The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement VII (1523-1534)
Consistory of November 21, 1527 (II)
Celebrated in Castello Sant'Angelo


(6) 1. SANSEVERINO, O.S.Io.Hieros., Antonio (ca. 1477-1543)

Birth. Ca. 1477, Naples. Fourth of the five children of Giovanni Antonio Sanseverino, Neapolitan patrician, and Enrichetta Carafa. The family gave the church several cardinals: Guglielmo Sanseverino (1378); Federico Sanseverino (1489); Lucio Sanseverino (1621); and Stanislao Sanseverino (1816).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. He was created a cardinal by Pope Leo X but never published; since he was a layman then, that promotion took place under certain conditions and because he did not comply with them, neither Pope Leo nor his successor, Adrian VI, recognized him as a cardinal.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 21, 1527; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, April 27, 1528, from Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio, legate a latere, in Castello Sant'Angelo. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure from Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, shortly after his publication as a cardinal.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Taranto, August 31, 1528; occupied the see until his death. Named administrator of the see of Conversano, July 28, 1529; ceased, February 11, 1534. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 24, 1530 to January 18, 1531. Opted for the title of S. Apollinare, May 16, 1530. Consecrated, Thursday December 21, 1531, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Clement VII, assisted by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, bishop of Ostia, by Cardinal Antonio Ciocchi del Monte, bishop of Porto, and by Cardinal Andrea della Valle. In the same ceremony were also consecrated Cardinals Francisco de los Ángeles Quiñones, Francesco Cornaro and Giovanni Domenico de Cupis. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, September 5, 1534. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Protector of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins; he successfully opposed the merging of the order with that of Friars Minor Observants. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, November 28, 1537. Named legate to the council together with Cardinals Lorenzo Campeggio, Giacomo Simoneta and Giralomo Aleandro, April 21, 1539. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, August 4, 1539. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, January 8, 1543. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. Died the night of August 17/18, 1543, Rome. Buried in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 90-92; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1462; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 20, 57, 58, 60, 66, 71, 177 and 308; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 863.

Webgraphy. His episcopal lineage by Charles N. Brasom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(7) 2. CARAFA, Gianvincenzo (1477-1541)

Birth. 1477, Naples. Of the della Stadera branch of the family. Third of the five children of Fabrizio Carafa, signore of Torre del Greco, and Aurelia Tolomei. The other siblings were Antonio Francesco, Giacomo, Feliciana and Francesco. His first name is also listed as Vincenzo; as Giovanni Vincenzo; and as Gian Vincenzo; and his last name as Caraffa. Neapolitan patrician. Half-nephew of Cardinal Oliviero Carafa (1467). Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Gian Pietro Carafa (1536), future Pope Paul IV; Carlo Carafa (1555); Diomede Carafa (1555); Alfonso Carafa (1557); Antonio Carafa (1568); Decio Carafa (1611); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon deacon of the cathedral chapter of the metropolitan see of Naples. Abbot commendatario of S. Giovanni in Lamis.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rimini, September 13, 1497; constituted administrator until reaching the canonical age of 27. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Naples, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, April 1, 1504; resigned the government of the see in favor of his nephew Francesco Carafa, June 24, 1530. Participated in the V Lateran Council, which took place from 1512-1517. Pope Julius II wanted to promote him to the cardinalate but King Fernando I of Spain objected because he considered the promotion of any distinguished Neapolitans as prejudicial to his interest in that kingdom, which he had occupied. Named assistant at the pontifical throne by Pope Leo X. Elected governor of Rome by the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 2, 1521; occupied the post until January 1522, when the new Pope Adrian VI was elected.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 21, 1527; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, April 27, 1528. Administrator of the see of Anglona, August 31, 1528; resigned the post in favor of his nephew Oliverio Carafa, September 6, 1536. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1533 to January 9, 1534. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Administrator of the see of Anagni, December 16, 1534; occupied the post until January 26, 1541. Administrator of the see of Acerra, July 26, 1535; occupied the post until April 21, 1539. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, July 23, 1537. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, November 28, 1537. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, August 4, 1539. Legate a latere in Rome when Pope Paul III went to Vicenza.

