The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
Consistory of December 22, 1536 (III)


(10) 1. CARAFA, Gian Pietro (1476-1559)

Birth. June 28, 1476, Capriglia, Avellino, (1). Of a baronial family from Naples. Son of Giovanni Antonio Carafa, baron of Sant'Angelo della Scala, and Vittoria Camponeschi. His last name is also listed as Caraffa. Nephew of Cardinal Oliviero Carafa (1467). Uncle of Cardinals Carlo Carafa (1555) and Antonio Carafa (1568). Great-uncle of Cardinal Alfonso Carafa (1557). Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Diomede Carafa (1555); Decio Carafa (1611); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education. Educated in Rome at the household of his uncle Cardinal Carafa; acquired a thorough knowledge of Greek and Hebrew; he also studied philosophy, theology and canon law.

Early life. At fourteen, he tried to join the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) but his father took him out of the convent and brought him home. Entered the clerical state in 1494 and was introduced to the papal court in that same year by his uncle the cardinal. His uncle obtained for him a bishopric when he was twenty but he declined. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, ca. 1500. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Naples with the dignity of primicerio, 1500. Canon and rector of the church of S. Maria Amtesecula, Naples. Protonotary apostolic, 1503.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chieti, July 30, 1506; his uncle Cardinal Oliviero resigned the see in his favor. Consecrated, September 18, 1505, Rome, probably by Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, former archbishop of Naples. Nuncio of Pope Julius II before King Fernando of Spain, who was in Naples to take possession of that kingdom, 1506. Went to Chieti in 1507. President of one of the congregations of the Fifth Lateran Council, 1512. Papal legate before King Henry VIII of England, 1513-1514; met Desiderius Erasmus, who praised the nuncio's erudition and religiosity. Visited Brussels, called by Margarita of Austria seeking support for the succession to the Aragonese-Castillian throne of Charles I (future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V). Nuncio extraordinary in Spain, 1515-1519; his residence in Spain accentuated the strong dislike he had for the Spanish rule of his native land. Nominated to the metropolitan see of Brindisi et Oria by Emperor Charles V, he was preconized on December 20, 1518. He was very committed to the reform of the church and combined an ascetic life with humanist ideas and corresponded with Erasmus; he later abandoned his humanist sympathies in his hostility to reconciliation with the Lutherans. After returning to Rome, he joined the Oratory of the Divine Love in 1520. Pope Adrian VI asked him to collaborate in his effort to reform the church. Resigned the government of the see, August 8, 1524; persuaded Pope Clement VII to allow him to resign his ecclesiastical benefices. In 1524, founded the Clerics Regular Theatines together with Gaetano di Thiene and became their first superior. After the sack of Rome in 1527, the Theatines left for Venice; when the new pope, Paul III, was elected in 1534, he recalled them to Rome. Named member of the committee charged with the project of reform of the papal court. He had a strong dislike for the Spanish rule of his native land and his anti-Spanish policy renewed the war between France and the Habsburgs.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1536; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, January 15, 1537. He was one of the signatories of the most significant document for the reformation of the church and the convocation of the council, Consilium de emendanda ecclesia of January 1537. Opted for the title of S. Sisto, September 24, 1537. Named with another eight cardinals to a commission to prepare a general council, January 7, 1538 (2). Named with another eleven cardinals to a commission for the reform of the Roman Curia and its officials, August 27, 1540 (3). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1541 to January 9, 1542. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, July 6, 1541. Named inquisitor general when the pope reconstituted the Tribunal of the Inquisition, 1542 (4). By bull of January 5, 1543, the pope gave him faculties to reform the Roman Curia. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, September 24, 1543. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, October 17, 1544. Named by the pope to the general council, November 2, 1544. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, October 8, 1546. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, February 23, 1549; he was provided again the see of Naples in the consistory of November 9, 1549, after the transfer of Cardinal Ranuccio Farnese, O. S. Io. Hieros., who was administrator of the see, to Ravenna; the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, also King Charles I of Spain, distrusted him and made it difficult for the new archbishop to maintain his episcopal rights; was not able to take possession of the see, July 1550. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, February 28, 1550. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, November 29, 1553. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 11, 1553. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555 and was elected pope; the wishes of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V against his election were ignored.

Papacy. Elected pope, May 23, 1555; took the name Paul IV. Crowned in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, May 26, 1555, by Cardinal Francesco Pisani, archdeacon of S. Marco. During his pontificate, he created nineteen cardinals in four consistories.

Death. Friday, August 18, 1559 at 9:30 p.m., Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, August 19, 1559; seven years later, his remains were transferred to the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, and buried in the family's chapel of S. Tommaso d'Aquino in a sumptuous monument built by Pope Pius V (5).

Bibliography. Annuario pontificio per l'anno 2005, Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2005, p. *18; Aubert, Albert. "Paolo IV."Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, III, 128-142; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 160-167; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1513-1514, 1618-1621; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66, 68, 70, 141-142, 255 and 311; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 265-266; Monti, Gennaro Maria. Ricerche su Paolo IV, Carafa. Benevento : Cooperativa Tipografi, 1923; Paschini, Pio. S. Gaetano Thiene, Gian Pietro Carafa, e le origini dei chierici regolari teatini. Roma : Scuola tipografica Pio X, 1926. (Lateranum); Tellechea Idígoras, José Ignacio. Paulo IV y Carlos V : la renuncia del imperio a debate. Madrid : Fundación Universitaria Española, 2001. (Publicaciones de la Fundación Universitaria Española. Monografías ; 78); Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli : Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 120-126.

Links. Biography, in English; his portrait, arms and biographical data, in English; biography, in Italian, second on the page; biography, in German; biography, in English; his episcopal lineage, in English; his genealogy, A7 B3 C3; Comune di Capriglia Irpina; his engraving by Friedrich van Hulsen, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany; another engraving by an unnamed artist, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another engraving, library, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; his bust by Guglielmo della Porta, patriarchal Vatican basilica; his effigy on a coin; his portrait by Cesare Fantitto, Museo Nazionale Abruzzese, L'Aquila, Italy; his biography, in Italian; and his funeral monument, church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

(1) This is according to Annuario pontificio per l'anno 2005, p. *18; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 160, who adds that Cargilia was a place in the barony of S. Angelo, near Benevento, and not too distant of Forche Caudine, famous for the massacre that suffered the Roman army; the site of the Commune of Carpiglia Irpina, linked above; his biography in German, linked above; and his third biography in English, also linked above; but his genealogy, linked above, and his biography in Italian, also linked above, say that he was born in Sant'Angelo a Scala, a community near Capriglia. The first biography in English, linked above, says that he was born near Benevento.
(2) The other cardinals were Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, Lorenzo Campeggio, Giacomo Simoneta, Gasparo Contarini, Girolamo Ghinucci, Giacomo Sadoleto, Alessandro Cesarini and Reginald Pole.
(3) These cardinals were Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, Reginald Pole, Alessandro Cesarini, Giovanni Maria del Monte, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Marino Grimani, Girolamo Aleandro, Nicolò Ridolfi, Gasparo Contarini, Girolamo Ghinucci and Marcello Cervini.
(4) With the bull Licet ab initio of July 21, 1542, Pope Paul III reconstituted the Inquisition and named Cardinals Juan Álvarez de Toledo, O.P., Pietro Paolo Parisio, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Dionisio Laurerio, O.S.M., and Tommaso Badia, O.P. as its members headed by Cardinal Carafa.
(5) This is the text of the epigraph inscripted in the monument, taken from Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 126: JESV . CHRISTO . SPEI . ET . VITAE . FIDELIVM . PAVLO . IV . CARRAFAE . PONTIFICI . MAXIMO . ELOQVENTIA . DOCTRINA . SINGOLARI . INNOCENTIA . LIBERALITATE . ANIMI . MAGNITVDINE . PRAESTANTE . SCELERVM . VINDICI . INTEGERRIMO . CATHOLICAE . IDEI . ACERRIMO . PROPVGNATORI . PIVS . V . PONTIFEX . MAXIMVS . GRATI . ET . PII . ANIMI . MONVMENTVM . POSVIT . VIXIT . SNNOD . LXXXII . MENSES . I . DIES . XX . OBIIT . MDLIX . XVIIII . KAL . SEPT . PONT . SVI . SNNO . V.

Cool Archive

(11) 2. CIOCCHI DEL MONTE, Giovanni Maria (1487-1555)

Birth. September 10, 1487, Rome. Second of the five children of Vincenzo Ciocchi del Monte and Cristofora Saracini. Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte (1511). Adoptive uncle of Cardinal Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte (1550). Great-uncle of Cardinal Roberto de' Nobili (1553).

