The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
Consistory of December 19, 1539 (VI)


(28) 1. FREGÓSO, Federico (ca. 1480-1541)

Birth. ca. 1480, Genoa. Of the Bartolomeo line of the family. Son of Agostino Fregóso, governor of Genoa, and Gentilla Feltria de Montefeltre. Brother of Doge Ottaviano Fregóso of Genoa. His last name is also listed as De Campo Fregóso and Campofregóso; and his first name as Federigo.

Education. Educated at the court of his maternal uncle, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino; he received an excellent classical education; daily, he devoted several hours to the study of the classics.

Sacred orders. Ordained before 1507 (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Salerno, May 5, 1507; the king of Spain refused to recognize him because of his sentiments for France. Named bishop of Gubbio, July 28, 1508. Consecrated (no information found). In 1510, due to the disturbances in Genoa and the victory of the Adorni family, he was exiled and sought refuge in Rome. Three years later, in 1513, his family returned to Genoa; his brother became doge, and Federico, his chief counselor, was the head of the army; he had to protect the republic against both internal revolts and the attacks of the Barbary pirates. In 1522, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V besieged Genoa, Federico defended the city and was wounded. The Spanish forces took the city and he had to seek refuge on a French vessel. King François I of France received him warmly and gave him the abbey of Saint-Benignus in the diocese of Dijon; there he devoted himself to the study of Greek and Hebrew; because of disagreements with the monks due to his severity, he returned to Italy. Resigned the government of the metropolitan see of Salerno in 1529. Abbot commendatario of S. Croce de Fonte Avellana, 1532. Member of the Commission for the Reform of the Church, 1536-1537.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat, March 10, 1541; and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, February 4, 1541. Maintained a friendship with the literary figures of his time, Baldesar Castiglione and Pietro Bembo, who made him a character in their works Il Cortegiano and Prose della volgar lingua respectively. For his generosity, he was called "the father of the poor."

Death. November 11, 1541, Gubbio. Buried in the cathedral of Gubbio.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 216-219; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1534; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26, 63, 193 and 289.

Webgraphy. Biography by Louis Bréhier, in English; brief biography, in Italian, Italica.rai; , in Italian; biographical data, in Italian, Sapere.it.; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tombstone (1541), diocese of Gubbio, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

Cool Archive

(29) 2. LA BAUME, Pierre de (1477-1544)

Birth. 1477, Montrevel, country of Bresse, Savoy (now France). Second son of Guy de La Baume, seigneur of la Roche-du-Vanel, Mont-Saint-Sorlin, and Attalens, in Switzerland, and later count of Montrevel, and Jeanne de Longuy. Uncle of Cardinal Claude de La Baume (1578).

Education. Studied at the University of Dole, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1502.

Early life. He entered the ecclesiastical state in his adolescence. Canon of Aix-en-Provence and count of Lyon. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Claude from 1510, which later became a diocese; of Notre-Dame de Pignerol; of Saint-Just; of Suze; and of Moustier-Saint-Jean. Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Counselor of Carlo III, duke of Savoy, who sent him to the Fifth Lateran Council ,1512-1517.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Genève, October 10, 1522 (1); he strongly opposed the Calvinists, who twice expelled him from the city and endangered his life; expelled definitively in 1533; he resided in Annecy; ceased as bishop before July 6, 1543. Consecrated, 1522, Thursday October 16 (or Sunday October 26), 1522, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Gabriele Foschi, archbishop of Durazzo, assisted by Vincenzo Maffei, bishop of Segni, and by Giovanni B. Bociani, bishop of Caserta. Named coadjutor with right of succession of the metropolitan see of Besançon, July 13, 1530.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, November 21, 1541. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Besançon, December 29, 1541; resigned the government of the see in favor of his nephew, June 27, 1543. Minister and confidant of Emperor Charles V.

Death. May 4, 1544, Arbois (2). Buried in the church of Saint-Just, Arbois. His nephew the cardinal was buried next to him.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 329-330; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 219-221; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, cols. 1534-1535; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26, 63, 135 and 201.

Webgraphy. Brief biography, in French; biographical data, in French, 2º under "Guy de la Baume"; retable donated by Cardinal de la Baume to the now cathedral of Saint-Claude, France, then church of the abbey of Saint-Oyend; the cardinal appears in the painting in the middle of the retable, kneeling down at the right of St. Peter.

(1) Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 329; and the two biographies in French linked above, say that he was bishop of Tarso before occupying the see of Genève; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 309, does not include him in the list of occupants of that see; nor does Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 278; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 219; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1534, do not mention him as bishop of Tarso either.
(2) This is according to all the sources consulted except Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 26, that says he died "in Curia Romana."

Cool Archive

(30) 3. SANGUIN DE MEUDON, Antoine (1502-1559)

Birth. 1493 (1), France. Second son of Antoine Sanguin, signeur de Meudon, master of waters and forests of Île de France, of Champagne and of Brie, and Marie Simon. He is also listed as Antoine de Medon; and Antonius Sanguin. He was called Cardinal de Meudon. Uncle of Anne de Pisseleu d'Heilly, duchess D' Etampes, mistress of King François I of France and who helped him advance in his ecclesiastical career.

