adria, June 15, 1519; occupied the see until May 27, 1524. Consecrated (no information found). Named bishop of Modena, September 12, 1520 (1); he governed the diocese through vicars general; occupied the see until his death. Abbot commendatario of S. Stefano, Bologna. Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. During the sack of Rome of 1527 by the imperial troops, he was locked in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, together with Pope Clement VII; he fell mortally ill and died in the castle.

Death. August 25, 1527, Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Agata in Suburra, Rome.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 156-161; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1427; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 72, 95 and 252.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A3 B1 C7; and his arms.

(1) Bernabei, Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo, p. 159 says that he occupied the sees of Cava, Cervia and the titular one of Nazareth, which had been united to Canna or Canosa in 1455; his genealogy, linked above, says that he occupied the titular archiepiscopal see of Nazareth and Canna, with see in Barletta, from 1526; neither Eubel nor Pius Bonifatius Gams Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957) list him in the catalogs of the occupants of those sees.

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(37) 29. TRIVULZIO, Agostino (ca. 1485-1548)

Birth. Ca. 1485, Milan. Of a patrician family. Youngest of the eight children of Giovanni Trivulzio and Anna Martinengo. Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Trivulzio, seniore, O.C.R.S.A. (1500). His uncles Giangiacomo and Teodoro Trivulzio were marshals of France. Relative of Scaramuccia Trivulzio (1517); Antonio Trvulzio, iuniore (1557); and Giangiacomo Teodoro Trivulzio (1629).

Education. " ... di acuto ingenio, savio, e prudente, e di non poche lettere..." (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. He had a natural daughter, Sestilia. Abbot commendatario of Fromont. Protonotary apostolic. Chamberlain of Pope Julius II. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota (?).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, July 6, 1517.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Reggio Calabria, August 24, 1520; resigned the post in favor of his brother Pietro Trivulzio, October 1, 1520. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Administrator of the see of Alessano, June 3, 1521; resigned the post, July 20, 1526. Administrator of the see of Bobbio, September 26, 1522; resigned the post in favor of his relative Ambrosio Trivulzio, May 27, 1524. Administrator of the see of Toulon, June 22, 1524; resigned the post in favor of Antonio Trivulzio, June 7, 1535. Administrator of the see Le Puy, September 15, 1525; resigned the post, October 8, 1525. Administrator of the see of Avranches, May 2, 1526; resigned the post, October 19, 1526. Legate a latere before the papal army, December 7, 1526. Directed the action against the Colonnas for their invasion against the territories immediately subjected to the Holy See, April 3, 1527. Protector of France, 1527. Legate in Marittima e Campagna. He was among the cardinals taken as hostages after the sack of Rome of 1527 by the imperial troops; he was retained in the fortress of Castelnuovo, Naples; because of his relationship with France, he was kept prisoner for 18 months. Administrator of the see of Asti, September 25, 1528; resigned the post, July 16, 1529; administrator again, 1536; occupied the post until his death. Abbot commendatario of Aulps, 1530-1534. Administrator of the see of Bayeux, October 6, 1531; occupied the post until his death. Legate before the king of France to promote the peace between him and the emperor, November 24, 1536. He was present at the coronation of Eleónore of Austria, sister of the emperor and second wife of King François I of France. Regent of the French kingdom. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, retaining in commendam the deaconry of S. Adriano, August 17, 1537. Opted for the deaconry of S. Adriano again, September 6, 1537. Administrator of the see of Brugnato, February 21, 1539; resigned the post, March 5, 1548. Abbot commendatario of Nanteuil la Vallée, Poitiers, 1540. Abbot commendatario of Fonfrède, Narbonne, also in 1540. Administrator of the see of Périgueux, August 27, 1541; occupied the post until his death. After an extensive and long research, he started writing a history of the popes and the cardinals but his death prevented the publication of the work.

Death. March 30, 1548 (2), at 10 p.m., in the former palazzo of Cardinal Fieschi, in the region of Parione, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome. Cardinals Pietro Bembo and Jacopo Sadoleto, his close friends, delivered his eulogy. He had not obtained permission from the pope to make his testament and the pontiff inherited all his possessions.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1590-1591; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 66-68; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1427-1428; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 72, 73, 91, 103, 110, 121, 127, 136, 141, 272, 284, 315; Fisquet, Honoré Jean Pierre. La France pontificale (Gallia Christiana) : histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'etablissement du Christianisme jusqu' à nos jours, divisée en 18 provinces ecclésiastiques. 21 vols. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1874. Contents: [v.1-5] Métropole d'Aix -- [v.6-7] Métropole d'Avignon -- [v.8] Métropole de Bordeaux -- [v.9] Métropole de Cambrai -- [v.10] Métropole de Lyon et Vienne -- [v.11-13] Métropole de Paris -- [v.14-15] Métropole de Reims -- [v.16-19] Métropole de Rouen -- [v.20-21] Métropole de Sens. Other Title: Gallia Christiana, XIX, 84-86; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 928.

Webgraphy. Biography, pp. 84-86, in French; his monument in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome; and the Trivulzio Family, in English.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 66.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 17; Andrea Vittorelli in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1428, says that he died anno 1548. 13. Kal. Aprilis, which is March 20, 1548; his biography in French, linked above, says that he died on March 18, 1548.