Education. Educated under his uncle the cardinal, who sent him to an elegant and prestigious oratory near the Lateran and provided him with an excellent tutor, the noted humanist, Raffaele Lippo Brandolini, under whom he studied the Roman classics. Later, he was sent to study law at the Universities of Perugia and Siena. Finally he studied theology under Ambrosius Catharinus, O.P. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Privy chamberlain of Pope Julius II. Provost of the church of Rieti.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Siponto (Manfredonia), March 18, 1513; his uncle, Cardinal Antonio Maria Cicchi del Monte, resigned the see in his favor. Consecrated, November 12, 1514, in the cathedral of Perugia, by Cardinal Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte. Delivered the opening sermon at the newly-convened Fifth Lateran Council, February 16, 1513. Vice-legate in Perugia, 1513-1517. Governor of Perugia, 1517. Transferred to the see of Pavia, retaining the see of Siponto, March 13, 1521. He was one of the hostages that were given by Pope Clement VII to the imperial forces after the sack of Rome in 1527; would have been killed by the imperial mercenaries in the Campo di Fiori, had he not been secretly liberated by Cardinal Pompeo Colonna. President of the legation of Romagna, 1528. Governor of Rome, September 28, 1529 until March 31, 1532. Resigned the government of the see of Pavia, June 3, 1530. Governor in Bologna and Romagnola, December 2, 1534 until 1536. Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, August to December 1536. Briefly, he was his uncle's assistant in the government of the Papal States during the absence of Pope Clement VII for the marriage of Catalina de' Medici at Marseilles.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1536; received the red hat, December 23, 1536; and the title of S. Vitale, January 15, 1537. Legate in Parma and Picenza, 1537-1539. Administrator of the see of Polignano, June 14, 1540; resigned the post, November 28, 1541. Legate a latere in the province of Romandiola, September 24, 1540. In 1542 he was charged with the preparation of the general council. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, October 11, 1542. Named to the commission for the reformation of the church, January 5, 1543. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, October 5, 1543. Transferred again to the see of Pavia, June 4, 1544. Resigned the government of the see of Siponto, June 25, 1544. Appointed to the commission to consider the agenda of the forthcoming council, November 2, 1544. Together with Cardinals Marcello Cervini and Reginald Pole, was one of the first three presidents of the Council of Trent, February 6, 1545; received the legatine cross on February 22, 1545; the council was opened on December 13, 1545; because of illness and pain (gout, inflammations of his eyes and the continuing deterioration of his teeth, attacks of some sort of neuralgic pain in his face, as well as pains in his ears and throat), he asked the pope to relieve him of the council's presidency and on March 2, 1547, Pope Paul III decided to grant his request but ordered the cardinal to remain at Trent until a successor could be found; due to an epidemic of typhus, the council was transferred to Bologna on March 26, 1547; finally, Pope Paul III suspended the celebration of the council on February 1, 1548. Named legate in Bologna, July 13, 1548; arrived in the city on Monday, July 16, 1548; the last documented act of his charge was on January 17, 1550. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on February 7, 1550. Took the name Julius III. Crowned, February 22, 1550, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Innocenzo Cybo, protodeacon of S. Maria in Domnica. He created twenty cardinals in four consistories during his pontificate. He was a patron of the arts and humanism and appointed bibliophile Marcello Cervini, future Pope Marcellus II, Vatican librarian; Michelangelo Buonarotti, chief architect of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; and composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, choirmaster of Capella Giulia at the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Death. March 23, 1555, at 7 p.m., Rome, of gout. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Bibliography. Brunelli, Giampiero. "Giulio III." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 111-121; Burkle-Young, Francis A. and Michael Leopoldo Doerrer. The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte : a scandal in scarlet ; together with materials for a history of the House of Ciocchi del Monte San Savino. Lewiston, NY : E. Mellen Press, 1997. (Renaissance studies, v. 2), pp. 50-72, 85-100 and 130-133; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 159-160; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1512; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 77; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 31-33, 57, 69, 71, 269, 277 and 300; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 79, 84, 85, 8991 and 102; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 262-264; Nova, Alessandro. The artistic patronage of Pope Julius III (1550-1555) : profane imagery and buildings for the De Monte family in Rome. New York : Garland Pub., 1988. (Outstanding theses in the fine arts from British universities); Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 149 and 630.

Links. Biography, in English; his portrait, arms and biographical data, in English; biography, in German; biography, in Norwegian; his portrait possibly with his secretary Girolamo Dandini, Roman School, 16th Century; his bronze statue, Piazza Grande, Perugia; another view of the same statue; his portrait by Scipione Pulzone, Galleria Spada, Rome; another portrait; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his effigy on a medal, by Giovanni dal Cavino, Munsthistorisches Museum, Münze, Vienna, Austria; his engraving by Antonio Salamanca, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany; another engraving, Library, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; his effigy on a Vatican postal stamp; his effigy on another medal; his effigy on a medal, compared to Christ's effigy, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City.

Cool Archive

(12) 3. FILONARDI, Ennio (1466-1549)

Birth. 1466, Bauco (1), small castle in the diocese of Veroli. Son of Vellio Filonardi and Rita della Sgurgola. Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Filippo Filonardi (1611).

Education. Educated in Rome (no further information found).

Early life. Entered the Roman Curia in 1484. Became a close advisor to Pope Innocent VIII. Pope Alexander VI named him treasurer of the province of Campagna e Marittima.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Veroli, August 4, 1503. Consecrated (no information found). Abbot commendatario of Casamara. Governor of Marche. Moved to Ancona as governor of Marche, 1503. Vice-legate of Bologna. Governor of Imola. Nuncio in Switzerland, 1513-1517; 1521-1525; and 1531-1533. In 1513, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I granted him the privilege of inserting the imperial eagle in the arms of his family. Named prefect of the Castle of Sant'Angelo, Rome, by Pope Paul III.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1536; received the red hat, December 23, 1536; and the title of S. Angelo in Pescheria, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, January 15, 1537. Resigned the government of the see of Veroli in favor of his nephew Antonio Filonardi, August 12, 1538. Administrator of the see of Montefeltro (2), August 12, 1538. Named legate of the pontifical army in the war against the Guidobaldo della Rovere, duke of Urbino, November 29, 1538. Legate in the Gallia Cisalpine province, Parma and Piacenza, April 21, 1539. He favored by all means the reestablishment of the Swiss Guard in Bologna in 1542 and in Rome in 1548. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, October 8, 1546. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III; had to leave because of illness and died a few days later .

Death. December 19, 1549 (3), Castle Sant'Angelo, Rome, during the vacant see. Transferred to Bauco (Boville) and buried in the chapel of S. Stefano in the collegial church of S. Michele Arcangelo, with a detailed inscription placed by his nephews, Antonio Filonardi, bishop of Veroli, and Saturno Filonardi (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 167-169; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1514; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 266; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 56, 72, and 331; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 418.

Links. Biography by Rotraud Becker, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 47 (1997), Treccani; biography, in Italian, menteantica.it; biography, in French, Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse; his portrait, engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb (1549), chapel of S. Stefano, collegial church of S. Michele Arcangelo, Bauco, diocese of Frosinone-Veroli-Ferentino, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) In 1907 its name was changed to Boville Ernica.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 331; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1514; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 168, says that he occupied the see as its bishop, not as administrator or in commendam.
(3) This is according to all the sources consulted except Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1514, which says that he died on December 19, 1550 although the epitaph that is transcribed following the information about his death on that same column says that he died on December 19, 1549.
(4) This is the text of the inscription transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, O.Cist., in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1514: ENNIO PHILONARDO. Cardinali Episcopo Albanensi qui felicitate ingenii, magnarum rerum administratione, non solum eius humile a Bucæ Herniscorum genuæ illustravit, sed in maximorum Pontificum Innocentii VIII. Alexandri VI. Iulii II. Leonis X. Hadriani VI. Clementis VII. amiscitiam receptus, & ab iis ad Principes ad nationes, ad exercitus & provincias missus, invecto animo & fide authoritatem Sedis Apostolicæ summa cum Reipublica utilitate ubique conservavit, quas ob res bene gestas ut ad continuis lavoribus aliquando vacaret præmiumq; meritorum reportaret; a Paulo Tertio as custodia arcis Hadriani, mox ad Cardinalatus honorem Senatus Populiq; Romani ac totius Italiæ letitiæ vocatus fuit : demum extincto Pontifice, dum Patres eius unius animi pietatem vitæ sanctitatem innocentiamq; respicerent, ipse morbo gravatus, e Sacro Concilium in arcem quam servamverat secedens, humana omnia concilia interrumpens, ad meliora coelestia; incredibili desiderio apud omnes relicto, evoluvit, die Decembris XIX. ann. salut. MDXLIX. ætat. suæ LXXXIII. Antonius Episcopus Verulanus, & Saturnus fratris filii testamento hæredes, sepulchrum cum sacello Iesu matriq; Virigini, & Sebastiano martiri dicato erigit curarunt.