Death. August 28, 1541, Naples. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 92-94; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col.1465; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 75; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 95; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 20, 57, 66, 69, 93, 107, 109, 118 and 255; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 192; ; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli : Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 112-116.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A3 Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his portrait (1750-1799), archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(8) 3. PALMIERI, Andrea Matteo (1493-1537)

Birth. August 10, 1493, Naples.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cleric of Naples.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Acerenza and Matera, resigned in his favor by his uncle Vincenzo Palmieri, and with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age of 27, July 30, 1518. Consecrated (no information found). During the pontificate of Pope Adrian VI, he helped with his own money and with funds from his friends the knights of Rhodes, to fight the naval attack of the Turks; when he was ready to embark with the papal troops, the news of the fall of Rhodes was received and he had to abandon the enterprise.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 21, 1527; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, November 21, 1527. Resigned the government of the see in favor of his brother Francesco Palmieri, O.Min., August 21, 1528. Administrator of the see of Sarno, May 24, 1529 until August 24, 1530. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1534 to January 8, 1535. Administrator of the see of Lucera, August 20, 1534 until February 26, 1535. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Administrator of the see of Conza, June 15, 1535 until July 16, 1535. Administrator of the see of Policastro, July 5, 1535 until his death. Named by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V governor of Milan right before his death.

Death. January 20, 1537, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1465-1466; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 20, 62, 94, 175, 229, 277 and 293.

Webgraphy. His engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his eptaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in his addition to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1466: ANDREÆ. MATTHÆO. PALMERIO. NEAPOLITANO. S. CLEMENTIS. PRESBYTERO. CARDINALI. IOANNES. VINCENTIVS. PALMERIVS. FRATRI. OPTIMO. MVLTIS. CVM. LACRYMIS. POSVIT. QVI. VIXIT. ANN. XLIII. MENSES. V. DIES. X. DECESSIT. XIII. KAL. FEBRVARII. MDXXXVII. HVIVS. ET. PIVS. ET. CONSTANS. ANIMVS. NON. MINVS. DOCVIT. FORTVNAM. ADVERSAM. SVPERARE. QVAM. SECVNDAM. CONTEMNERE.

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(9) 4. DU PRAT, Antoine (1463-1535)

Birth. January 17, 1463, Issoire, France. Son of Antoine du Prat, consul of Issoire, and Jaqueline Bohier (or Boyer). His last name is also listed as Duprat. Cousin of Cardinal Antoine Bohier du Prat, O.S.B. (1517).

Education. When he was ten years old, he was sent to study at a Benedictine abbey near Issoire; later, his father sent him to study at one of hte most prestigious European universities to study.

Early life. Named lieutenant general of the bailliaige of Montferraut, 1492. He married Françoise Veiny D'Abrouze in 1493 and had a daughter and two sons; the youngest one, Guillaume, became bishop of Clermont in 1527; she died on August 19, 1508 (1), when she was 30 years old. On August 11, 1495, he was appointed the general attorney of the Parlement of Toulouse. Named by King Louis XII maitre de requêtes of his household, January 25, 1504. Became fourth president of the Parlement of Paris in 1506; the following year, he became its first president. In 1507, Louise de Savoy, countess of Angoulême, entrusted him with the education of her son, the future King François I of France. Named chancellor and prime minister by King François I; on January 7, 1515, he took the oath of chancellor. In August 1515, he followed the king in his expedition to Italy; the victory of Marignano disconcerted the princes who fought against François, including Pope Leo X; on December 19, 1515 there was a conference in Bologna between the pope and the French king, attended also by Chancellor Du Prat; the chancellor negotiated with pope the Concordat of 1516, which did away with the principles of the "Pragmatic Sanction"; on the other hand, by granting the king the power to appoint the members of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, replacing the traditional canonical elections, it gave the civil power an extraordinary authority over church affairs. After the meeting of the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, the chancellor was charged with negotiating, with Cardinal Thomas Wolsey of England, the mediation of King Henry VIII to end the fight between France and the House of Austria; the English king was not willing to act at that time amd the negotiations failed. The French king named him count of Valteline. Entered the ecclesiastical state.

