(22) 1. ÁLVAREZ DE TOLEDO, O.P., Juan (1488-1557)
Birth. July 15, 1488 (1), Alba de Tormes, diocese of Salamanca, Spain (2). Son of Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, second duke of Alba, and Isabel de Zúñiga. Relative of Cardinal Fernando de Toledo Oropesa (1578)
Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in the convent of San Esteban, Salamanca, ca.1504; took his vows, April 11, 1507; sent to study at Colegio San Gregorio, Valladolid, 1508; swore the estatutos, March 21, 1508; completed his formation in Paris.
Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Named lector of Sentencias in the Dominican chapter of Genoa, 1513. Professor of philosophy and theology at the University of Salamanca. Declined the promotion to the episcopate offered by King Charles I of Spain.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Córdoba, August 31, 1523. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Burgos, April 11, 1537 (3).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1538; the red hat was sent to him earlier; and received the title of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, May 4, 1541. Resided in the Roman Curia since 1540. Opted for the title of S. Sisto, July 6, 1541. Named one of the members of the reconstituted tribunal of the inquisition general, July 21, 1542 (4). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1543 to January 9, 1544. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, January 24, 1547. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, February 28, 1550; retained the title of S. Clemente until December 4, 1551. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Compostela, June 27, 1550. Named inquisitor of Rome, 1553. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, November 20, 1553. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, December 11, 1553. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 29, 1555. Pope Paul IV named him his confessor, gave him an apartment at the apostolic palace and, at the death of the master general of the Order of Preachers, charged him with the care of the entire order assisted by Fr. Vincenzo Giustiniani, future master general and cardinal.
Death. September 15, 1557, Rome. Transferred to Spain, his remains were buried in his family's tomb.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 200-203; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1527; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 25, 56, 59, 62, 66, 68, 70, 75, 142, 173 and 178; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 17; Hernández, R. "Alvarez de Toledo, Juan." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, I, 56.
Links. His portrait and biography, in Spanish, Orden de Predicadores; biography, in Italian; brief biographical data, in Italian; biographical data, in English; his arms, Dominican convent of San Esteban, Salamanca, Spain (second from the top); another view of his arms in the same convent; and engraving of his armas by Gaspar Becerra, on the front page of a work by his physician, Juan Valverde de Amusco, Royal Academy of Arts, London, England.
(1) This is according to Hernández, R. "Alvarez de Toledo, Juan", I, 56; his biographical data in Italian questions the year of his birth.
(2) This is according to Hernández, R. "Alvarez de Toledo, Juan", I, 56; his biographical data in English indicates that he was born in Toledo.
(3) Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 17, indicates that he was transferred in 1539.
(4) With the bull Licet ab initio of July 21, 1542, Pope Paul III reconstituted the Inquisition and named Cardinals Gian Pietro Carafa, Juan Álvarez de Toledo, O.P., Pietro Paolo Parisio, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Dionisio Laurerio, O.S.M. and Tommaso Badia, O.P. as its members headed by Cardinal Carafa.
(23) 2. FERNÁNDEZ MANRIQUE, Pedro (ca. 1500-1540)
Birth. Ca. 1500, Aguilar de Campoó, diocese of Palencia, Spain. Son of Luis Fernández Manrique, second marquis of Aguilar de Campoó, and María Manrique de Lara, daughter of the first duke of Nájera. His last name is also listed as Manrique and Manríquez.
Education. University of Salamanca, Salamanca, 1520s.
Early life. By order of King Charles I of Spain, named in 1525 maestrescula of the cathedral chapter of Salamanca, post that had the chancellorship of the university united to it; the chapter elected Martín de Espinosa, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, for the same post; the double appointment produced a long and involved dispute that resulted in a decision favorable to Espinosa in spite of the imperial support for Fernández Manrique; in compensation, in 1530, the emperor named the latter major chaplain of the chapel of the new kings in Toledo and six months later nominated him for the episcopacy.
Sacred orders. (No information found). Abbot commendatario of the monastery of San Victorián, diocese of Lérida; resigned, December 14, 1530.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Canarias, June 22, 1530. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Ciudad Rodrigo, December 14, 1530. Transferred to the see of Córdoba, April 11, 1537; entered the diocese, March 2, 1538. Participated in the cortes of Toledo, October 15, 1538. Named cardinal at the request of King Charles I.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1538; received the red hat, April 26, 1540; and the title of S. Giovanni e Paolo, May 21, 1540.