This is the text of the epitaph taken from image of his tomb, from BeWeb, linked above:

ENNIO PHILONARDO CARD. EPO. ALBANEM
QVI FOELICITATE INGENII MAGNARVM. RERVM ADMINISTRATIONE NON SOLVM HEIVS HVMILE
ABVCA HERNICORVM GENVS ILLVSTRAVIT SED INMAXXPONTT INNOCENTII VII I ALEXANDRI VII IVLII II
LEONIS X HADRIANI VI CLEMENTIS VII AMICITIAM RECEPTVS ET AB IIS AD PRINCIPES AD NATIONES
AD EXERCITVS ET PROVINCIAS MISSVS INVICTO ANIMO ET FIDE AVTORI TATEM SEDIS APOSTOLICAE
SVMMA CVM REI P. VTILITATE VBIQVE CONSERVAVIT QVAS OB RES BENEGESTAS VT AD CONTINVIS
LABORIBVS ALIQVANDO VACARET PRAEMIVM MERITORVM REPORTARET A PAVLO III AD CVSTODIAM ARCIS
HADRIANI MOX AD CARDINALATVS HONOREM S.P.Q.R. ACTOTIVS ITALIAE LAETITIA VOCATVS FVIT
DEMVM EXTINCTO PONT DVM PATRES EIVS VNIVS ANIMI PIETATEM VITAE SANCTITATEM INNOCENTIAM
RESPICERENT IPSE MORBO GRAVATVS E SACRO CONCILIO IN ARCEM QVAM SERVAVERAT SE CEDENS
HVMANA OMNIA CONSILIA INTERRVMPENS AD MELIORA COELESTIA INCREDIBILI DESIDERIO APVD OMNES
RELICTO EVOLAVIT DIE DECEMB. XVIIII

Cool Archive

(13) 4. SADOLETO, Jacopo (1477-1547)

Birth. July 12, 1477, Modena. Son of Giovanni Sadoleto and Francesca Machiavelli. Of an ancient and noble family.

Education. Sent by his parents to the University of Ferrara to study under Nicolò Leoniceno (philosophy, poetry, Greek and Latin); went to Rome to study law under the patronage of Cardinal Oliviero Carafa. One of his main interests was archeology.

Early life. Went to Rome in 1499. Canon of the chapter of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in 1503. Participated in the archeological activities promoted by the pope to recover the treasures of ancient Rome and identified the marble sculpture of Lacoont, which had been described by Plinius, in the gardens of Tito; he wrote a poem for the occasion that was very celebrated. Together with Pietro Bembo, future cardinal, was named in 1513 secretary of briefs of Pope Leo X; he remained in the position until 1527, except during the brief period of the pontificate of Pope Adrian VI; because of this post, he had the opportunity of relating with Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, Philipp Melachthon, King Henry VIII of England, Thomas More and Johannes Reuchlin.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1511.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Carpentras, April 24, 1517. Consecrated (no information found). Although he wanted to live in his diocese, the pope retained him in Rome excepting him from the duty of residence and allowing him to govern it through vicars general; at the death of the pope, he went to his see; recalled to Rome by Pope Clement VII, accepted the post of secretary with the condition of being able to return to Carpentras after three years; he had left for his see when the sack of Rome occurred in 1527. Pope Paul III named him legate before King François I of France to dissuade him to go to war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and in 1534, recalled the bishop to Rome. On February 14, 1535 his nephew Paolo Sadoleto was named his coadjutor with right of succession and succeeded him upon his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1536; received the red hat, December 23, 1536; and the title of S. Callisto, January 15, 1537. Named with another eight cardinals (1) to a commission to prepare a general council, January 7, 1538. In April 1538, participated, together with Pope Paul III in the reunion of Emperor Charles V and King François I of France celebrated in Nice. Went to Carpentras and remained there for four years. Legate before King François I of France, August 7, 1542. Accompanied Pope Paul III to the reunion with Emperor Charles V on June 22, 1543. Afterward, returned to Carpentras. Recalled to Rome in 1545. Opted for the title of S. Balbina, May 11, 1545. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, November 27, 1545; because of illness he could not participate in the consistory; because of illness he could not attend the consistory of January 8, 1546 either. Historians have proclaimed him dottore del Sacro Collegio ed una illustrazione del suo secolo (doctor of the Sacred College and an illustration of his century). A philosopher, humanist and notable Latinist who enjoyed grand reputation in the Accademia Romana, his works were edited in Mainz in 1607 and more fully in Verona in four volumes (1737-1738), and in Rome (1759).

Death. October 18, 1547, in his apartment in S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome (2). The funeral was celebrated in the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (3) and the eulogy was delivered by Giacomo Gallo Romano. Buried in his title. His remains were transferred to Carpentras in 1646 and buried in its cathedral. No trace can be found nowadays of his tomb in S. Pietro in Vincoli.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena, e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Ditta tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 161-175; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 170-173; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1515-1518; Douglas, Richard M. Jacopo Sadoleto, 1477-1547: humanist and reformer. Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 1959; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24, 60, 61, 68 and 154; Joly, Aristide. Étude sur J. Sadolet, 1477-1547. Genève : Slatkine Reprints, 1970; Réimpression de l'édition de Caen, 1856; Ritter, Saverio ; Sadoleto, Jacopo. Un umanista teologo, Jacopo Sadoleto, 1477-1547. In appendice: Il trattato inedito de Sadoleto, De peccato originali. Rome : F. Ferrari, 1912; Sadoleto, Jacopo ; Benoît, Fernand. La légation du Cardinal Sadolet auprès de François Ier en 1542 : d'après sa correspondance avec le Cardinal Farnèse. Monaco : Impr. de Monaco, 1928; Schulthess-Rechberg, Gustav von; Rüegg, Arnold. Der Kardinal Jacopo Sadoleto : ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Humanismus. Zurich : Art. Institut Orell F|ssli, 1909.

Links. Biography, in English; portrait and biography, in Italian, third on the page; another biography, in English; biography, in German; his portrait by Cancellieri; his portrait by an unknown artist, Rettorato, Sala del Consiglio, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; his arms; and his engraving by Jean-Jacques Boissard, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.

(1) The other cardinals were Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, Lorenzo Campeggio, Giacomo Simoneta, Gasparo Contarini, Girolamo Ghinucci, Gian Pietro Carafa, Alessandro Cesarini and Reginald Pole. The commission issued the document Consilium delectorum Cardinalium et aliorum Prælatorum de enmendanda Ecclesia S. D. N. Paolo III jubente conscriptum et exhibitum.
(2) This is according to Douglas, Jacopo Sadoleto, 1477-1547: humanist and reformer, p. 212; Ritter, Un umanista teologo, Jacopo Sadoleto, 1477-1547, p. 24; Bernabei, Vita del cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena, e biografie dei cardinali modenesi, p. 172; his biography in Italian, the second biography in English, and the one in German, all linked above, also give this as the date of his death; from the length of his life mentioned in his epitaph, seventy years, three months and six days, it can be deducted, considering the date of birth, that he died on the 18th of October, 1547; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 24 and 68, says that he died on October 19, 1547.
(3) This is the text of the inscription in his monument erected in that church, taken from Bernabei, Vita del cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena, e biografie dei cardinali modenesi, p. 173: D. O. M. IACOPO. SADOLETO. EPISCOPO. CARPENTORACTIS. S. R. E. PRESB. CARDINALI. VIRO. MORVM. GRAVITATE. PRVDENTIA. ET VITÆ. INTEGRITATE. PRÆSTANTISSIMO. DOCTRINA. ET. ELOQVENTIA. CUM. IIS. QVOS. MIRATA. EST. ANTIQVUITAS. COMPARANDO. PAVLVS. SADOLETVS. EPIS. CARPENTORACTIS. ET. CAMILLVS. SADOLETVS. FRATRVM. FILII. MOESTISSIMI. MVLTIS. CVM. LACRYMIS. PATRVO. BENEMERENT. POSUERUNT. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXX. MENSES. III. DIES. VI.