Sacred orders. Ordained in 1517, after the death of his wife.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Sens, March 20, 1525; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). His episcopal motto was Spes mea Deus. Prior of Saint-Benoît (Fleury) sur Loire from 1525.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 21, 1527 (2); received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, April 27, 1528. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Albi, December 23, 1528 until his death. Legate a latere in France, June 4, 1530. On August 5, 1529, he presided over the conference of Cambrai, where peace between Louise of Savoy and Marguerite of Austria was signed. In 1532, he completed the union of Brittany to France. Chancellor Du Prat played an important role opposite the pope concerning the remarriage of King Henry VIII of England; he stated the risk of a refusal and wrote the pope a letter in January 1532 expressing it, making sure that the letter was made public; but the repudiation of the aunt of the emperor, Queen Catalina of Aragón, was not easy for this weak pope and made him accept the other side. In October 1532, he participated in a meeting, prepared by Du Bellay, with the English king in Bologna; the matter became very difficult because of the impatience of King Henry, who had gotten married again without permission from the pope; when the excommunication against the king was issued by the pope, Chancellor Du Prat, who took his clerical duties very seriously and did not want to risk the concordat, did not follow the English king in his break with Rome. Administrator of the see of Meaux, February 20, 1534 until his death (3). Did not participate in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. He is considered one of the most notable men of ancient France, second only to Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu because of his influence on the life of his country. He did all in his power to increase the absolute power of the king at expense of the French nobility taking hard measures and using an elaborate fiscal system against them. He strongly and decidedly opposed the advance of Protestantism, at times allowing the use of torture and death; and was a great supporter of the renaissance of letters.

Death. July 9, 1535, at his family's Chateau de Nantouillet, near Meaux. Transferred to Sens (4) and buried, according to his will, in its metropolitan cathedral (5). In 1793, during the French Revolution, his funeral monument was destroyed and his ashes dispersed.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 863-867; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 95-96; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1465; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 20, 59, 101, 240 and 298; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, pp. 485, 576, 630.

Webgraphy. Biography by Joseph Sollier, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his engraving, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; Chevalier, Seigneur de Nantouillet, Baron de Thiers et de Thoury, Comte de la Valteline, Chancelier de France, de Bretagne, du Duché de Milan, et de l'Ordere du Roi; Évêque de Valence, de Die, De Meaux et d'Alby, Archevêque de Sens; Cardinal du Titre de Sainte Anastasie, Primat des Galles et de Germanie, Légat a Latere. by Antoine-Théodore, Du Prat, Paris : Librairie de Techener, Éditeur, 1857, University of Toronto, University Archive; his engraving and biography, in English, Ecyclopaedia Britannica; Famille Bohier, in French, Cercle Généalogique et Historique d'Aubière 2001; his drawing by Jean Clouet, Musée Condé, Chantilly; his bust, terracotta, French School, 16th century, Musée du Louvre, Paris, Bridgeman, New York, NY, United States of America; his portrait, French School, 17th century, Chateau de Beauregard, France; his portrait, French School, Repro Tableaux; his arms, portrait and image on horseback in plasterr, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his biography in French, linked above; his first biography in English and the one in German, both linked above, indicate that she died in 1517; the second biography in English, linked above, says that she died in 1507.
(2) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 20, says that other sources, which are not mentioned, indicate that he was created cardinal on May 3, 1527.
(3) Besides the sees of Sens, Albi and Meaux, Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 866; and his biography in French, linked above, say that he also occupied the sees of Valence et Die and Gap; and his second biography in English, linked above, says that he occupied the see of Valence et Die. Neither Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 326; nor Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, pp. 545, 553 and 649, list him among the bishops of those sees.
(4) According to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 867, this was the first time that he entered his see.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1465: A La perpetuelle memoire de la vertu, & heureuse fidelitè de Tes-illustre, & reverendissime Monseigneur Antoine par la permission divine Cardinal du Prat Archvesque de Sens, Legat en France pour le S. Siege Apostolique : Chancelier de France, de Bretagne, de Milan, & de l'ordre du Roy, le quel ayant estè donnè en ses scunes ands au bon Roy Loys XIII, pere de la patrie, parvintaux honneurs , & dignitez d'Ambassadeur, & de Conseiller au privè Conseil, & depuis regnant le magnanime, & tres-Chrestien Roy Francois permier, restaurateur des arts & sciences, fut ledict Seigneur Reverendissime Chancelier de sa Maiestè, & chef de son Conseil, & finalement le premier en ce Royaume, non seulement en l'authoritè de la Iustice, mais aussi en la supreme dignitè du Pontifict, au temps du Pape Clement VII. & se trouvant agè de LXXII ans, deceda en son Chateau de Nantoillet le IX. jour de Iuillet M. D. XXXV. Hault & Puissant Seigneur Messire Antoine du Prat son neuveu en directe ligne, Seigneur de Nantoilles, & de Precy, Chevalier de l'ordre de Genereux & invincible Roy Charles IX. Conseiller & Chambelan de sa Maiestè, Prevost de Paris meu de devotion & affection de satissfaire au devoir & office d'un tres-humble fils & neuveu, a faict mestre, & apposer ce tableau & Epitaphe ioignant cette sienne sepulture, que luy fit construire & eriger seu Monsieur le Prevost de Paris son Pere, fils audit Seigneur Legat que Dieu absolve.