Death. October 7, 1540, of the plague, Rome. Buried temporarily in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli; later transferred to Spain and buried there (no further information found).
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 203; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1528; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 25, 63, 149, 168 and 178; Goñi, J. "Fernández Manrique, Pedro." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), 309-310.
Link. His genealogy, in Portuguese.
(24) 3. LÉNONCOURT, Robert de (1485/1490-1561)
Birth. 1485/1490 , Lorraine, France. Son of Thierry, signeur of Lénoncourt, baron of Vignory, and Jeanne de Ville-sur-Illon, of a noble and military family. Uncle of Cardinal Philippe de Lénoncourt (1586).
Education. Licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.
Sacred orders. (No information found). Prior of Saint-Pourçain, Clermont, 1516-1536. Abbot commendatario Tournus, 1530-1537. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Rémi, archdiocese of Reims from 1532. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Clément et Philibert de Tornochio. Prior of Charité-sur-Loire. Abbot commendatario of Barbella or Sacromonte. Treasurer of the archdiocese of Reims.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Châlons-sur Marne, May 10, 1535. Consecrated (no information found). Ambassador of King François I of France before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V for the matter of the duchy of Gheldry.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1538; received the red hat, March 19, 1540; and the title of S. Anastasia, October 7, 1540. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Martial de Limoges, 1543-1551. Opted for the title of S. Apollinare, October 10, 1547. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Resigned the government of the diocese in favor of his nephew Philippe Lénoncourt, May 30, 1550; remained as apostolic administrator until his nephew was consecrated. Administrator of the see of Metz, April 22, 1551; resigned administration, December 16, 1555. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, December 11, 1555. Transferred to the see of Embrun, March 23, 1556; resigned the government of the see, February 7, 1560. Administrator of the see of Auxerre, October 4, 1556; resigned administration, February 7, 1560. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Administrator of the see of Arles, February 7, 1560 until his death. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, March 13, 1560. Adminstrator of the see of Toulouse, 1560.
Death. February 4, 1561, Charité-sur-Loire (1); the news of his death reached Rome on February 11, 1561. Buried at the priorate of Charité-sur-Loire; the Huguenots occupied that city the following year and dispersed his remains in 1569.
Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1132; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 203-205; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1528; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 25, 116, 125, 158-159, 190 and 242.
(1) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1132; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 204-205, says that he died in Metz and was buried in the chapel that he had founded in the cathedral of that city.
(25) 4. BEATON, David (1494-1546)
Birth. ca.1494, Fife, Scotland. Third of the eleven children of John Beaton, 6th baron of Balfour, and Isobel Monypenny. His last name is also listed as Betonio, Bethune, Betoun and Beatoun.
Education. Received his initial education in St. Andrews; later studied at the University of Glasgow, Glasgow; completed his studies in Paris, where he obtained a degree in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.
Early life. Named ambassador in France by King James V of Scotland in 1519. Named rector of Campise and Cambushing by his uncle James Beaton, archbishop of Glasgow. In 1522, when his uncle was transferred to the see of Saint Andrews, primatial of Scotland, he resigned in his favor the abbey in commendam of Arbroath; given dispensation from Pope Adrian VI from carrying monastic habits. In 1525 he returned from France and took a seat as abbot of Abroath in the Scottish parliament. Soon after, the king named him Lord Privy Seal. In 1533, King James V sent him to Paris, together with Sir Thomas Erskine, to renew the alliance with François I and to arrange the wedding between the Scottish king and the only daughter of François I (1). Sent to the English court, he was warmly recommended by the Scottish Queen Mother Margaret to her brother, King Henry VIII of England; he was charged with settling border disputes between both countries. A few months later, King James V sent him again in a mission to Paris to lead the negotiations for the wedding between the king and Marie de Guise (2). He had a long relationship with Marion Ogilvy, with whom he had nine children that were born before he entered the religious state (3). During another journey to the French court, King François I appointed him bishop of Mirepoix, a suffragan diocese of Toulouse, which was highly endowed with an annual income of approximately 10,000 livres. Shortly after, the pope preconized him.