Cool Archive

(14) 5. GIACOBAZZI, Cristoforo (?-1540)

Birth. (No date found) (1), Rome. Son of Jacomo Giacobazzi and Camilla de Astallis. His last name is also listed as Giacovazzi, Giacobacci, Jacovazzi, Jacovacci, Iacobatius, Jacobazio and Jacobatii. Nephew of Cardinal Domenico Giacobazzi (1517).

Education. Educated by his uncle the cardinal.

Early life. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, February 21, 1517.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cassano, March 23, 1523; his uncle the cardinal resigned the see in his favor. Consecrated (no information found). Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Datary of His Holiness, October 1534 to December 1536. Named member of the commission to study the reform of the Roman Curia, August 23, 1535.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1536; received the red hat, December 23, 1536; and the title of S. Anastasia, January 15, 1537. Opted for the title of S. Eustachio, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, September 6, 1537; retained his former title in commendam until his death. Together with Cardinal Rodolfo Pio, named legate before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King François I of France to reestablish the peace between them, December 10, 1537; informed about the legation in the consistory celebrated in Piacenza on April 30, 1538. Legate in Perugia and Umbria, April 21, 1539.

Death. October 7, 1540, Perugia. Buried in Perugia (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 169-170; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1515; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 24-25, 59, 73 and 156; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 168; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 613.

(1) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1515, says that in 1518 he was plane pueri (certainly a youngster).
(2) This is according to the addition of Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1515; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 170, cites him and adds that others, which he does not identify, say that he was transferred to Rome and buried in the church of S. Eustachio.

Cool Archive

(15) 6. HÉMARD DE DENONVILLE, Charles de (1493-1540)

Birth. 1493, Denonville, Beauce, diocese of Chartres, France. Son of Pierre Hémard, signeur de Denonville, and Jeanne Frémiere. He is also listed under Denonville; and his last name is also listed as Hémart.

Education. Collège de Le Mans, Paris, 1508 (licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Secretary to Cardinal Philippe de Luxembourg, 1515?. Obtained the benefices of the parishes of Notre-Dame de Sanchez, Cahors, 1515; and of Dangeau, 1517. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Pierre en Vallée and of Saint-Nicolas d'Angers. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Tours, 1517.

Priesthood. Ordained, Easter Sunday of 1518. After the death of his protector, he became secretary to Cardinal Gouffier de Boissy in 1518 and pastor of Saint-Gabriel de Vignoux, Bourges; and canon of the cathedral chapter of Coutances, 1518; later, its archdeacon. Protonotary apostolic, 1520. Prior of Saint-Pierre de Aubiers, Luçon), 1521. Pastor of Saint-Firmin de Asnières, 1522. Prior of Saint-Jean des Grèves, 1523. Royal chaplain ordinary, January 1526. Member of the Royal Council of King François I of France, 1528. President of the Royal Ecclesiastical Department. Datary of the legation in France; occupied the post even after promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mâcon, January 22, 1531. Consecrated (no information found). Occupied several important embassies. Named French ambassador in Rome in November 1533; he effectively occupied the post from May 1534 to May 1538. Abbot of Saint-Aubin de Angers from 1535. Created cardinal at the request of the French king.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1536; received the red hat, December 23, 1536; and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, January 15, 1537. Administrator of the see of Amiens, December 9, 1538. Travelled to Le Mans with Cardinal Jean Du Bellay; became ill on August 17, 1540 and died in that city.

Death. Monday August 23, 1540, very early in the morning, Le Mans. Transferred to Amiens and buried in its cathedral of Notre Dame (1). His heart was buried in the cathedral of Le Mans.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 789-790; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 170; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1515-1516; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 67, 106 and 238.

Links. His portrait and brief biographical data, in French; his tomb in the cathedral of Notre Dame, Amiens; another view of the tomb.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, O. Cist, in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, cols. 1515-1516: D. O. M. ET. MEMORIE. ÆTERNÆ. CAROLI. HEMARDI. CARDINALIS. MATISCONENSIS. ET AMBIANENSIS. EPISCOPI. Quem nunc iacentem Carolum Hemardum videt. Non stamma opesua, at una virtus & labor redotintem ad usque summa vexit munia. A consiliis primum illie regiis, paululum post Romam ad ipsum Summum Pontificem, sui Negotia, ut Regis fideliter gerat Legatus, adeo se utrisque fidem præstitit, ut Cardinalium numerum atque in ordinem asciretiste, ille Ambiana Ecclesiæ Præficeret, in qua consepultis litibus. Vt pacis arrbam perpetuam corpus suum. Animam Deo linquens sepeliendum dedit. OBIIT. XXIII. AVGVSTI. ANNO. MDXL. SVÆ. VERO. ÆTATIS. XLVII. ANIMA. QVIESCAT. IN. PACEM. AMEN.

Cool Archive

(16) 7. PIO, Rodolfo (1500-1564)

Birth. February 22, 1500, Carpi, fiefdom of his family, Modena. Son of Lionello II, signore of Carpi, Meldola and Sarsina, and his first wife, Maria Martinengo. His last name is also listed as Pio di Carpi. Other cardinals of the family are Carlo Emanuele Pio (1604) and Carlo Pio (1654). His first name is also listed as Rodulphus; and as Rudolfo; and his last name as Pio de Carpo; as Pio di Savoia; as Pio da Carpi; and as Pio di Carpi.

Education. Initial studies under Aldo Manuzio; later, studied law at the University of Padua and philosophy and theology in Rome.

Early life. Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 1516. Rector of the church of SS. Trinità of Ferrara, 1517. Started his ecclesiastical career in the pontificate of Pope Clement VII. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Faenza, November 13, 1528. Nuncio in France, July 16, 1530 to November 28, 1530. Nuncio before the duke of Savoy, May 29, 1533; met with the king of France in Nice; went to Rome to inform the pope, November 12, 1533. Consecrated, December 28, 1533, in the chapel of the consecrator, in Rome, by Cardinal Bonifacio Ferrero, former bishop of Ivrea, assisted by Onofrio de' Medici, archbishop of Pisa, and by Guglielmo, titular bishop of Nicomedia. In the same ceremony was consecrated Filiberto Ferrero, bishop of Ivrea, future cardinal. Resigned the post of chamberlain de numero participante, 1534. Nuncio before King François I of France to negotiate the convocation of the general council and the peace between him and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, January 9, 1535; mission extended for six months, December 16, 1535.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1536; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, July 23, 1537. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, November 28, 1537. Together with Cardinal Cristoforo Giacobazzi, named legate before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King François I of France to reestablish the peace between them, December 10, 1537; informed about the legation in the consistory celebrated in Piacenza on April 30, 1538. Legate in Marca Anconitana, April 21, 1539. Legate in Rome and its district because of the absence of the pope, August 12, 1541. Protector of the kingdom of Scotland. Member of the Inquisition. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchins and of the Society of Jesus. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1542 to January 8, 1543. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, September 24, 1543. Archpriest of Meldola, 1544. Founder of Accademia degli imperfecti in Meldola, 1544. Resigned the government of the see of Faenza, October 10, 1544. Named by the emperor administrator of the see of Girgento, October 10, 1544; occupied the post until his death. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Salerno (1). Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, October 17, 1544. Because of illness he could not attend the consistory of January 8, 1546. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Legate in the province of the Patrimony, 1551. Legate before the king of France, September 9, 1551. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, November 29, 1553. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 11, 1553. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, May 29, 1555. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 18, 1562. He was a reformer, a wise administrator of the diocese that he occupied, a lover of the arts and patron of artists, literary men and erudites regardless of their religious confession, and a collector of precious statues, books, codices, urns and medals.