Education. (No education found).

Early life. Abbot commendatario of Fleury-sur-Loire. Master of the royal chapel.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orléans on November 6, 1533; he had been nominated by the king of France on October 24, 1535; resigned the government of the diocese on October 20, 1550. Consecrated (no information found). Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Benoît-de-Fleur, diocese of Orléans.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat on Pentecost day 1540, at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris from Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, legate in France; and the title of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, July 15, 1541. Abbot commendatario of Vaux-Cernay, 1542-1559. Grand almoner of France, August 7, 1543; he was the first one to have this title; his predecessors were chaplains of the king or of France. Named bishop of Limoges on August 13, 1544; he had been nomionated by the king of France. resigned the government of the diocese on October 26, 1547. Governor of Paris to defend the city against the threats of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V; charged together with many others to negotiate the peace with the emperor. After the death of King François I in 1547, he resigned the post of almoner and went to Italy. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono on February 28, 1550. Returned to France in 1550. Named by the king of France administrator of the metropolitan see of Toulouse, October 20, 1550; preconized archbishop of Toulouse, October 23, 1553; granted the pallium, February 6, 1555; occupied the see until his death. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV.

Death. November 25, 1559, Paris, during the sede vacante. Buried in the chapel of Our Lady, church of St-Catherine-du-Val des Scolaires, Paris. The news of his death reached Rome on December 22, 1559.

Bibliography. Anselme de Sainte-Marie ; Dufourny, Honoré Caille ; Ange de Sainte-Rosalie ; Simplicien. Histoire genealogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la couronne & de la maison du roy: & des anciens barons du royaume: avec les qualitez, l'origine, le progres & les armes de leurs familles; ensemble des statuts & le catalogue des chevaliers, cammandeurs, & officiers de l'ordre du S. Esprit. Le tout dresse sur titres originaux, sur les registres des des chartes du roy, du parlement, de la chambre des comptes & du chatelet des Paris ... & d'autres cabinets curieux. 9 vols. Paris : La Compagnie des libraires, 3. ed., rev., cor & augm. par les soins du P. Ange & du P. Simplicien, 1726, VIII, 263; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1502-1503; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 221-222; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1535; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26, 61, 75, 124, 222 and 315; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 564, 594 and 639; Nadaud, Joseph ; Lecler, André. Pouillé historique du Diocèse de Limoges : manuscrit de l'abbé Joseph Nadaud (1775). Limoges : s.n., 1903. (Bulletin de la Sociité archéologique et historique du Limousin ; v. 53).

Webgraphy. Grand Aumonier de France, Cardinal Sanguine is the 28th aumonier listed; history of châteaux de Meudon.

(1) This according to Anselme de Sainte-Marie. Histoire Genealogique et chronologique de la Maison royale de France, VIII, 263; and Nadaud. Pouillé du diochse de Limoges; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 222, says that he died in 1559 at 57 years of age, accordingly, he was born in 1502; but considering that the cardinal's father died on October 18, 1500, Cardella's information is erroneous.

Cool Archive

(31) 4. GAMBARA, Uberto (1489-1549)

Birth. January 23, 1489 , Brescia. Eldest of the seven children of Gianfrancesco Gambara and Alda Pio di Carpi. Uncle of Cardinals Gianfrancesco Gambara (1561); and Girolamo di Corregio (1561).

Education. Studied the liberal disciplines (no further information educational found).

Early life. Destined to the ecclesiastical state at 10, he was named provost of Verolanuova di Brescia and chaplain of S.Giacomo in 1502. Followed a military career for a brief time, with his brother Brunoro, joining the French troops against Brescia; later, he reentered the ecclesiastical state, more for ambition than for vocation. Went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Leo X. Nuncio in Portugal in the pontificates of Popes Leo X, Adrian VI and Clement VII, who sent him as nuncio before the court of King François I of France. Nuncio in England, 1527; on December 15, 1527, he carried the letter of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, archbishop of York and legate in England, to Pope Clement VII, in which the cardinal wished to be invested with ample powers with the secret hope of being able to annul the marriage of King Henry VIII with Queen Cataliana of Aragón and celebrate the nuptials with Anne Boleyn. During the imprisonment of Pope Clement VII by the imperial troops in 1527, he went to Paris to obtain military assistance to secure the liberation of the pontiff. Governor of Bologna, 1528-1533; attended the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in that city. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortona, May 8, 1528. Consecrated, February 1533, Bologna, by Giovanni Matteo Giberti, bishop of Verona. Named vicar of Roma in 1539.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, January 28, 1540. Opted for the title of S. Martino ai Monti, March 23, 1541. Administrator of the see of Policastro, January 9, 1542; resigned the administration, June 7, 1543. Legate in Parma and Piacenza, January 27, 1542 until March 5, 1544. Opted for the title of S. Apollinare, February 15, 1542. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, October 17, 1544. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1545 to January 8, 1546. Returned to Rome from France, December 16, 1547. Resigned the government of the see in favor of his relative Cesare Gambara, March 22, 1548. Returned to Rome from Genoa, January 5, 1549. Himself a letterato, he was splendid with all men of letters and donated his Directorium Inquisitorium to the papal court.