Priesthood. Ordained shortly before receiving the episcopal consecration (no further information found).
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mirepoix, France, December 5, 1537. Granted dispensation to receive the episcopal consecration in the canonical time, January 13, 1538. Consecrated between July 26 and August 13, 1538, in France (no further information found). Ambassador of His Holiness in France. Named coadjutor with right of succession of Saint Andrews, 1537. In February 1538, he assisted in the solemn coronation of King James V and Queen Marie in Holyrood; he was the one who crowned the queen. In 1538, the kings of France and Scotland expressed their satisfaction with Beaton's services by requesting from Pope Paul III his promotion to the cardinalate; King James V said that he was an appreciated and capable church man who represented the authority of Rome in Scotland and could defend the church against the reforming mistakes arising in Scotland; likewise, the king connected with the request his loyalty to the Holy See.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1538; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano in Monte Celio, September 9, 1539. At the death of his uncle, he succeeded to the see of Saint Andrews, February 14, 1539. Primate of Scotland. He was, after William Wardlaw, bishop of Glasgow (+ 1387), only the second Scot who was appointed cardinal. The relations between the Scottish King James V and his uncle, English King Henry VIII, cooled down noticeably and were an indication of the forthcoming storm. Henry tried to pull Scotland away from Rome and place her on his side. The ulterior motive was undoubtedly, in the long term, to subject Scotland politically. Henry trusted his sister Margaret, the Scottish queen mother, and their friends of the powerful Douglas clan in his efforts and particularly in their assistance. James V had against the English plan the entire clergy of the country behind himself as well as the most influential nobles, who historically did not trust England. Besides, King James had close and good relations with France and with the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. King Henry VIII sent two delegations to Scotland, with the goal of persuading King James V. The Scottish king refused to give way to the desires of King Henry and trusted further on Beaton's statesmanship and his patriotism. King James also rejected to journey to meet his uncle at Westminster. Henry VIII. had to see the fact that his plans had failed and set now on force. In 1542, a military conflict broke out between the two kingdoms. The Scots were initially militarily successful, however they were decisively defeated by the English forces on Solway Moss. King James V died on December 13, 1542, a few weeks after the battle of broken heart in Falkland and left as an heir to the throne his one week old daughter, Maria Stuart.
After the death of the king, Cardinal Beaton sketched a document, with which he wanted to exert himself and three nobles as a regency council. This was refused by the Scottish nobles who met in Edinburgh and denounced the document. They appointed instead the Earl of Arran to be regent for as long as the future queen, Maria Stuart, was under age. Due to the accusation that the cardinal would have intrigued together with the duke of Guise against Arran, the cardinal was arrested. King Henry VIII, presented with a new opportunity, negotiated with the Scottish regent and the parliament. His goal this time was to arrange a marriage between his son Edward, the later King Edward VI, and Maria Stuart. Besides, Henry wanted to occupy Scottish fortresses and to get Maria Stuart as peace pledge to the court of Westminster. Arran and the Scottish Parliament probably agreed to the marriage plans, however, all the other demands of King Henry were categorically rejected. A papal interdict followed the unfair arrest of the cardinal primate, according to which all churches of the country should be closed and administering the sacraments should be suspended. This led to a great displeasure and in some parts to riots under the still Catholic Scotland. The call for the release of the cardinal became ever louder. Arran could oppose no longer the increasing pressure of the people and many nobles, which stood for Beaton and arranged the release of the cardinal. Beaton summoned, immediately after his release, all the bishops and the entire clergy together in Saint Andrews. He described the danger of King Henry's desires for the state and the church. The clergy granted spontaneously a large financial sum, which came from incomes of the church benefices, in order to defend the national rights. In the whole population similar feelings were wakened by this patriotic indication of the clergy. The "baby Queen" Mary Stuart was sent to France by Arran for security and a large number of nobles, who had supported the regent, terminated their alliance with England and changed to the side of the cardinal and the queen widow. Arran recalled his religious mistake and returned to the fold of the Catholic Church.