Death. May 2, 1564, at 10 p.m., of gout, Pallavicino palace, Campo Marzio, Rome. Buried in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome (2). On May 12, 1564, the pope delivered his eulogy. Pope Pius V erected his funeral monument a few years later.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 173-177; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1518-1521; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 56, 57, 59, 62, 66, 69, 99, 194.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; portrait and biography, in Italian, Accademia degli Imperfetti di Meldola; brief biographical data, in Italian, Sapere.it; his engraving, portrait arms and prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his portrait by Francesco de Rossi Salviati Cecchino, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria, Bridgeman Art Library; his portrait (1750-1799), diocese of Agrigento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) There are discrepancies among the sources consulted concerning his promotion to the metropolitan see of Salerno. Ferdinando Ughelli, O. Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1520, also says that he was named archbishop of Salerno in 1540 and, besides, indicates that he was bishop of Nola; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 174-175, says that Giulio Ambrogio Lucenzio in his Italia Sacra indicates that the pope named Ludovico della Torre to that see and not Cardinal Pio; Eubel Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 289; and Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 919, do not list him among the occupants of that see.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1518: QVI. DORMIVNT. IN TERRÆ. PVLVERE. EVIGILABVNT. RODOLFO. PIO. CARD. CARPENSI. PRINCIPI. SENATVS. AMPLISSIMIS. ECCL. DEI. MVNERIBVS. SINGVLARI. PROVIDENTIA. PERFVNCTO. IVRIS. ECCLES. DEFENSORI. A. GRATIA. TERRORE. VOLVPTATVM. ILLECECEBRIS. ET. ADVERSIS. SENSIBVS. ÆQVE. INVICTO. AD. BENEFICENTIAM. NATO. IN. SVMMA. GRAVITATE. IVCVNDISSIMO. PIVS. V. P. M. SALVTARIS. OFFICII. IN CVSTODIA. CATHOLICÆ. VERITTATIS. CONSORTI. PERPETVIS. DE. CHRIST. REIP. SENSIBVS. STVDIISQ. CONIVNCTISSIMO. HOC. AMORIS. ET. IVDICII. SVI. MONVMENTVM. POSVIT. ANNO. SALVTIS. MDLXVIII. PONT. III. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXIV. MENSES. II. DIES. VIII. OBIIT. ANNO SALVTIS. MDLXIV. VI. NONAS. MAIAS.

Cool Archive

(17) 8. POLE, Reginald (1500-1558)

Birth. March 3, 1500, Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England. Son of Sir Richard Pole, knight of the Order of the Garter, half-cousin to Henry VII of King Henry VII Tudor, and Margaret, countess of Salisbury, who was cousin to Elizabeth of York, King Henry VII's wife (George of Clarence and Edward IV being brothers); and governess of Princess Mary, the future queen of England. Reginald and King Henry VIII were second cousins of the half-blood (1).

Education. Received his initial education in the Charterhouse at Sheen, 1507-1512; Magdalen College, Oxford University, Oxford (bachelor, 1515); studied at the University of Padua, Padua; and in Venice, 1521-1526; King Henry VIII of England financed his studies. Destined to the ecclesiastical life, he willingly assented.

Early life. Although he had not received the sacred orders and was still very young, he was given several ecclesiastical benefices such as the title of dean of the collegiate church of Wimborne, February 15, 1518. Studied in Italy until 1526 and that year visited Rome for the first time; during his stay in Italy he met Christophe de Longueil, who left Pole his library; Nicolaus Leonicus Thomaeus, who taught him Greek; Pietro Bembo, humanist and future cardinal; Gasparo Contarini, also a future cardinal; Thomas Lupset, the English scholar; and had the opportunity of knowing Pier Martire Vermigli, who frequented the university during that same period. Returned to England in 1527 and continued his studies at the Charterhouse in Sheen. Elected dean of Exeter, August 12, 1527. Shortly after, Pole, to avoid having to take sides in the matter of the divorce of King Henry VIII and Queen Catalina de Aragón, obtained permission from the king to continue his studies in Paris. But he did not escape the matter entirely because the king asked him to obtain from the University of Paris an opinion favorable to the divorce. Pole probably did little to forward a cause so distasteful to his own feelings and eventually the king asked him to go back to England. After the death of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey on November 29, 1530, King Henry VIII offered him appointment to the metropolitan see of York or to the see of Winchester but he declined what was intended to be a bribe to gain his support in the matter of the divorce. He obtained an audience with the king and expressed his feelings on the divorce matter very clearly. To explain his position he subsequently submitted a memorial on the subject. As Pole had not made his opposition public, the king gave him permission in January, 1532, to travel to the continent and continued to support him out of the royal exchequer. He left England for Avignon but its climate did not suit him and moved to Padua the following October. In Padua he cultivated his friendship with Gian Petro Carafa, Gasparo Contarini, Alvise Priuli, Benedetto Fontanini da Mantova and Jacopo Sadoleto. During this time he also had the opportunity to conduct more profound studies of biblical criticism in the Benedictine monastery of Santa Giustina in Venice, under the guidance of Flemish Hebrew scholar Jan van Kampen (Campensis).

In 1534, King Henry VIII broke completely and definitively with Rome. Pressed by the king to write his opinion on the lawfulness of his marriage to Queen Catalina, his deceased brother's widow, and also on the divine institution of the papal supremacy, Pole consented with reluctance and replied in a treatise entitled Pro ecclesiasticæ Unitatis defensione. The work was in the most uncompromising language and argument as he was convinced that it was his duty before God to speak plainly, regardless of the cost to himself and his family. The book was not made public until a later date. It was sent privately to the king on May 27, 1536. When King Henry saw Pole's reply, he sent the messenger, who had brought it, back to Pole asking him to return to England to explain certain questions about the treatise. Pole decided not to go back to his native land. At this time, Pole was called to Rome by Pope Paul III; the pope wanted to appoint him to a commission that he had formed under the presidency of Cardinal Contarini to prepare a scheme for the internal reform of the church. If he accepted the papal invitation, he clearly was siding with the pope against the king. For a while he seemed to have been doubtful as to what his duty was. Urged by Bishop Gian Matteo Giberti of Verona, and Archbishop Carafa, to obey God rather than man, he accepted the pope's invitation and went to Rome in mid-November 1536. When Pope Paul III expressed to Pole that he intended to promote him to the cardinalate, the latter expressed his resistance to the idea but the pope disregarded his objections. Protonotary apostolic. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure shortly before his promotion to the cardinalate (2).

Sacred orders. He was ordained a deacon in 1536.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 22, 1536; received the red hat, December 23, 1536; and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, January 15, 1537. He was one of the signatories of the most significant document for the reformation of the church and the convocation of the council, Consilium de emendanda ecclesia of January 1537. On February 18, 1537, he was named legate for a mission to promote an intervention in England; it was known as the "Pilgrimage of Grace"; the rivalry between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King François I of France made the mission unsuccessful; he was recalled to Rome. Named with another eight cardinals to a commission to prepare a general council, January 7, 1538 (3). In the Spring of 1538, he participated in the meeting of the emperor and the French king in Nice. His brothers were arrested in England; later, his mother was imprisoned also; and his own life was in danger from Henry's hired assassins. With the pope's approval, he tried to organize a European league against King Henry VIII; he met the emperor in Toledo, Spain, in February 1539; but he was not allowed to enter into France; he was recalled to Rome. Opted for the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, May 3, 1540. Named with another eleven cardinals to a commission for the reform of the Roman Curia and its officials, August 27, 1540 (4). Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 10, 1540. His mother was martyred at East Smithfield Green, May 28, 1541. Named governor of the province of the Patrimony of St. Peter, the area around Rome, August 12, 1541; he resided in Viterbo and gathered around him several Humanists (5); he occupied the post until 1546. Named, together with Cardinals Giovanni Morone and Pierpaolo Parisi, legate to the Council of Trent, November 1, 1542; due to the small number of delegates, the proceedings were suspended on July 6, 1543; the reopening of the council was delayed until December 1545; during this interval, he wrote the treatise De Concilio. During the second session of the council, January 7, 1546, he presented his Admonitio Legatorum ad Patres Concilii; due to reasons of health he had to leave Trent on June 28 of that year (6).

Pope Paul III died on November 10, 1549, and at the conclave of 1549-1550, Cardinal Pole was the leading candidate and at one point, he needed only one vote to be elected; he could have accepted the election per adorationem, but he did not and Cardinal Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte was elected, becoming Pope Julius III; during the conclave, Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa repeatedly attacked Cardinal Pole, accusing him of heresy. From 1550 to 1551, Cardinal Pole retired to the Benedictine convent of Maguzzano, at Lago di Garda, where he met the historian Giovanni Michele Bruto and the Italian-Hungarian diplomat and ecclesiastic Andrea Dudith Sbardellati. Named papal legate before the Christian princes for peace between Holy Roman Emperor Charles I and French King Henri II (7); and before Queen Mary I Tudor for the reconciliation of England, August 5, 1553 for these legations he received powers that were nearly similar to the pope's. The legate did not arrive in Dover until November 20, 1554 because of complicated political maneuverings (8). The legate formally absolved the two houses of parliament from the sin of schism and thus effected the reconciliation of England with the Church of Rome after a separation that had lasted twenty years, November 30, 1554. Before being able to arrive in England, the legate had to agree that those holding what had been church property should not be forced to return it. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. He opened a synod of the bishops of England on November 4, 1555 at Westminster; it came to a temporary conclusion in the middle of February 1556 (9) so that the bishops could return to their dioceses for Lent; the synod's twelve reform decrees were published on February 10, 1556, under the title Reformatio Angliæ ex decretiis Reginaldi Poli, Cardinalis, Sedis Apostolicæ Legati; the most important decree ordered for the first time ever the establishment of seminaries, seed beds as the synod called them; the idea was later adopted by the Council of Trent. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, December 1, 1555.