Death. February 14, 1549, Rome. His remains were transferred to Brescia and buried in the church of S. Maria delle Grazie (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 222-223; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, cols. 1535-1536; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26, 60, 61, 67, 70, 276 and 310; Odorici, Federico. Il cardinale Uberto Gambara da Brescia (1487-1549. Indagini di storia patria. Brescia : Tipografia Gilberti, 1856; Pagano, Sergio. Il cardinale Uberto Gambara vescovo di Tortona (1489-1549).. Firenze : Leo S. Olschki, 1995. At head of title: Banca Cassa di Risparmio di Tortona.

Webgraphy. His portrait, monument in the church delle Grazie, Brescia, and biography in Italian; painting in the parish of Pralboino, "The Madonna with the Child in glory between Sants Joseph, Francis, Jerome, Ludovico da Tolosa, Anthony of Padua, Claire and Cardinal Uberto Gambara"; also data on his family; and his genealogy.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from the addition of Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1536: D. O. M. VBERTO. GAMBARÆ. CARD. OB. SVMMVM. INGENTIVM. SINGVLAREM. HVMANITATEM. ALIASQ. ANIMI. DOTES. LEONI. X. CLEMENTI. VII. PONTIFICIBVS. MAX. CLARO. MVLTISQ. LEGATIONIBVS. MAGNA. CVM. LAVDE. PERFVNCTO. A PAVLO. TERTIO. IN. AMPLISSIMVM, ORDINEM. COOPTATO. BRVNORVS. FRAT. OPT. EX. TEST. POSVIT. VIXIT. ANNOS. LX. DIES XIII. OBIIT. ROMÆ. ANNO. SALVTIS. MDXLIX. KAL. MARTII. When that church was repaired in 1624, Giambattista Gàmbara placed the following inscription on marble on the tomb of the cardinal: VBERTO. GAMBARÆ. S. R. E. CARD. MVLTIS. AC. MAGNIS. LEGATIONIBVS. LEONIS. X. CLEMTIS. VII. ET. PAVLI. III. SVMM. PONTT. ARDVIS. TEMPORIBVS. EGREGIE. OBITIS. DE. REPVBLICA. CHRISTIANA. OPTIME. MERITO. SANCTÆ. SEDIS. VICARIO. QVOD. BRVNORVS. FRATER. EX. TESTAMENTO. POSVERAT. AD. REPARATIONEM. TEMPLI. DIRVTVM. MONVMENTVM. IO. BAPTISTA. GAMBARA. PERENNI. TANTI, SVI. MAIORIS. MEMORIÆ. ORNATIVS. RESTITVIT. MCDXXIV. VIXIT. ANN. LX. DIES. XIII. OBIIT. ROMÆ. MDXLIX. XVI. KAL. MARTII.

Cool Archive

(32) 5. PARISIO, Pierpaolo (1473-1545)

Birth. 1473, Cosenza.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Cleric of Cosenza. Professor of law in Rome. Public professor of law at the Universities of Padua, 1521; and Bologna, 1524.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Anglona e Tursi, September 1528 (2). Consecrated (no information found). Called to Rome by Pope Paul III and named auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, 1537 (1). Transferred to the see of Nusco, January 11, 1538.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, January 28, 1540. Legate a latere, together with Cardinal Marcello Cervini, before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V who was in Genoa. Member of the tribunal of the Roman Inquisition, 1542. Together with Cardinals Reginald Pole and Giovanni Morone, named president of the Council of Trent, November 1, 1542; due to the small number of delegates, the proceedings were suspended on July 6, 1543; the reopening of the council was delayed until December 1545 but by that time, Cardinal Parisio had already died. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1544 to January 9, 1545. Named by the pope again to the general council, November 2, 1544. Pro-datary of His Holiness (3).

Death. May 11, 1545, near 1 a.m., Rome (4). Buried in the church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome; his nephew Flamminio Parisio, bishop of Bitonto, erected to his memory an elegant monument with his bust in marble and an eloquent eulogy (5).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1349-1350; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 224-225; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, cols. 1536-1537; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 26, 60 and 261; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, pp. 850 and 908; Panvinio, Onofrio. Onvphrii Panvinii Veronensis Fratris Eremitæ Augustiniani, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem ` Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati. Venetiis, apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577. Microform, 1960. (Manuscripta, microfilms of rare and out-of-print books; list 18, no. 27) ; Microfilm copy, made in 1960, of the original in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana. Positive./ Negative film in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana, p. 379.