In October 1543, Marco Grimani, patriarch of Aquileia, went to the Scottish court as papal nuncio and on January 30, 1544, on behalf of the pope, he bestowed the honor of legate a latere on Cardinal Beaton. At the same time, the cardinal was named chancellor of the kingdom and the parliament cancelled its decision on the marriage contract between Prince Edward Tudor and Maria Stuart. Hard measures were undertaken against the "English party" of the Scottish aristocracy and the bishops decided a similarly hard procedure against the proponents of heretical ideas. King Henry VIII reacted angrily and started planning the murder of Cardinal Beaton. In the following two years, the cardinal strengthened the Scottish-French alliance. In January 1546, he called up an assembly of the clergy in Edinburgh, where again large sums were granted for the support of the national defense against the Englishmen. Two months later, he called up a provincial synod at Saint Andrews, in order to discuss views of the general council meeting in Trent on church reforms. No Scottish prelate participated in the Council of Trent. Cardinal Beaton had requested of the pope dispensation from participation due to the strained political situation in Scotland because he feared unrests and activities of the English opponents as well as from personal enemies during his absence. The provincial synod of Saint Andrews was interrupted by the process against GeorgeWishart because of heresy. The court met in the cathedral of Saint Andrews in the presence of two archbishops and other high church representatives. Wishart refused distancing himself from his "erring teachings" and was finally condemned to death. On March 28, 1546 he was strangled and burned afterwards. The process against Wishart as well as his execution worried the Protestant forces in Scotland (the lords of the Congregation). These hurried themselves to put into practice the plan concocted for three years to murder Cardinal Beaton. They found the executor of the plan in Norman Leslie, master of Rothes, who was angry with the cardinal because the possession of lands. He tried, together with his uncle, John Leslie, Kirkaldy of Grange, to penetrate the castle of Saint Andrews and with James Melville and other Protestant fanatics, followers of John Knox, the later Scottish reformer, to kill the cardinal. On May 29, 1546, shortly after daybreak, they gained admission into the episcopal lock of Saint Andrews, where they murdered the cardinal with several sword blows. The queen widow, Marie de Guise, with the assistance of French troops besieged the castle and punished the murderers of the cardinal entrenched therein. Later, she took over the regency for her under aged daughter, which made the Scottish aristocracy still more opposed to the alliance with France. He was the last residing cardinal of Scotland until the promotion to the cardinalate of Gordon Joseph Gray, archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, in 1969.
Death. May 29 (4), 1546, assassinated at the castle of Saint Andrews. His body was salted, wrapped in lead and consigned to the ground floor of the sea tower of the castle.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 205-209; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1529; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 26, 71, 108 and 246; Graham, Henry Grey. Cardinal Beaton (1494-1546). London : Catholic Truth Society, 1916; Herkless, John. Cardinal Beaton : priest and politician. London : William Blackwood, 1891; Sanderson, Margaret H. B. Cardinal of Scotland : David Beaton, c. 1494-1546. Edinburgh : John Donald Publishers, Ltd., 1986.
Links. Biography by Oswald Hunter-Blair, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his engraving and biography, in English, electricscotland.com; biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; his genealogy, (1) (A) (i) (c); his engraving, electricscotland.com; same portrait in smaller size and sepia, English School, (19th century), The Bridgeman Art Library; his engraving, English School, (19th century), The Bridgeman Art Library; his engraving, English School, (19th century), The Bridgeman Art Library; his portrait by an unknown artist, Blairs Museum, The Museum of Scotland's Catholic Heritage, Aberdeen, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait, French School, Historic Scotland, Arbroath Abbey, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait, by Edward Travanyon Haynes (after a sixteenth-century portrait), University of Saint Andrews.
(1) The royal wedding took place on January 1, 1537 at the Parisian cathedral of Notre Dame. Beaton returned to Scotland in May with the royal pair. Unfortunately, the young queen died only two months later.
(2) After an official ceremony in the French capital, Beaton brought the bride to Scotland, where he assisted his uncle the archbishop in the cathedral of Saint Andrews in the solemn wedding ceremony. They both became godfathers of the first child born from this new marriage.
(3) According to Sanderson, Cardinal of Scotland : David Beaton, c. 1494-1546, pp. 39-40, their names were David, Alexander, James, John, Margaret, Mary, Agnes, George and Elizabeth and they were eventually legitimized even by the Vatican.
(4) This is according to all the sources consulted; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 108 gives May 29, 1546 as the date of his death also but on pp. 26, 71 and 246 indicates that he died on May 19, 1546.