Episcopate. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Canterbury, December 11, 1555, a week after the deposition of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer; Cardinal Pole was named archbishop of that see shortly after.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 20, 1556. He celebrated his first mass the following day. Consecrated, March 22, 1556, Franciscan church of Greenwich, by Nicholas Heath, archbishop of York, assisted by Edmund Bonner, bishop of London, and five bishops of the Canterbury province, Thomas Thirlby, bishop of Ely; Richard Pates, bishop of Worcester; John White, bishop of Lincoln; Maurice Griffith, bishop of Rochester; and Thomas Goldwell, bishop of St. Asaph. He received the pallium on the feast of the Annunciation, March 25, 1556, in the church of St. Mary-le-Bow, and delivered a sermon that is still preserved. In April 1556, Cardinal Pole was elected chancellor of Cambridge University, and the following October 26, the University of Oxford gave him the same honor. Because of Pope Paul IV's anti-Spanish stance because of their occupation of Naples during the reign of King Fernando I, war broke out in Italy between the pope and King Felipe II. The pope allied himself with the king of France and King Felipe deliberately tried to involve England in the conflict. Pope Paul recalled the papal legates from the Spanish dominions and specifically relieved Cardinal Pole of his legation in England on April 9, 1557; Queen Mary ordered the papal brief revoking the legation to be intercepted and kept back until she had made her remonstrances to Rome; the cardinal wrote the pope indicating how important it was to have a legate in England at that time adding that should the pope wished to take the burden from him, there was no reason not to appoint another legate right away; in the consistory of June 14, 1557, Pope Paul IV created William Peto, O.F.M.Conv., a cardinal and named him legate in England; at the same time, the pope recalled Cardinal Pole to Rome. The pontiff was convinced that some of Cardinal Pole's views, especially on justification, were not doctrinally sound and wanted him to go Rome to confront charges of heresy; at the same time Cardinal Morone and Soranzo were arrested, sent to the Castle of S. Angelo and subjected to a process by the Roman inquisition. The cardinal resisted the pope's orders and sent the pontiff a strong defense of his ideas in an Apologia.

Death. November 17 (10), 1558, at 7 p.m., Lambeth Palace, London; twelve hours after the death of Queen Mary I. Buried in Becket's Corona in the metropolitan cathedral of Canterbury (11). He was the last Roman Catholic archbishop of Canterbury.

Bibliography. Antony, Catherine Mary. The angelical cardinal, Reginald Pole. With a preface by Robert Hugh Benson. London : Burns, Oates & Washbourne, 1909. (The St. Nicholas series ). With a "Catalogue of the principal works written by Cardinal Pole": p. xix-xx; Beccadelli, Lodovico. Vita Reginaldi Poli, Britanni, S.R.E. Cardinalis, et Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi. Venetiis : D. Guerrei & Ioan. Baptistae fratrum, 1563; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 189-197; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; Duffy, Eamon. Fires of faith : Catholic England under Mary Tudor. New Haven [Conn.] ; London : Yale University Press, 2009. Abstract: The reign of Mary Tudor has been remembered as an era of sterile repression, when a reactionary monarch launched a doomed attempt to reimpose Catholicism on an unwilling nation. In this text, Eamon Duffy argues that Mary's regime was neither inept nor backward-looking. Contents: Rolling back the revolution -- Cardinal Pole -- Contesting the Reformation: plain and godly treatises -- From persuasion to force -- The theatre of justice -- The hunters and the hunted -- The battle for hearts and minds -- The defence of the burnings and the problem of martyrdom -- The legacy: inventing the counter-reformation; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 67, 74, 76 and 150; Fenlon, Dermot. Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Italy; Cardinal Pole and the Counter Reformation. Cambridge University Press, 1972; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 183; Haile, Martin. Life of Reginald Pole. London : Sir I. Pitman and sons, ltd., 1910; Lee, Frederick George. Reginald Pole, cardinal archbishop of Canterbury; an historical sketch. London : J. C. Nimmo, 1888; Mayer, Thomas Frederick). Cardinal Pole in European context : a via media in the Reformation. Aldershot ; Burlington, Vt. : Ashgate, 2000. (Variorum collected studies series ; CS686); Mayer, Thomas Frederick. Reginald Pole : prince and prophet. Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2000; Mayer, Thomas Frederick. A reluctant author : Cardinal Pole and his manuscripts. Philadelphia : American Philosophical Society, 1999. (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society ; v. 89, pt. 4); Mignozzi, Vito. Tenenda est media via : l'ecclesiologia di Reginald Pole (1500-1558). Prefazione di Marcello Semeraro. Assisi (Perugia) : Cittadella, 2007. (Studi e ricerche; Variation: Collana Studi e ricerche (Assisi, Italy)). Note: Originally presented as the author's thesis; Miranda, Salvador. Reginald Cardinal Pole, legate and reformer. Unpublished research paper for "Tudor and Stuart England." Philadelphia : Villanova University, Fall 1972; Phillips, Thomas. The history of the life of Reginald Pole. 2 v. in 1. Oxford : Printed by William Jackson, 1764; Pole, Reginald. Epistolarum Reginaldi Poli, S.R.E. cardinalis et aliorum ad ipsum pars I-[V] quae scriptas complectitur ab anno MDXX. usque ad an. MDXXXVI. Scilicet a primo Reg. Poli Patavium adventu usque ad delatum ei a Paulo III. cardinalatum. 5 v. Brixiae, J.M. Rizzardi, 1744-1757. Contents: v. 1. 1520-1536.--v. 2. 1537-1539.--v. 3. 1540-1542.--v. 4. 1543-1554.--v. 5. 1554-1558. Responsibility: Praemittuntur animadversiones in epist. Jo: Georg. Schelhornii, vita Cardinalis Poli, & quaedam huius scripta, atque diatriba ad easdem epistolas; Pole, Reginald ; Lutz, Heinrich. Friedenslegation des Reginald Pole zu Kaiser Karl V. und König Heinrich II. (1553-1556). Tübingen : M. Niemeyer, 1981. (Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland : nebst ergänzenden Aktenstücken ; 1. Abt. 1533-1559, 15. Bd.; Variation: Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland ; 1. Abt., 15. Bd). Responsibility: im Auftrag des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom ; bearbeitet von Heinrich Lutz; Pole, Reginald; Quirini, Angelo Maria. Epistolarum Reginaldi Poli S.R.E. Cardinalis et aliorum ad ipsum pars I-V. 5 v. Farnborough : Gregg, 1967, 1744. Contents: Pars 1. Quf scriptas, complectitur ab anno 1520-1536, acilicet a primo Reg. Poli Patavium adventu usque ad delatum ei a Paulo III, cardinalatum. Prfmittunter animadversiones in epist. Jo. Geor. Schelhornii, vita cardinalis Poli, et qufdam hujus scripta, atque diatriba ad easdem epistolas. [Edidit Angelus Maria Card. Quirinus]; Pole, Reginald. Pole's defense of the unity of the Church. Edited and translate by Joseph G Dwyer. Westminster, Md. : Newman Press, 1965. Abstract: "Reginald Pole's On the Unity of the Church, in the context of its 1536 setting, is a personal appeal for the spiritual salvation of his dear friend Henry VIII, and a strong defense of papal supremacy. The fame of the monarch to whom the appeal was directed, and the character of the man addressing the appeal, mark this work with intrinsic and extrinsic relevancy both for any contemporary aggiornamento, and the insight it provides for an almost forgotten page of Tudor history."-Preface; Schenk, Wilhelm. Reginald Pole, Cardinal of England. London ; New York : Longmans, Green, 1950; Simoncelli, Paolo. Il caso Reginald Pole : eresia e santit` nelle polemiche religiose del Cinquecento. Roma : Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1977. (Uomini e dottrine ; 23; Variation: Uomini e dottrine ; 23). Note: Appendices (p. [243]-265) consist of documents in Latin; Starkey, Thomas. A dialogue between Pole and Lupset. Edited by T.F. Mayer. London : Royal Historical Society, 1989. (Camden fourth series ; v.37); Starkey, Thomas. England in the reign of King Henry the Eighth. Life and letters and a dialogue between Cardinal Pole and Lupset. 2 vols. Edited by Sidney J. Herrtage. Millwood, N.Y. : Kraus Reprint Co., 1973. (Early English Text Society. Extra series, no. 32, 12). Reprint of the 1871-78 ed. Part 1 first issued in 1878; pt. 2 in 1871. Contents: Pt.1. Starkey's life and letters, ed. by Sidney J. Herrtage.--pt. 2. A dialogue between Cardinal Pole and Thomas Lupset, Lecturer in rhetoric at Oxford, ed. by J. M. Cowper.