Webgraphy. His tomb, church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome; catalog of the bishops of Anglona.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 224; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1537; and Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem ` Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII., p. 379; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1349, says that he was auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.
(2) This is according to Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 850; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 26, says that he was bishop of Anglona e Tursi before his nomination to the see of Nusco but does list not him among the occupants of that see on III, 109; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 224, says that some sources, which he does not mention, list him among the bishops of Anglona e Tursi; Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1537, says that he was bishop of Anglona before being bishop of Nusco; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1350, also indicates that he was bishop of Anglona but mentions this see after that of Nusco; the catalog of bishops of Anglona, linked above, lists him as bishop of the see in 1528.
(3) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 225; Nicola Storti. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni (Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969) does not mention Cardinal Parisio and indicates that Girolamo Capodiferro Recenati was the datary between 1541 and 1544.
(4) This is accoring to Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 908; and Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1350; his epitaph says that he died on 5 Idus Maii and the idus fall on the 15th of the month; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 26, 60 and 261, says hat he died on May 11, 1545.
(5) This is the inscription taken from the addition of Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1536-1537: PETRO. PAVLO. PARISIO. Cosentino S. R. E. Presb. Card. qui ab celebrem Iuris prudentiæ famam in nobilissimis Italiæ Cathedris spectatam a Paulo Tertio Pontifice Maximo Bononiam Romam accitus, Apostolicæ primum Cameræ Auditor creatus, mox in amplissimum ordinem adscriptus, signandisq; gratiæ libellispræpositus, sacri tandem Concilii Tridentino Legatus, & præses electus ; ut vivens ætati suæ Christiananq; Reipublica præsenti consilio, atque virtuie, ita post mortem , præclarissimis editis ingenii, atque doctrina monumentis plurimum posteritati prosuit. Obiit 5. Idus Maii anno salutis 1545. ætatis suæ 72. Flaminius Parisius Episcopus Bituntinus Gentilis sui studiorum, & gloriæ amulus, Patriæ & familiæ ornamentto fieri testamento mandavit ; qui vixit annos XL. Fabricius Galesa, & Prosper Parisius executores Anno M. DC. IV. Corpus humo regitur . Fama perora volat . Spiritus astra tenet

Cool Archive

(33) 6. CERVINI, Marcello (1501-1555)

Birth. May 6, 1501, Montefano, Macerata. Son of Ricciardo Cervini, an official in the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary and a skilled chronologist, and Cassandra Benci. Uncle of Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino (1599). His last name is also listed as Cervini degli Spannochi.

Education. His father took care of his initial eduaction and taught him grammar, rhetoric, rudiments of philosophy, astronomy, mechanical arts such as architecture, agronomy, ironsmith and binding of books. In 1520, he was sent to Siena and under the protection of Cardinal Giovanni Piccolomini continued his studies concentrating on Greek, mathematics and astronomy. He administered his family's possession of Castiglione d'Orcia and was destined by his father to the ecclesiastical career.

Early life. Sent to Rome in 1524 to present the homage of his family to the new Pope Clement VI, who commissioned him to complete a revision of the calendar that his father had begun; he finished the work to the great satisfaction of the pope. His father recalled him home in May 1525 because of the plague; the sack of Rome in 1527 extended his retirement in Montepulciano and Castiglione d'Orcia; his father died in 1534 and after settling the family's patrimony, he returned to the Eternal City in 1536 and entered the service of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, future Pope Paul III. Tutor to Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, iuniore; he went to reside in the Apostolic Palace; and later was named secretary-vicechancellor of that cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1535. Between 1536 and 1538 he was named scrittore of apostolic letters; secretary of Latin letters and protonotary apostolic de numero participantium. During the 1530s and mid 1540s, he established contact with humanists and men of letters such as Angelo Colocci, Bernardino Maffei, Carlo Gualteruzzi, Giovanni della Casa, Annibal Caro, Francesco Molza, Sebastiano Delio, Donato Gianotti, Pietro Vettori, Guglielmo Sirleto and corresponded with Benedetto Varchi, Piero Vettori and Pietro Bembo; organized the project to print the works of Cicero, Varrone, Catone and Columella; he was the center of a group that redacted a systematic collection of Roman classical antiquity; and concentrated on a project to publish the Greek manuscripts of the Vatican Library beginning with the texts of the Fathers of the Church. In June 1538, he was part of the retinue of Pope Paul III in Nice to promote a truce between King François I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Accompanied Cardinal Farnese in several missions to Spain, France and the Low Countries to guarantee the peace accord that had just been reached; the main objective of the papal diplomacy was to secure the peace that would allow the celebration of a general council.