(26) 5. ESTE, Ippolito II d' (1509-1572)
Birth. August 25, 1509, Ferrara. Youngest child of Alfonso I d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia. Grandson of Pope Alexander VI. Nephew of Cardinal Ippolito I d'Este (1493). Uncle of Cardinal Luigi d'Este (1561). Other cardinals of the family are Alessandro d'Este (1599); Rinaldo d'Este (1641); and Rinaldo d'Este (1686). Known as the Cardinal of Ferrara.
Education. Educated in Ferrara; at the University of Padua; and at the French court.
Early life. Followed his vocation, an ecclesiastical career, and with the help of his uncle Cardinal Ippolito I d'Este was named to the see of Milan when he was 10 years old. In 1536, King François I of France called him to his court.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Milan until he reached the canonical age of 27 years, May 20, 1519; given the pallium, April 12, 1521; did not visit the archdiocese for thirty years; resigned administration, March 19, 1550. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Milan again in 1555; resigned administration, December 16, 1556. His promotion to the cardinalate was requested by King François I of France.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon and reserved in pectore, at the request of the king of France, in the consistory of December 20, 1538; published on March 5, 1539; received the red hat on October 27, 1539; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro on November 10, 1539. Protector of France at the court of King François I. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Lyon, October 29, 1539; resigned the administration, May 11, 1551. Administrator of the see of Tréguier, April 26, 1542; given indult to visit the see through a procurator, June 26, 1542; resigned administration, November 26, 1548. Granted indult to receive the minor orders, the subdiaconate and the diaconate anywhere and in one day, December 23, 1542. Named administrator of the see of Autun for one year, January 23, 1547; the king of France prorogued the nomination as bishop for one year and nominated him on June 4 (or 14), 1548; resigned the government of the see, June 17, 1550. Consecration (no information found). Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Governor of the city of Tivoli, 1549 to 1560; took possession of the office on September 9, 1550 . Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Narbonne, June 27, 1550; resigned administration, April 22, 1551. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Auch, April 22, 1551; resigned administration in favor of his nephew Cardinal Luigi d'Este, October 8, 1563. Governed the duchy of Parma in the name of France from 1552 to 1554. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Named legate in the province of the Patrimony for two years, April 26, 1560. Named legate before the king of France and charged with the matter of the controversy between the church and the Huguenots, June 2, 1561; received the legatine cross, June 27, 1561. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Lyon again, April 24, 1562 until July 14, 1564. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Arles, 1562 to 1567. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, October 8, 1564. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, March 1, 1564; he was absent because of illness and Cardinal Vitellozzo Vitelli made the option for him; kept the deaconry in commendam from October 8 to December 4, 1564. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, December 8, 1564. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria Nova, April 13, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Regent of Ferrara, 1566. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Protector of the arts, he built Villa d'Este in Tivoli.
Death. December 2, 1572, Rome, after a brief illness. Transferred to Tivoli, the funeral took place in the church of S. Francesco, name by which the church of S. Maria Maggiore (1) was commonly known, annexed to the villa that he had received as a gift from Pope Julius III; and buried in that same church. A solemn funeral was celebrated in Ferrara.
Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena, e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Ditta tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 246-248; Campori, Giuseppe. Notizie inedite delle relazioni tra il Cardinale Ippolito d'Este e Benvenuto Cellini. Modena : Soliani, 1862. Note : Lette nell'adunanza del 30 Marzo 1861 della R. Accademia di Scienze, lettere ed Arti di Modena; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 209-212; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 220-222; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1530-1531; Dal Maso, Leonardo B. The villa of Ippolito II d'Este at Tivoli. Translation by Merry Orling. Florence : Bonechi ; Edition: "Il Turismo" ed., 1978. (Italia artistica. ; New series ; no. 27); Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 26, 74, 96, 116, 125-126, 230, 240, 253 and 317; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 495; Hollingsworth , Mary. The cardinal's hat : money, ambition, and everyday life in the court of a Borgia prince. Woodstock, N.Y. : Overlook Press, 2005; Hollingsworth , Mary. "A taste for conspicuous consumption : Cardinal Ippolito d'Este and his wardrobe, 1555-1566" in The possessions of a Cardinal : politics, piety, and art, 1450-1700. Edited by Mary Hollingsworth & Carol M. Richardson. University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010, p. 132-152; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, II, 145-157; Pacifici, Vincenzo. Ippolito II d'Este, cardinale di Ferrara : da documenti originali inediti. Tivoli : Società di Storia e d'Arte in Villa d'Este, 1920; Venturi, Adolfo. Les beaux-arts et la Maison d'Este : Le cardinal de Ferrare en France. Translated by Louis Dimier. Fontainebleau : [s.n.], 1903. Notes: From: Annales de la Société du Gatinais. The original appeared with the title L'Arte e gli Estensi; Ippolito II di Ferrara, in Francia, in Rivista Europea, 1881.