Links. Biography by Herbert Thurston, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Italian, at the end of the page; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in German; biography, in English; biography, in Spanish; portrait and biography, in Italian; his mission to England; his genealogy; his portrait by an unknown artist, National Portrait Gallery, London; larger version of the same portrait; his portrait with Pope Paul III, by Jacopino del Conte, church of S. Francesca Romana, formerly basilica of S. Maria Nova, Rome; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Rettorato, Camera Blindata, University of Bologna, Bologna; his engraving by an anonymous artist; engraving by Tobias Stimmer and Nikolaus Reusner, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany; portrait and engraving by Sebastiano del Piombo and by Adriaen van der Werff and Pieter Stevens van Gunst; another portrait; and his tomb and portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo, The Hermitage, Saint Petersburg, Russia, Idle Speculations; The King's cousin : the life, career and Welsh connection of Sir Richard Pole, 1458-1504 by Hazel Pierce, Welsh history review/Cylchgrawn hanes Cymru, Vol. 19, no. 2 (Dec. 1998), p. 187-225; his portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo (follower of), Magdalen College, University of Oxford, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait, German School, Lambeth Palace, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait by Cristofano dell' Altissimo, The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait, British (English) School, The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait by an unknown artist, Trinity College, University of Cambridge, he Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC.

(1) Their grandmother, Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso (1405/6-1482), was married three times, first to Oliver St John of Bletso (d.1437), by whom she had Edith St John; Edith married Geoffrey Pole and they were the parents of Sir Richard. By her second marriage she married John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset (1403-1444); their daughter, the half-sister of Edith St John, was the Lady Margaret Beaufort, the mother of Henry VII. Her third husband was Lionel Lord Welles, who was killed at Towton in 1461. Their son was John Viscount Welles, who after the Battle of Bosworth was married to Cecily of York, the daughter of Edward IV.
(2) According to Haile, Life of Reginald Pole, pp. 187-188, Pole appeared to have convinced the pope not to elevate him to the cardinalate but "when the pope was in consistory he suddenly changed his mind, and sent Monsignor Durante, his camariere secreto, to Signor Reginaldo's apartment, to tell him that in virtue of holy obedience he must prepare himself to receive the cardinalate at once, and to give him the tonsure... when Monsignor Durante appeared, with the barber behind him to make the tonsure."
(3) The other cardinals were Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, Lorenzo Campeggio, Giacomo Simoneta, Gasparo Contarini, Girolamo Ghinucci, Giacomo Sadoleto, Alessandro Cesarini and Gian Pietro Carafa.
(4) These cardinals were Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, Gian Pietro Carafa, Alessandro Cesarini, Giovanni Maria del Monte, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Marino Grimani, Girolamo Aleandro, Nicolò Ridolfi, Gasparo Contarini, Girolamo Ghinucci and Marcello Cervini.
(5) To this period dates back the idea of Spanish reformer Juan de Valdés of the justification based only on faith that was adopted by Marcantonio Flaminio. Following the death of Valdés in August 1541, Pole and Flaminio transferred the school of thought, the so-called circle of the Spirituali, which had collected the spiritual inheritance of Valdés, to Viterbo. Adherents to the circle were, among others, Vittore Soranzo; Pietro Carnesecchi; Apollonio Merenda, who became Pole's chaplain; Pietro Antonio di Capua; Alvise Priuli; Vittoria Colonna, marchioness of Pescara, who was very devoted to Pole; and Countess Giulia Gonzaga. The circle had a short life (until the Autumn of 1542; although then, until 1550, the year of the death of Flaminio, the group remained compact during the transfer of the council to Trent); it acted there as a center to spread the reformed or evangelici writings, like the unpublished texts of Valdés, including Alphabeto christiano, translated from Flemish, and according to the opinion of Pole, who greatly appreciated the most famous of Valdés writings: Trattato utilissimo del beneficio di Giesù Christo crocefisso verso i christiani, also known by its brief title Beneficio di Christo, one of the fundamental books for the reform in Italy. Pole wavered between the evangeliche ideas and the absolute fidelity to the Catholic Church. He was able to engage himself directly on the defense of the evangelici, as when, in 1547, he interceded personally before Pope Paul III asking him to emit a brief of acquittal for the Messinese nobleman Bartolomeo Spadafora, accused by the Sicilian inquisition. The friendship demonstrated by Pole towards Spadafora was the true reason of the arrest and incarceration of the Sicilian nobleman in September 1556, when Pope Paul IV persecuted him only on the basis of this friendship.
(6) Some sources have indicated that the real reason why he left Trent was because of the disagreement of his views with the ones of the majority on the matter of justification. It is true that he had shared certain opinions of his friend Cardinal Contarini in this subject that, later, were repudiated by the council. But at that time the council had not pronounced itself, and Cardinal Pole's submission to the authority of the pontiff always was absolute and complete. Possibly, an exaggerated idea of those errors produced later the distrust of Pope Paul IV which led him to suspect Cardinal Pole as well as Cardinal Morone of having heretical ideas.
(7) Although not very successful in this legation, he wrote an important document entitled Discorso di pace, 1554; the cardinal stated that divine providence had placed the pope as the only true teacher of peace, and that peace in Europe was only reachable through love between the monarchs.
(8) Queen Mary I's counselors and the emperor, who wanted to marry the queen to his son Prince Philip, believed that England was not ready yet to receive a legate from the pope. The emperor deliberately made Cardinal Pole remain on the continent until the marriage between the queen and the prince had taken place.
(9) The synod was to be reopened on November 10, 1556 but was adjourned to May 10, 1557 and eventually never met at all.
(10) This is according to all the sources consulted except Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 25, 74 and 150, which indicates that he died on November 19, 1558; and Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 183, which says that he died on November 18, 1558.
(11) The site of his burial was marked with a simple inscription: Depositum Cardinalis Poli.

Cool Archive

(18) 9. BORJA Y DE CASTRE-PINÓS, Rodrigo Luis de (1524-1537)

Birth. 1524 (1), Gandía, Spain. Son of Juan de Borja II Enríquez, third duke of Gandía, and his second wife, Francisca de Castro y de Pinós. His second first name is also listed as Lodovico and his second last name as Castre Pinés. Half-brother, on his father's side, of St. Francisco de Borja y de Aragón, S.J., third superior general of the Society of Jesus; and of Cardinal Enrique de Borja y Aragón (1539). Great-great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Roman cleric. Inherited the barony of Navarrés by cessation of his father on June 8, 1530. Joined the Order of Santiago in 1533. Promoted to the cardinalate at a very young age.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 22, 1536; received the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, January 15, 1537. He wrote to the pope from Gandía on February 13, 1537 to thank him for the promotion and died when Francisco Juan Roca, dean of the Colegial of Gandía, had just arrived bringing him his red hat.

Death. August 6, 1537 (1), in the ducal palace of Gandía (2). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 197; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1525; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25 and 75; Goñi, J. "Borja y de Castro-Pinos, Rodrigo de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), Suppl., pp. 102-103; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 80.

Links. Brief biographical data, in English; and his genealogy, A2 B4 D5.

(1) This is according to Goñi, "Borja y de Castro-Pinos, Rodrigo de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, p. 102; and Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, III, 80; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 25, says that he died in June 1537; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he died on August 16, 1537.
(2) Goñi, "Borja y de Castro-Pinos, Rodrigo de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, p. 103, says that the Romans rejoiced about his death for their hatred of Pope Alexander VI.

Cool Archive

(19) 10. ALEANDRO, Girolamo (1480-1542)

Birth. February 13, 1480, Motta di Livenza, diocese of Treviso. Son of Francesco Aleandro, a physician. His last name is also listed as Aleander, Aleandre and Leandri.

Education. He studied in Motta, Pordenone, Venice and Padua (philosophy, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, theology, music, eloquence, Oriental languages, Greek, and Hebrew, which he studied under Mosè Perez, Spanish Jew who converted to Christianity).

