The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement VII (1523-1534)
Consistory of February 22, 1531 (X)


(25) 1. MANRIQUE DE LARA Y SOLÍS, Alfonso (1471/1476-1538)

Birth 1471/1476, Segura de León, diocese of Badajoz. Son of Rodrigo Manrique, duke of Nájera and count of Paredes, and his third wife, Elvira Castañeda (1). His first name is also listed as Alonso.

Education. University of Salamanca, Salamanca (obtained a doctorate).

Early life. Received a prebend at the cathedral of Toledo at a very young age. Archdeacon of Toro.

Sacred orders. (No information found). Canon schoolmaster of the cathedral chapter of Salamanca. Professor of Greek in Alcalá, 1490s. Professor and chancellor of the University of Salamanca (2).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Badajoz, September 6, 1499. Consecrated (no information found); took possession of the diocese, October 30, 1499; promulgated the constitutions to the cathedral chapter regulating the service of the divine worship and the discipline of its members; convoked a diocesan synod in 1501; the synod issued 20 constitutions regulating the discipline of the Christian faithful, the organization of the parishes and the life of the clergy; he built the cathedral cloister and the chapel of Christ. In 1504, Queen Isabel of Spain died and the bishop sided with Felipe, archduke of Austria, against King Fernando I of Spain, who did not forget his action; later, the bishop favored Prince Charles of Austria, future King Charles I of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, son of Archduke Felipe and grandson of King Fernando; the king arrested the bishop in Asturias when he was trying to escape disguised as a merchant; the bishop was placed under the guard of the archbishop of Toledo according to a commission obtained from the pope; when a treaty concerning the administration of the states of Prince Charles was signed by King Fernando and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, both grandparents of Prince Charles, the bishop recovered his freedom and went to the court of the prince in the Low Countries. When King Ferdinand I of Spain died, Bishop Manrique was part of the embassy that took the news of the death to Prince Charles; the bishop celebrated the funeral for the dead king in the presence of the prince. Transferred to the see of Córdoba, August 18, 1516. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, August 31, 1523. Member of the Royal Council. Inquisitor general of Spain; commissioned September 10, 1523; succeeded Cardinal Adrian of Utrecht, bishop of Tortosa, the newly elected Pope Adrian VI.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1531; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, April 17, 1531. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, July 12, 1532. Did not participate in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III.

Death. September 28, 1538, Sevilla, of a fall from a horse. Buried in Spain (no further information found) (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1184; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 124-125; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1476; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp., II, 210; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 21, 178, 211 and 266; Rubio, P. "Manrique de Lara, Alonso." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, III, 1408; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 557-558; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, pp. 390-392.

(1) They married in 1469 and he died in 1476; they had two sons, Enrique, the eldest, and Alfonso; therefore, the cardinal must have been born between 1471 and 1476.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 124, he decided to enter the Order of Saint Augustine and requested the habit from Juan, prior of the convent of Sevilla, who was a holy and wise man and did not accede to the request predicting that instead he would be elevated to high offices in the church.
(3) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 124-125, says that if one is going to believe his epitaph, the cardinal died when he was twenty years old; he adds that the first verse of the epitaph says Viginti, Alphonsus cardo, vix egerat annos; Cardella adds that having been a cardinal for seven years, Manrique then must have been twelve or thirteen when he was named a bishop; the author adds that considering all the other posts he held before becoming a bishop, it is impossible to believe that he was elevated to the episcopate at that young age, concluding that it is certain that the epitaph is at grave fallo (grave fault).

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(26) 2. PARDO DE TAVERA, Juan (1472-1545)

Birth. May 16, 1472 (1), Toro (2), diocese of Zamora. Son of Ares Pardo and Guiomar Tavera. Nephew, on his mother's side, of Diego de Deza, O.P., archbishop of Sevilla, mentor of his ecclesiastical career. He is also listed as Juan de Tavera, Juan Tavera Pardo and Juan de Tavera de Pardo; his first name is also listed as Alfonso; and his second last name as Tavira and Tavora.

Education. Initial studies in Madrigal (grammar); then studied in Salamanca (Latin, rhetoric and canons; obtained a bachelor's degree, 1500).When his uncle was named bishop of Salamanca, he moved to the episcopal house. Studied under Maestro Gumiel at the University of Salamanca, where he earned a licentiate in decrees (canon law) in 1505 (3); rector of the university in that same year.