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(10) 5. CARDONA Y ENRÍQUEZ, Enrique de (1485-1530)

Birth. 1485, Urgel, Spain. Son of Juan Ramón Folch de Cardona, first duke of Cardona, and Aldonza Domínguez. His first name is also listed as Errico, Enrigo and Enric.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cleric of Urgel. In 1505, Fernando II of Cataluña y Aragón requested his promotion to the see of Barcelona; the archdeacon Luís Desplá, who had been chosen by the cathedral chapter, had to retire.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Barcelona, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age of 27, April 18, 1505 (1); constituted administrator until reaching the canonical age. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Monreale, January 23, 1512. Continued residing in Barcelona for several years. Accompanied the new Pope Adrian VI from Spain to Rome in 1522. Prefect of Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, September 24, 1522. Commisary and judge in the cause of Cardinal Francesco Soderini, arrested on April 28, 1523 in Castello Sant'Angelo. President of Sicily, 1526.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 21 (2), 1527; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, November 24, 1527.

Death. February 7, 1530, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria di Montserrato, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 96-97; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 20, 65, 129 and 250; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 22.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, enciclopèdia. net.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, 97; and Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1468, say that he was also named administrator of Urgel; but neither Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 324; nor Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, (Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 87, list him among the occupants of that see.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 20; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 22, says that he was created cardinal on November 24, 1527.

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(11) 6. GRIMALDI, Girolamo (?-1543)

Birth. (No date found), Genoa. Of a patrician family. Son of Benedetto Grimaldi and Pellegra Sauli. The family gave the church another three cardinals: Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni (1643), Nicola Grimaldi (1706) and Girolamo Grimaldi (1730).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was married at a young age to Francisca Cattaneo, a Genoese lady, and had five children; when she died, he entered the ecclesiastical state. Senator of the Republic of Genoa. Cleric of Genoa.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 21, 1527; received the red hat and the deaconry of S Giorgio in Velabro, April 27, 1528.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Brugnato, September 25, 1528 until June 6, 1535. Administrator of the see of Venafro, October 9, 1528 until June 2, 1536. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Bari, September 2, 1530 until August 20, 1540. Legate in Genoa, 1530. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Administrator of the see of Albenga, November 15, 1538 until his death. Legate in Romandiola, August 26, 1538.

Death. November 27, 1543, Genoa. Buried in Genoa (no further information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1470; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 20, 73, 101, 129, 141 and 328; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), 489-490.

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(12) 7. GONZAGA, Pirro (1505-1529)

Birth. 1505, Mantua. Third of the ten children of Lodovico Gonzaga and Francesca Fieschi. The other siblings were Gianfrancesco (called Cagnino), Ludovico (called Rodomonte), Paola, Ippolita, Giulia, Caterina (nun of the monastery of S. Vincenzo in Mantua), Elisabetta (nun of the monastery of S. Vincenzo in Matua), Alfonso (died in infancy) and Eleonora. He was a Venetian patrician. Because of his short stature he was called Pirrino. Cousin of Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga (1527). Other cardinals of the family were: Francesco Gonzaga (1461); Sigismondo Gonzaga (1505); Francesco Gonzaga (1561); Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.S.Io.Hier. (1578); Scipione Gonzaga (1587); Ferdinando Gonzaga (1607); and Vincenzo Gonzaga (1615). His first name is also listed as Pyrrhus.

Education. He was destined to the ecclesiastical carrer at a very young age. (No further information found).

Early life. In 1506, he donated the monastic complex of S. Pietro in Belforte di Gazzuolo to the Brothers of S. Girolamo. In 1521, he ceded the porperty of Sabbioneta to his brother Ludovico.

Sacred orders. (No information found). Protonotary apostolic.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Modena, September 5, 1527, in Castel Sant'Angelo; resigned a few months later without having received the episcopal consecration or taken possession of the see.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 21, 1527, in recognition from the pope to his brother Ludovico, his savior during the Sack of Rome; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, January 27, 1528. He restored his deaconfry magnificently.