Early life. In 1499, he settled in Venice as a teacher and contributed to the press of famous printer Aldus Manutius. In his youth he was closely associated with Desiderius Erasmus, the humanist from Rotterdam. In 1508 he went to Paris and had gained a great reputation as a classical scholar; he also lectured in Orléans, where he had moved in December 1510 because of the plague; returned to Paris in 1511 and on March 18, 1513 he was appointed rector of the university of Paris. In December 1513, he became secretary to Bishop Etienne de Poncher of Paris, chancellor of King Louis XII. In 1514 he went to Liège and on January 15, 1515, recommended by Bishop Erardus van der Mark, became canon of the cathedral chapter of Liège; as the bishop's representative, he went to Rome arriving there on June 17, 1516; he became the private secretary of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici. Named chancellor of the diocese of Chartres, July 15, 1517. Later, Pope Leo X appointed him prefect of the Vatican Library. Nuncio before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1520; he was charged with the task of opposing the heretical teachings of Martin Luther. Nuncio to the Diet of Worms, 1520; he led the opposition against Luther, which produced his break with Erasmus; the edict against Luther adopted by the diet in 1521 was drawn up and proposed by Aleandro. Nuncio before King François I of France, 1523; together with the king, he was taken prisoner in the Battle of Pavia, 1525.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Brindisi et Oria, August 8, 1524.

Sacred orders. Ordained, October 9, 1524, by Gian Pietro Carafa, former archbishop of Brindisi and Oria. (It is not clear which sacred orders he received on that day.) He was granted a prorogation to receive the episcopal consecration on February 28, 1528. Consecrated in Rome, by Gian Pietro Carafa, former archbishop of Brindisi and Oria, between February 28, 1528 and August 8, 1529, when he already called himself archbishop. Nuncio to the Diet of Speyer, August 29, 1531. Nuncio in Venice, 1533-1535; charged with solving the controversy between the Holy See and the Venetian Senate that erupted during the pontificate of Pope Clement VII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1536 and reserved in pectore; published in the consistory of March 13, 1538; received the red hat and the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, March 13, 1538. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, March 20, 1538. Legate a latere before the King of the Romans, in Germany, in the consistory of July 4, 1538, celebrated in Lucca. Named legate in Germany, Hungary and Bologna, 1538; returned to Rome from Germany, December 15, 1539; later, he went to Motta. Resigned the government of the archdiocese in favor of his nephew Francesco Aleandro, January 30, 1541. Recalled to Rome, he was named member of the comission for the reform of the Roman Curia, January 5, 1542. He was a remarkable scholar, particularly of classical languages, an important opponent of the Lutheran Reformation and a strong supporter of the general council.

Death. February 1, 1542 (1), Rome. Buried in his title (2). Later transferred to Motta and buried in the church of S. Niccolò. Left his library to the canons of the monastery of S. Maria dell'Orto in Venice; they transported it to S. Giorgio in Alga.

Bibliography. Aleandre, Jérôme. Journal autobiographique du cardinal Jérôme Aléandre (1480-1530). Publié d'après les manuscrits de Paris et Udine par M. Henri Omont. Paris : Impr. nationale, 1895; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 177-188; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1521-1523; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 61, 63 and 142.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in German; another biography, in English; engraving by Agostino Musi (Agostino Veneziano), Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America; same engraving and biography, in Italian (towards the middle of the page); and another view of the same engraving.

(1) This is according Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 25; his first biography in English, linked above and his biography in German, also linked above, say that he died on January 31, 1542; his biography in Italian, linked above, indicates that he died on January 30, 1542; his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1523, says that he was 62 years minus 13 days when he died, which, if he was born on February 13, 1480, indicates that he died on January 31, 1542.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from the addition of Andrea Vittorelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1523: HIERONYMO. ALEANDRO. MOTTENSI. E. COMITIBVS. LANDRI. IN. CARNIA. PETRÆPILOSÆ. IN HISTRIA. ORIVNDO. TT. S. CHRISOGONI. S. R. E. PRESB. CARD. BRVNDVSINO. PHILOSOPHIÆ. THEOLOGIÆ. DOCTORI. HÆBRAICÆ. GRÆCÆ. LATINÆ. ALIQVOTQ. ALIARVM. LINGVARVM. EXOTICARVM. ITA. EXACTE. DOCTO. VT. EAS. RECTE. ET. APTE. LOQVERETVR. ET. SCRIBERET. MOX. DIVERSIS. LEGATIONIBVS. PRO. SVMMIS. PONTIFICIBVS. AD. OMNES. FERE. CHRISTIANOS. PRINCIPES. FIDELITER. ET. DILIGENTER. PERFVNCTO. ET. IDEO. IN. TABEM. DELAPSO. QVANTI. HVMANAM. MISSERIAM. FECERIT. SEQVENTI. DISTICO. DE. SE. EDITO. TESTATVM. POSTERIT. RELIQVIT. NATUS. EST. MOTTÆ. IN CARNIA. ANNO. MCDLXXIX. MORITVR. ROMÆ. ANNO. CHRIST. SALVTIS. MDXLII. ÆTATIS. SVÆ. LXIII. MINVS. DIEBVS. XIII. HÆREDES. PATRVO. AMPLISSIMO. ET. OPTIMO. MOESTISSIMI . P. C.

Cool Archive

(20) 11. CAETANI, Niccolò (1526-1585)

Birth. February 23, 1526 (1), Rome. Son of Camillo Caetani, third duke of Sermoneta, cousin of Pope Paul III, and his second wife, Flaminia Savelli. Neapolitan patrician. His last name is also listed as Gaetano and Caetani di Semoneta. Descendant of the family of Pope Boniface VIII. Uncle of Cardinal Enrico Caetani (1585). Grand-uncle of Cardinals Bonifacio Caetani (1606) and Antonio Caetani (1621). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Luigi Caetani (1626). Another member of the family was Cardinal Antonio Caetani (1402).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. He was 10 years old at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 22, 1536 and reserved in pectore. Administrator of the see of Bisignano, March 5, 1537. Published in the consistory of March 13, 1538; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, April 16, 1538.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Conza, August 8, 1539. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Capua, May 5, 1546. Resigned the administration of the see of Bisignano, March 13, 1549. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Administrator of the see of Quimper (Cornoauille), July 14, 1550 (2). Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustacchio, March 9, 1552. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Governor of Cesi, January 7, 1560. Resigned the administration of the see of Quimper, April 5, 1560. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Protector of Scotland, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 6, 1577 to January 8, 1578. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V; died the day in which the new pope was crowned.

Death. May 1, 1585, Rome. Transferred to Loreto, he was buried in the chapel he had built in the Santuario della Santa Casa (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 197-198; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1526-1527; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 25, 73, 75, 134, 175, 179.

Links. His genealogy, B3 D3 F3; his portrait, Palazzo Caetani, Rome; his monument by Giovanni Battista Della Porta, Santuario della Santa Casa, Loreto, Marches, Italy; with closer view of his statue.

(1) This date is deduced from the inscription of his epitaph; the change to the Gregorian Calendar occurred in 1582, and it suppressed ten days; if the author of the epitaph took the change into consideration and discounted those ten days, then the date of birth of the cardinal should be advanced to February 13, 1526.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 179; his genealogy, linked above, says that he was named administrator of that see on June 9, 1550.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1526: D. O. M. NICOLAVS. GAETANVS. CARD. SERMONETA. GENTILIS. BONIF. VIIII. CVM. IDEM. TEMPVS. QVO. ILLE. PONTIFIC. INIIT. SANCTAM. HANC. DOMVM. HIC. TANDEM. DIVINITVS. CONSEDISSE. ET. MVLTA. SE. A. D. O. M. BENEFICIA. B. VIRGINIS. DEIPARÆ. PRECIBVS. OBTINVISSE. MEMINISSET. SPERANS. EIVSDEM. OPEM. MORIENTI. NON. DEPVTVR. AM. MONVMENTVM. HOC. MEMOREVM. VIVENS. ET. INCOLVMIS. SIBI. FACIENDVM. CVRAVIT. ATQ. IN. EO. VBI. MORTALITATEM. EXVISSET. CORPVS. SVV. RECONDI. VOLVIT. ANNVM. AGENS. LIV. ANNO. DOMINI. MDLXXX. OBIIT. ANNOS. NATVS. LIX. MENSES. II. DIES. VII. MDLXXXV. KAL. MAII. On the pavement of the church, in marble, covering his body: NICOLAVS. GAETANVS. TT. S. EUSTACHII. S. R. E. PRESB. CARD. SERMONETA.

Top Consistories Catalogs Home

©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.