Links. Biography by Lucy Byatt, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 43 (1993), Treccani; his portrait, family arms and biography, in Italian; his portrait by an unknown artist; biography, in Italian; his seal by Benvenuto Cellini, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyon, France; and his tomb in the church of S. Maria Maggiore, Tivoli; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.
(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, O.Cist., in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1531:
(27) 6. BEMBO, O.S.Io.Hieros., Pietro (1470-1547)
Birth. May 20, 1470, Venice. Of a noble Venetian family. Son of Senator Bernardo Bembo, statesman and Italian literature enthusiast, and Helena Marcello.
Education. Received his initial education in Florence and acquired the Tuscan form of speech which he preferred to the dialect of his native city. He studied Greek for two years under Lascaris in Messina and philosophy under Pomponazzo in Padua. He also studied under Aldus Manutius in Padua and Ferrara; and in Venice he became an outstanding member of the Humanists around Manutius. He decided to enter the ecclesiastical state.
Sacred orders. Received the minor orders before 1513. Entered the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
Early life. While studying in Ferrara, he attracted the attention of Alfonso d'Este and his wife, Lucrezia Borgia, with whom he had a Platonic friendship for many years. He lived in the court of Urbino from 1506 to 1511, where he was a leading intellectual figure and became acquainted with the painter Raffaello Sanzio. He went to Rome in 1512 with his close friend Giuliano de' Medici. The following year, Pope Leo X named him, together with Jacopo Sadoleto, a future cardinal, secretary of Briefs. In Rome he fell in love with Ambrogina Faustina della Torre, known as Morosina (1), and at her request, after the death of Pope Leo X in 1520, he withdrew from public life and went to live in Padua, where she lived. In Padua, his house became the center of a literary circle and there he gathered an extensive library and a rich museum of medals and antiquities. In 1529 he was named historiographer of the Republic of Venice and commissioned by the Venetian Senate to complete the history of the republic begun by Marcantonio Sabellico; he covered the period from from 1487 to 1513. The following year, 1530, he was named librarian of St. Mark's cathedral. Venetian senator. He showed in his letters a frivolity bordering pagan morals. He fathered several illegitimate children. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the doge of Venice.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 20, 1538 and reserved in pectore; published in the consistory of March 19, 1539; received the red hat, October 24, 1539; and the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, November 10, 1539.
Priesthood. Ordained when he was 69 years old in 1539 and changed his way of life and renounced the study of classical literature and devoted himself to the study of Patristics and the Scriptures.
Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Gubbio, July 29, 1541 until February 18, 1544. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Crisogono, February 15, 1542. Resigned the post of camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals on January 8, 1543; it is not known when he had become camerlengo. Administrator of the see of Bergamo, February 18, 1544 until his death. He never received the episcopal consecration nor did he ever visit his dioceses. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, October 17, 1544. He is is considered one of the most recognized poets and humanist scholars of his century. His works include a History of Venice (1551) from 1487 to 1513, dialogues, poems, criticisms, letters and what we would now call essays (2). He laid the foundation for the Vatican Library. Besides Raffaelo Sanzio and Michelangelo Buonarroti, he was a friend, guide and protector of artists such as Giovanni Bellini, Jacopo Sansovino, Sebastiano dal Piombo, Tiziano Vecelli (Titian), Benvenuto Cellini and Valerio Belli, of which he collected and often inspired works.
Death. January 19, 1547 (3), in the palace of Marchis Baldassani, Campo Marzo, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, near the tomb of Pope Leo X (4).