Episcopate. Named administrator of the see of Nicastro, August 27 (1), 1539; he did not receive the episcopal consecration until sixteen years later, and he never visited the diocese.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539. Legate a latere before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Ferdinand of Hapsburg, king of the Romans, and the future diet of Speyer, May 12, 1540; returned to Rome the following October. Named with another eleven cardinals (2) to a commission for the reform of the Roman Curia and its officials, August 27, 1540. Elected bishop of Reggio-Emilia, September 24, 1540. Participated in the elaboration of the strategy of the Holy See to react to the German reformation. Received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, November 5, 1540. In 1541, he prepared, together with Cardinals Girolamo Aleandro and Girolamo Ghinucci, the instructions for Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, legate a latere to the Diet of Ratisbon. With a bull dated May 22, 1542, Pope Paul III convoked the general council to be held in Trent; renewed hostilities between the French king and the emperor endangered again its celebration. Charged by the pope, in January 1543, he requested the Italian bishops to go to Trent for the celebration of the council; in June 1543, the council had to be suspended; and he participated in the conference in Busseto between the pope and the emperor to try to end the war with the French king; the conflict was concluded in 1544 with the peace of Crépy and the council was again convoked. Named preposto of the see of Gubbio, February 29, 1544. Named by the pope again to the general council, November 2, 1544. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1545. Together with Cardinals Giovanni Ciocchi del Monte and Reginald Pole, was one of the first three presidents of the Council of Trent, February 6, 1545; the council was opened on December 13, 1545; due to an epidemic of typhus, the council was transferred to Bologna on March 26, 1547; he returned to Rome from Bologna, January 9, 1548 and returned to Bologna nine days later, January 18, 1548; finally, Pope Paul III suspended the celebration of the council on February 1, 1548. Named member of the Congregation of the Holy Office in 1546. Named legate a latere in Parma and Piacenza and the entire Cisalpine province, September 1547. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Granted faculties over the Vatican library, February 1550 (3); he became the first cardinal librarian of the Holy Roman Church on May 24, 1550. Pope Julius III named him member of the commission for the reform of the most important offices of the Roman Curia in March 1550; and its president in October 1552; because of his outspoken criticism of the pope's nepotism and life of luxury, he was obliged to retire to Gubbio. Participated in the first conclave of 1555 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 9, 1555, at 11 p.m. His election was announced on the following day, April 10, 1555. Took the name Marcellus II. He was the last pontiff to keep his baptismal name as pope. Consecrated bishop of Rome, April 10, 1555, in the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican, Rome, by Cardinal Gianpietro Carafa, bishop of Ostia and Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Cardinal Jean du Bellay, bishop of Porto, and by Cardinal Tommaso Pio, bishop of Frascati. Crowned, April 10, 1555, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Francesco Pisani, archdeacon of S. Marco. Did not create any cardinals in his twenty-one day pontificate. He became ill at 11 a.m., April 30, 1555. He was a cultivated scholar and bibliophile. Composer Giovanni Pierluigi Palestrina dedicated to him his celebrated Missa Papæ Marcelli in response to the pope's complaint about the quality of the liturgical chants for Good Friday.

Death. May 1, 1555, at 7 a.m. (4), Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. The novendiale took place between May 5 and 14, 1555. His remains were transferred to the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on October 16, 1606 (5). Pope John Paul I's tomb is right in front of his.

Bibliography. Brunelli, Gianpiero. ""Marcello II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 121-128; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 225-227; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, cols. 1537 and 1611-1618; Del Re, Niccolò. "Marcello II." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, pp. 683-684; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp.26, 33, 62, 256 and 284; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 264-265; Mondin, Battista. Dizionario enciclopedico dei papi. Storia e insegnamenti. Roma : Città Nuova Editrice, 1995, pp. 328-329; Quaranta, Chiara. Marcello II Cervini (1501-1555). Riforma della Chiesa, concilio, Inquisizione. Bologna : Il Mulino, 2010. (Collana di studi della Fondazione Michele Pellegrino).

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; his portrait, arms and biographical entry, in English; biography by G. Brunelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography, in German; portraits, tomb, arms and biography, in Italian; his effigy on a medal and biography, in German; his episcopal lineage, in English; his coat of arms in Montepulciano; his portrait, Galleria Borghese, Rome; his engraving; another engraving; another engraving; his portrait, convent of S. Filippo Benizi, Montefano, Macerata, Italy; his portrait by Angelo Bronzino, Museo Uffici, Florence; his tomb in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 256; Brunelli, Gianpiero. ""Marcello II." Enciclopedia dei papi, III 123, indicates that he was named on August 17, 1539.
(2) These cardinals were Gian Pietro Carafa, Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, Reginald Pole, Alessandro Cesarini, Giovanni Maria del Monte, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Marino Grimani, Girolamo Aleandro, Nicolo Ridolfi, Gasparo Contarini, Girolamo Ghinucci.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 26-27; his biography in English, linked above, says that in 1548 he succeeded Agostino Steuco as librarian of the Vatican with the title of "Bibliothecæ Apostolicæ Vaticanæ Protector".
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 33, which says Apr. 30 Marcellus antea infirmus hora XXIII graviore infirmitate correptus amisit loquelam et nocte sequenti hora VII obiit. His biography in English, linked above, says that he died on May 6, 1555; his biography in Italian, also linked above, says that he died the night between April 30 and May 1, 1555. All the printed sources consulted, say that he died on May 1, 1555.
(5) This is according to Del Re, "Marcello II." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 683-684; Ludwig von Pastor, The history of the popes : from the close of the Middle Ages. Drawn from the secret archives of the Vatican and other original sources, (40 vols. St. Louis, Mo : Herder, 1923-1953), XIV, 55, n. 1, (citing a report from Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, S.J. on the finding of the body of Pope Marcellus II and his translation, published in Römischen Quartalschrift, XV, 192), says that the remains were transferred on September 15, 1606.