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(38) 30. PISANI, Francesco (1494-1570)

Birth. 1494, Venice. Of a senatorial family. Seventh of the eight children of Alvise Pisani, Venetian ambassador before the Holy See, and Cecilia Giustiniani. His last name is also listed as Pisano. Uncle of Cardinal Luigi Cornaro (1551); and of Cardinal Luigi Pisani (1565).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He had a natural daughter, Giulia. Protonotary apostolic. At the instance of Doge Leonardo Loredano of Venice, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 1, 1517; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Teodoro, October 22, 1518 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Participated in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Padua, August 8, 1524; resigned the government of the see in favor of Luigi Pisani, who was named administrator, 1555. Administrator of the see of Città nova, September 28, 1526; resigned the post, May 10, 1535. Consecrated, May 5, 1527, Rome by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by (no information found). Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marco, May 3, 1527. Remained with Pope Clement VII during the sack of Rome of 1527 by the imperial troops; was taken hostage and kept for 18 months in the fortress of Castelnuovo, Naples. Administrator of the see of Treviso, January 27, 1528; occupied the post until February 20, 1538 (2). Commendatario of the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, February 27, 1528 until May 4, 1541; and from February 28, 1550 until May 29, 1555. Commendatario of the deaconry of S. Agata alla Suburra, May 24, 1529 until January 9, 1545. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Launomari Blesensis, April 22, 1551. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Alcobaziense, diocese of Verona. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Narbonne, May 11, 1551; occupied the post until October 8, 1563. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II; he crowned the new pope on April 10, 1555. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV; he crowned the new pope on May 26, 1555. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, with the consensus of Cardinal Robert de Lénoncourt, who as primoprete had the right to opt, May 29, 1555; retained in commendam the title of S. Marco until June 21, 1564. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, September 20, 1557. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, May 18, 1562. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, May 12, 1564. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V.

Death. June 28, 1570, palace of S. Marco, Rome. Buried, after a solemn funeral, in the basilica of S. Marco, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 68-70; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1428-1429; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 56, 57, 59, 65, 75, 76, 96, 253, 267, 309; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 775; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originally published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici, XLV, 533.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his statue by Giovanni Ferrari, Prato della Valle, Padua, Italy, fourth on page, no. 70, Michele Nicolè; his portrait (1577-1578), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); Serie cronologica dei Vescovi di Treviso, in Italian, diocese of Treviso; and another catalog of the bishops of Treviso, images 279-280, in German, Johann Heinrich Zedler Grosses vollständiges Universallexicon aller Wissenchafften und Künste.

(1) His biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was named bishop of Adria in 1519 but he is not listed in any of the catalogs of the occupants of that see; Cardinal Ercole Rangone was the occupant from June 15, 1519 to May 27, 1524.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 309; and Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, XLV, 533, that lists him as occupant of the see from 1528 to 1538; the catalog of bishops of Treviso, linked above, indicates that he occupied the post until 1564.

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(39) 31. PORTUGAL, Afonso de (1509-1540)

Birth. April 23, 1509, Évora, Portugal. Fourth son of King Manoel I of Portugal and his second wife, María de Aragón. Brother of Cardinal Henrique de Portugal (1545); and of King João III of Portugal. His first name is also listed as Affonso.

Education. He was educated in the Portuguese court; studied letters under Ayres Barbosa and Andres Rezende; he studied Greek and Latin.

Early life. His father tried to have him promoted to the cardinalate when he was three years old; the request was deferred because it was against the constitutions of the church. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Idana, with see in Guarda, September 9, 1516, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age; occupied the see until February 23, 1519.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of July 1, 1517; with the condition that he should not consider himself promoted until reaching eighteen years of age. Transferred to the see of Viseu, February 23, 1519, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age; occupied the see until February 20, 1523. Did not participate in the conclave of 1521-1522, which elected Pope Adrian VI. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lisbon and the see of Évora, February 20, 1523, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age; occupied the sees until his death. Did not participate in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolio after July 6, 1525. Did not participate in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Paul III. Did not participate in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Received the pallium on July 16, 1535. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, August 13, 1535.

Death. April 16 (1), 1540, Lisbon (2). Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lisbon; later, transferred to the Royal Monastery of Belém of the Jerónimos.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 70-72; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1429; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 17, 63, 73, 190, 191, 322, and 335.

Webgraphy. Biographical data, in English Wikiepdia; brief biographical data, in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses - Nota Histórica, patriarchate of Lisbon; his genealogy, A3 B7 C5, Genealogy EU.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 17, 63; the same source, III, 191 and 322; his biographical data in English, linked above; and his genealogy, also linked above, say that he died on April 21, 1540.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 71; it also says that other sources, not mentioned, indicate that he died in Évora.

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Note. This was the largest consistory for the creation of cardinals until Pope Pius XII's consistory of February 18, 1946, in which he created thirty-two cardinals. In his third consistory, on April 28, 1969, Pope Paul VI created thirty-four cardinals. Finally, Pope John Paul II created forty-two cardinals in the consistory of February 21, 2001.

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