Death. January 28, 1529, Sabbioneta, vicinity of Modena. Buried in the Servite church of S. Biagio dei Servi on February 1, 1529 (1). The church was rebuilt in 1586 and consecrated with the title of Beata Vergine Incoronata.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1021; Bongiovanni, Giannetto. I Gonzaga: profili e scorci d'una grande casata. Milano : Athena, 1930; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 98-99; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1471; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 20, 72 and 252; Murgia, Adelaide. I Gonzaga. Milano : Mondadori, 1972; Roggeri, Roggero ; Ventura, Leandro. I Gonzaga delle nebbie: storia di una dinastia cadetta nelle terre tra Oglio e Po. Cinisello Balsamo, Milano : Silvana, 2008. Note: Catalog of an exhibition held at the Fondazione Sanguanini Rivarolo, Rivarolo Mantovano, Italy, Sept. 13-Nov. 30, 2008, p. 106; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 437.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A2 B4, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; another genealogy, A2 B3, Genealogy EU; Santi, cardinali e vescovi della famiglia Gonzaga, in Italian, Wikipedia.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, kindly provided by Mr. Guglielmo Decò, Rivarolo del Re, province of Cremona, Lombardy, Italy:

PIRRO GONZAGA
FRATELLO AL RODOMONTE
DA CLEMENTE VII
NEL 1527 CREATO IN
CASTEL S. ANGELO
CARDINALE E VESCOVO DI MODENA
VENUTO NEL 1529 IN SABBIONETA
PASSÒ DI QUESTA VITA
E FU QUI SEPOLTO
CON POMPA SOLLENNISSIMA

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(13) 8. PAPPACODA, Sigismondo (1456-1536)

Birth. March 23, 1456, Naples. Third of the six children (1) of Francesco Pappacoda, Neapolitan patrician, and Covella di Gennaro. His last name is also listed as Pappagoda.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. (No information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Venosa, December 3, 1492. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Tropea, May 10, 1499.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 21, 1527; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli (2). Declined the promotion to the cardinalate (3).

Death. November 3, 1536, Naples (4). Buried in the church of S. Giovanni Evangelista dei Pappacodi, Naples, next to his brother Angelo Pappacoda, bishop of Martorano (5).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 99; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1492; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 257 and 265; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 20, and 319; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 725.

Webgraphy. Biographical data, in Italian; his genealogy, A1 D1 E2; and tomb of his brother, Angelo Pappacoda, bishop of Martorano, buried next to him in the church of S. Giovanni dei Pappacodi in Naples.

(1) This is according to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, IV, 725; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he was the second of seven children.
(2) This is according to his genealogy, linked above, which mistakenly says that he received on November 21, 1537; none of the other sources consulted mention the assignation of a title.
(3) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 99, says that it is believed that he was created cardinal but that this is not certain, adding that it is certain that he was one of the three who offered assistance to the pope while he was a prisoner at Castello Sant'Angelo and that after his destinazione (destination) to the cardinalate, he was not actually counted among them, did not receive the insignias and that the viceroy of Naples obtained, that in place of Bishop Pappacoda, were named a person of his preference; Cardella adds that the historians are divided on the subject of the promotion, indicating that some believe that having been truly and really created a cardinal, Pappacoda preferred to remain simply a bishop, while other historians believe that the pope wanted to promote him because of his knowledge and his other qualifications but that he penetrato da sentimenti di sincera umilità (penetrated of sentiments of sincere humilty) obtained from the pope not to be adscribed to the Sacred College considering himself unworthy of such an eminent dignity; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 20, says a Clemente VII cardinalis creatus dignitatem sibi oblatam non assumpsit (created cardinal by Clement VII, he did not assume the diginity offered to him); and Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, IV, 725, says dignitatem non assumpsit (the dignity was not assumed).
(4) This is according to his biography, linked above; and his genealogy, also linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 99, says that he died tra le braccia della sua diletta Chiesa (in the arms of his beloved church), which was presumably the diocese of Tropea, where he was a bishop for thirty seven years.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph taken from the addition of Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1492: SIGISMVNDO. PAPPACAVDÆ. FRANC. F. VIRO. OPTIMO. ET. IVRISCONSVLTO. QVI. CVM. IN. COETVM. CARDINALIVM. FVISSET. A. CLEMENTE. VII. ADSCITVS. MALVIT. IN. PATRIA. EPISCOP. VIVERE. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXXX. M. VII. D. X. OBIIT. MDXXXVI. Ughelli adds that, although Bishop Pappacoda declined the cardinalate, preferring to remain only a bishop, his promotion was mentioned in his epitaph ad immortalitatem ipsius gloriam a posteris.

Note. This consistory was celebrated in Castello Sant'Angelo, where Pope Clement VII was confined after the sack of Rome by the imperial troops.

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