Cool Archive

(34) 7. GUIDICCIONI, Bartolomeo (1470-1549)

Birth. 1470, Lucca. Of a patrician family. His last name is also listed as Guiduiccioni. Relative of Giovanni Guidiccioni, who was about to be created cardinal when he died in 1541.

Education. Studied the human sciences, theology and law in Rome.

Early life. Went to Rome and entered the court of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, future Pope Paul III. Vicar general of Cardinal Farnese, seniore, in the diocese of Parma. Governor of the abbey of Farfa. Auditor general of Marca. Datary of Pope Paul III, 1536-1539. Returned to Lucca where he dovoted himself to the study of letters and the practice of exercises of piety. Recalled to Rome by Pope Paul III.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Teramo, December 12, 1539. Consecrated, August 28, 1546, at the Sistine chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Rodolfo Pio de Carpi, assisted by Cristoforo de Spiritibus, bishop of Cesena, and by Giovanni Giacomo Barba, bshop of Teramo. Vicar general of Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat and the title of S. Cesareo in Palatio, January 28, 1540. Member of a congregation of three cardinals to study the approval of the establishment of Society of Jesus; he opposed the establishment of the Society as well as of other new orders; when the pope approved, he became a strong supporter of the Jesuits. Named to the commission for the reform of the Sacred Roman Rota, August 27, 1540. Resigned the government of the diocese because his other duties impeded him from visiting it, March 22, 1542. Governor of Rome. Named inquisitor general, 1542. Grand penitentiary. Prefect of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Named to the commission for the reformation of the church, January 5, 1543. Went to Bologna with Pope Paul III and twelve other cardinals on March 17, 1543. On May 11, 1543, he was named, together with another seven cardinals (1), to a commission for the affairs of the council. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, September 24, 1543. Administrator of the diocese of Chiusi, April 2, 1544 until February 20, 1545. Named by the pope again to the general council, November 2, 1544. Transferred to the see of Lucca, May 26, 1546. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1547 to January 13, 1548. There is a collection of twenty volumes on legal matters as well as several treatises written by him.

Death. November 4, 1549, Rome (2). His body was transferred to Lucca and buried in its cathedral (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1064-1065; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 227-230; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, cols. 1538-1539; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 61, 69, 112, 171 and 229; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 92 and 93; Nicolai, Umberto. I vescovi di Lucca. Lucca : Tipografia Ricchielli, 1966, p. 24, no. 83; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 168.

(1) These cardinals were Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Giovanni Maria del Monte, Marcello Crescenzi, Tommaso Badia, O.P., Marino Grimani, Marcello Cervini, and Gregorio Cortese, O.S.B.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 27; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1065, says that he died on August 28, 1549 at 80 years of age.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from the addition of Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, cols. 1538-1539: BARTOLOMEO. GVIDICCCIONO. CARDINALI. ET. PRÆSULI. LVCENSI. IVRIS. VTRIVSQVE. CONSVLTO. ET. THEOLOGIÆ. PERITO. PAVLO. III. PONTIFICI. MAXIMO. VTI. GRATISSIMO. ITA. MVLTIS. MAGNISQ. REBVS. ET. SIGNANDIS. LIBELLIS. IVSTITIÆ. ET. GRATIÆ. VITÆ. OTIVMQ. APPETERET. INVITE. EVECTO. GRAVI. TOTIVS. CVRIÆ. ET. DAMNO. ET. MOERORE. E. MEDIO. SVBLATO. NICOLAVS. GVIDICCIONVS. NEPOS. PATRI. ET. PATRVO. AMANTISS. VIXIT. ANN. LXXX. V. KAL. SEPTEMBR. MDXLIX. INTER. NOS. ESSE. DESIIT. I. V. I.

Cool Archive

(35) 8. PARISANI, Ascanio (?-1549)

Birth. (No date found), Tolentino, of a noble and ancient family. His last name is also listed as Parisiano.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Cesena, 1520. Secretary to Cardinal Antonio Ciocchi del Monte.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cajazzo, January 3, 1528. Granted a postponement to receive the episcopal consecration, October 24, 1528. Consecrated, June 20, 1529, fifth Sunday after Pentecost, in the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Gabriele Foschi, archbishop of Durazzo, assisted by Natale de Turre, former bishop of Veglia, and by Francesco SperelliI, former bishop of San Leone. Transferred to the see of Rimini, May 24, 1529. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Pisa until 1534. Magister domus, 1534. General treasurer, 1534. Abbot commendatario of the collegiate abbey of the Blessed Virgin, Tongren, diocese of Liège. Canon of the church of Saint-Denis until 1535. Canon of the church of Saint-Servat of Utrecht, diocese of Liège, July 23, 1535. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Lorenzo di S. Severino and Blessed Mary di Rambona, diocese of Camerino, 1536. Scriptor of apostolic briefs, 1536; resigned the post, October 12, 1538.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, January 28, 1540. Administrator of the diocese of Muro Lucano, November 15, 1540 until June 27, 1541. Legate in Umbria and Perugia, January 27, 1542 to 1545. Protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary, 1543. Legate before the emperor, 1545-1547. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1546 to January 7, 1547. Legate in Campania e Marittima, May 13, 1547. Made a generous contribution to the reconstruction of the church of S. Marcello, damaged by a fire.