Bibliography. Bembo, Pietro. Opere del cardinale Pietro Bembo. 4 vols. Ridgewood, N.J. : Gregg Press Inc., 1965. Contents: t.l. L'istoria veneziana, latina e volgare giuntovi la vita dell'autore.--t.2. Le prose, gli asolani, e le rime.--t.3. Le lettere volgari.--t.4. I breve scritti a nome di Lione X., le lettere famigliari, i tre Dialoghi, il trattato della imitazione e i veri latini. Reprint of the 1729 ed., published by F. Hertzhaufer, Venice. "Slightly reduced from the original." Vol. 1 in Latin and Italian, vols. 2-3 in Italian, vol. 4 in Latin; Borgia, Lucrezia; Bembo, Pietro. The prettiest love letters in the world : letters between Lucrezia Borgia and Pietro Bembo. Translation of: Messer Pietro mio. London : Collins : Harvill Press, 1987; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 213-216; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1531-1533; Della Casa, Giovanni. Vita di Pietro Bembo. Testo, introduzione, traduzione e note a cura di Antonino Sole. Torino : Fógola, 1997. (La Torre d'avorio); Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 26, 61, 63, 132 and 193; Floriani, Piero. Bembo e Castiglione : studi sul classicismo del Cinquecento. Roma : Bulzoni, 1976. (L'Analisi letteraria, 15); Kidwell, Carol. Pietro Bembo : lover, linguist, cardinal. Montreal : McGill-Queen's University Press, 2004.
Links. Biography by Edmund Burke, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; extensive bibliography and biography by Carlo Dionisotti, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 8 (1966), Treccani; biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; biography by K. Benrath, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; biography by Luis Núñez Ladevéze, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp; his portrait by Titian (Tiziano Vecellio), Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., United States; larger image of the same portrait; his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait (1800-1899), diocese of Gubbio, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait (as canon of Padua) (1700-1710), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait as a young man by Raffaello Sanzio, Web Gallery of Art; his portrait as an old man by Titian (Tiziano Vecellio), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Web Gallery of Arts; another portrait, Rettorato, Sala del Consiglio., University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; his presumptive portrait by Giovanni Bellini, Hampton Court, Edizioni Res; his engraving by Jean-Jacques Boissard, Bibliotheca chalcographica, Universität Mannheim; his bust, Cultura Italia, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his engraving, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany; elevation plan of his monument by artist Antonio Visentini, and desginers Ottavio Bruto Revese and Michele Sanmicheli, basilica of S. Antonio (Il Santo), Padua; his engraving by Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) and Giulio Bonasone, printmaker, The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge, UK; his effigy on a medal attributed to Benvenuto Cellini, National Gallery de Australia, Canberra, Australia.
(1) They had three illegitimate children, two sons and one daughter. Some sources say that they were married and indicate that the late start of his ecclesiastical career was due to the fact that he did not become a widower until that time.
(2) The works were published in a collected edition in four volumes, Venice (1729). Among the most important are: Rerum Veneticarum Libri XII, (1551), a history of Venice from 1487 to 1513, originally published in Latin, and later translated by Bembo into Italian; Gli Asolani (Venice, 1505), a dialogue in Italian on Platonic love, composed in imitation of Cicero's Tusculan Disputations, and dedicated to Lucrezia Borgia; Le Prose, a short treatise on the Italian language; Le Rime (Venice, 1530); Carmina (Venice, 1533), a collection of Latin poems; and several volumes of letters, written in Latin. Besides these original works he edited the Italian poems of Petrarch, printed by Aldus (1501), and the Terze rime of Dante (1502).
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 26, 62 and 132; all his biographies linked above indicate that he died on January 18, 1547; and so does his epitaph, note 4, when it says that he died on XV KAL. FEBR, if the day of the kalendas is counted; The date of his birth that all sources give, May 20, 1470, would indicate that he died on January 17, 1547, if, as his epitaph says, he lived seventy-six years, seven months and twenty-eight days.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, O.Cist. in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1533: PETRO. BEMBO. PATRITIO. VENETO. OB. EIVS. SINGVLARES. VIRTVTES. A. PAVLO. III. PONT. MAX. IN. SACRVM. COLLEGIVM. COOPTATVM. TORQVATVS. BEMBVS. POSVIT. OBIIT. XV. KAL. FEBR. MDXLVII. VIXIT. ANN. LXXVI. MENS. VII. DIES. XXVIII.
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