Sacred orders. Cleric of Avila. Received the subdiaconate. His first ecclesiastical benefice was a chaplaincy founded by his ancestors. Named by his uncle racionero of the cathedral of Zamora. His uncle named him canon of the cathedral chapter of Sevilla in 1505; chantre in 1506. King Fernando I named him auditor of the Supreme Council of the Inquisition, also in 1506. Provisor and vicar general of the archdiocese of Sevilla in 1507. Visitor of the Chancillería of Valladolid, 1513-1514; its president in 1523 (4).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo, July 14, 1514. Consecrated, 1514 (no further information found). By order of Cardinal Adrian of Utrecht, he was sent as ambassador to Portugal to negotiate the matrimony of King Carlos I with Princess Isabel; and that of King João of Portugal with Doqa Catalina, sister of Carlos. When Cardinal Adrian was elected Pope Adrian VI, he invited the bishop to accompany him to Rome but he declined. Transferred to the see of Osma, December 31, 1523 (5). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Compostela, June 8, 1524. President of the Royal Council, 1524; occupied the post for fifteen years; presided over the cortes of Toledo, 1525; Valladolid, 1527; Madrid, 1528; Segovia, 1532; Madrid, 1534; Valladolid, 1537; and Toledo, 1538. Governor of Castilla, 1539-1541.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1531; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, April 27, 1531; in the consistory of December 1, 1531 was read the letter of thanks that he sent for his promotion to the cardinalate. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, April 27, 1534. Did not participate in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Realized an episcopal visitation to Alcalá de Henares. Celebrated an archdiocesan synod in Toledo in 1536 that published 81 constitutions. Appointed Inquisitor general of Spain, June 10, 1539; commissioned November 7, 1539; took possession December 7, 1539; occupied the post until his death. The death of the empress in 1539 made him governor of the Spanish kingdom until 1541. In the primatial cathedral, he culminated the work of his predecessor translating the bodies of the monarchs to the recently built Capilla de los Reyes Nuevos. In 1539, he started the works of the high choir, commended to Alonso Berruguete and Felipe Vigarny; later, the interior decoration of the door of the Lions and the grand chancel of the choir; and asked Juan de Corral de Villalpando to make the one for the presbytery. Founder in 1541 of Hospital de San Juan Bautista de Toledo, also known as Hospital Tavera and as Hospital de Afuera (Hospital of Outside), because it was outside the walls of the city. He also rebuilt the archiepiscopal palace of Toledo, giving it its splendid façade. Realized episcopal visitations to the archdiocese in 1542 and 1543.

Death. Saturday August 1, 1545, Valladolid, where he had gone to celebrate the exequies of Princess María Manuela de Portugal, first wife of future King Felipe II, who died in childbirth of Infante don Carlos. In his testament, the cardinal constituted as universal heir his recent foundation, the Hospital de San Juan Bautista de Toledo, where he had asked to be buried. While his funeral chapel was finished, his body was deposited in the major church of Valladolid. Today, his remains repose in a magnificent Carrara marble tomb done by Alonso de Berruguete.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1348-1349; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 125-127; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1477; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 21, 64, 168, 173, 265 and 314; González, R. "Tavera o Pardo de Tavera, Juan." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, IV, 2536; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 30; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, 391.

Webgraphy. His portrait and biography, in Spanish, Diputación de Toledo y servicios de Publicaciones de La Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo; his portrait by Doménikos Theotokópoulos, El Greco, Hospital Tavera, Toledo, Spain, Arte Historia, Junta de Castilla y León (the painting was based on the funeral mask done by Alonso Berruguete); another picture of his portrait and description of the same by Jesús Mª Monge, in Spanish, Abel Martín, Revista de estudios sobre Antonio Machado; his funeral mask done by Alonso Berruguete, Abel Martín, Revista de estudios sobre Antonio Machado; Cardinal Tavera receiving architect and sculptor Alonso Berrugete, painting of the 19th century, A&D, Web coordinada y realizada por Arturo Rodríguez de Miñón; and his tomb by Alonso Berruguete, Hospital de San Juan Bautista, Toledo, Spain, Société Française d'Archéologie et Ministère de Culture et Communication, France.

(1) This is according to González, R. "Tavera o Pardo de Tavera, Juan." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, IV, 2536; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 30, España, IV, 2536; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 30, says that he was born on May 26, 1472.
(2) This is according to all the sources consulted except Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 125, which says that he was born in Salamanca.
(3) This is according to González, R. "Tavera o Pardo de Tavera, Juan." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, IV, 2536; his biography in Spanish, linked above, says that he obtained it in 1504.
(4) This is according to González, R. "Tavera o Pardo de Tavera, Juan." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, IV, 2536; his biography in Spanish, linked above, says that he was appointed in 1522.
(5) Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1349; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 125, say that he was also bishop of León; none of the other sources consulted mention this nomination; and Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, (Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), pp. 41-42, does not list him among the occupants of that see.

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