Death. April 3, 1549, Rome. Buried in the chapel della Maddalena or della Pietà, founded by him in the church of S. Marcello, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 223-224; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1530; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 69, 118, 145 and 251.

Webgraphy. His epitaph.

Cool Archive

(36) 9. LAURERIO, O.S.M., Dionisio (1497-1542)

Birth. 1497, Benevento (1). From a little-known family but connected by family and economic ties with the Pedicini, a local patrician family of ancient glories, which was later awarded some privileges by Emperor Charles V. Both parents were originally from Florence. He is also listed as Dionysius (Neagrus) de Laurerio; and his last name as Lorerio, Lauderio and Laurelio. He was also known as fra Dionisio di Benevento and Cardinal of S. Marcello.

Education. Entered the Order of the Servants of Mary (Servites) at a young age; studied in houses of formation of his order; obtained a doctorate in 1521.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Lector of philosophy, metaphysics, mathematics and theology at the Universities of Perugia and Bologna, 1526-1529; and finally at Rome. He distinguished himself for his vast culture and his refined speech. Elected procurator of his order on May 18, 1528, during a chapter of his order held in Cesena. In 1534, he became minister of King Henry VIII of England before Pope Clement VII, replacing Thomas Cranmer, who had been appointed penitentiary of the English kingdom; went to London to deal with urgent religious matters. At that time, he developed a friendship with Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, future Pope Paul III, whom he probably knew from Benevento, and then he assisted as as a theologian in sacris; this bond of mutual respect and trust marked his life. He was also a frined of Humanist Jacopo Sannazzaro; and Cardinals Reginald Pole and Jacopo Sadoleto. Named by the pope vicar general of his order, January 22, 1535. At the end of the chapter celebrated in Budrio, near Bologna, on April 27, 1535, he was elected prior general of the Order; he had begged the chapter not to elect him; he resigned the post in May 1542. On May 20, 1535, the pope granted him the faculty of founding new convents; and on the following August 17, that of visitng and reforming the monasteries of the Osservanza. Named by Pope Paul III nuncio before King James V of Scotland on October 23, 1536; he was to inform the king on the general council; he was given the powers of a cardinal legate a latere with ample faculties to visit, correct and reform monasteries, convents of friars, schools, chapters, universities and churches of the diocesan and religious clergy to prevent them from following the schism of King Henry VIII; he met the king in Paris on January 27, 1537, intimating him to support the council, and probably never went to Scotland. He tried vigorously, but with little success, to bring the French cloistered brethren to comply with the rules and to achieve this goal. In the fall of 1537, he was in Rome, where he participated in the discussion of the cardinals on the reform of the Apostolic Datary. On June 4, 1538, he obtained a bull from the pope. On July 16, 1539 he obtained an exemption for his order from half of the tenth set, when the Church prepared a fleet against the Turks. In this period, he often ruled against the practice of cumulative benefices; and promoted the need to choose suitable persons for the nomination to bishoprics.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat on December 22, 1539; and the title of S. Marcello, January 28, 1540.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Urbino, February 13, 1540. Consecrated (no information found). He took possession of the see on the following March 3. On March 8, 1540, he was allowed to confer ecclesiastical benefices. In early August he accompanied the pope to Lucca to meet with Emperor Charles V, in order to discuss the convening of the council in Vicenza. Because of his falling health, he went to rest in the convents of Pistoia, Prato and then Florence, where he remained for a few months and also acted as a nuncio before Cosimo de 'Medici. Before returning to Rome, he succeeded in restoring the thermal baths of Bagni San Filippo on Mount Amiata. In Urbino, he started the process of canonization of Servite Girolamo Ranuzzi, and brought his relics to that city. On August 27, 1540, he was chosen by the pope to assist Cardinals Gasparo Contarini and Gian Pietro Carafa in the reform of the Apostolic Penitentiary, a task that took place from time to time but with determination. In the spring of 1541, he was sent to Modena as pontifical inquisitor delegate for the process of the writer and academic Giovanni Bertario, convicted in absentia for heresy. With the intervenion of the cardinal, aided by the cardinal nipote, Alessandro Farnese, the excommunication of Bertario was suspended, and the recantation imposed. In the consistory of May 27, 1541, despite the attempt of intercession of Cardinal Alvise Priuli, a spokesman for the will of Cardinal Reginald Pole, Cardinal Laurerio railed vehemently against Cardinal Contarini and his intention to reach a compromise with the Protestant doctrine, showing his intransigence on orthodoxy. Having to to conclude his generalte, he convened a general chapter in the spring of 1542, during which he was replaced by Agostino Bonucci, O.S.M. On July 4, 1542, he was named one of the six cardinal inquisitors, a position confirmed seventeen days later, when the papal bull Licet ab initio, of Pope Paul III, reorganized and centralized the Roman Inquisition. Legate in Benevento and provisor of Campania e Marittima, August 11, 1542. In 1542, he obtained in commendam the archdiaconate of Benevento, which he kept until his death.

Death. September 17, 1542, after a brief illness, in Rome (2). The funeral oration during the celebration of his requiem mass was pronounced by Padre Baccelliere Frà Domenico at the church of S. Marcello, Rome. Buried near the main entrance of that church (3).

Bibliography. Benassi, Vincenzo ; Dias, Odir J. ; Faustini, Faustino. A short history of the Servite order. Rome : General Secretariate for the Servite Missions, 1987, pp. 104, 107 and 126; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 230-232; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col.1539; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 65 and 323; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXVII, 180-182; Vicentini, A.M. Il cardinale Dionisio Laurerio di Benevento nelle memorie raccolte dal suo concittadino e correligionario Giuseppe Romano. Benevento : [s.n.], 1925.

Webgraphy. Biography by Simone Ragagli, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography, in Italian, La Famiglia Gherardini, to see the entire biography, click on "download the document".

(1) This is according to his biography in Italian linked above; the page of the village of Giffoni Sei Casali, in the municipality of Sieti Borgo Antico, indicates that he was born there.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 27; his biography in Italian, linked above, section 11, p. 18, says that he died in Frosinone or Frosolone and was buried in Rome. His biography in Italian by Ragagli, linked above, says that he may have died on November 6, 1542 and indicates that Paolo Giovio, a contemporary author, says that during the consistory of September 18, 1542, he was the protagonist of a new and lively discussion arose by a letter from the emperor and focused on what attitude to adopt towards the French King François I. At this juncture, the cardinal proposed the war and the excommunication against the French monarch. If this took place the day after sources indicate he died, it would be necessary to adjust the same. Ragagli says that according to the most reliable sources based on letters and inscriptions, the earliest date seems more likely, but in the second case it would be necessary to backdate the last consistory which the Cardinal Laurerio attended.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1539: DYONISIO. LAVRERIO. BENEVENTANO. TT. S. MARCELLI. S. R. E. PRESB. CARD. VRBINATENSI. EPISCOPO. RELIGIONIS. SERVORVM. GENERALI. GRAVISSIMO. AC. LEGATO. CAMPANIÆ. A. PAVLO III. PONT. MAX. ORDINATO. VIRO. FERE. OMNI. SCIENTIARVM. GENERE. ORNATO. R. P. M. AVGVSTINVS. ARETINVS. EIVS. ALVMNVS. GENERALIS. POSVIT. VIXIT. ANNOS. XLV. OBIIT. DIE. XVII. SEPTEMBRIS. MDXLII.

Cool Archive

(37) 10. BORJA Y ARAGÓN, Enrique de (1518-1540)

Birth. December 19, 1518, Gandía, Spain. Son of Juan II de Borja y Enríquez, third duke of Gandía, and his first wife Juana de Aragón. Brother of Saint Francisco de Borja y de Aragón, third superior general of the Society of Jesus. Uncle of Cardinal Rodrigo Luis de Borja y de Castre-Pinós (1536). Great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Knight professed of the Order of Montesa and comendador of Las Cuevas. Candidate to the post of grand master of the Order of Montesa, 1537; defeated, his rival gave him the post of comendador mayor, 1537-1540.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Squillace, December 17, 1539; named administrator until reaching the canonical age of 27 years of age; he died before turning 22.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, May 31, 1540.

Death. September 16, 1540, Viterbo, of a violenti et incognito morbo (violent and unknown illness). The pope received the news of his death the following day and on September 18, 1540, his body was buried in the sacristy of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 232; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1540; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 67 and 303; Goñi, J. "Borja y Aragón, Enrique." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975. Suplemento (1987), p. 102.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in English; and his genealogy, A2 B4 C1 D3.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1540: HENRICVS. GENTE. BROGIA. NATIONE. HISPANVS. PATRIA. VALENTINVS. ALEXANDRI. VI. PRONEPOS. DVCIS. GANDIÆ. FILIVS. DVM. IN. MAXIMAM. SPEM. ASSURGERET. IMMATVRA. MORTE. HEV. NIMIVM. RAPTVS. EST. SPIRITVS. IN CÆLO. CORPVS. HIC. QVIESCIT.

Cool Archive

(38) 11. SAVELLI, Giacomo (1523-1587)

Birth. 1523, Rome. Son of Roman noble Giambattista Savelli and Costanza Bentivoglio. His paternal grandmother, Camilla Farnese, was a cousin of Pope Paul III. His last name is also listed as de Sabellis. Uncle of Cardinal Giulio Savelli (1615). Of an aristocratic family which included Pope Honorius IV (1285-1287); and Cardinals Bertrando Savelli (1216); Giovanni Battista Savelli (1480); Silvio Savelli (1596); Fabrizio Savelli (1647); and Paolo Savelli (1664.

Education. Studied Latin and Greek literature; and law in Padua.

Early life. Chamberlain of honor of Pope Paul III. Protonotary apostolic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 19, 1539; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Lucia in Silice, April 16, 1540. Administrator of the diocese of Nicastro, November 5, 1540 until November 19, 1554. Opted for the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, January 8, 1543. Administrator of the diocese of Teramo, April 13, 1545 until May 26, 1546. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550 which elected Pope Julius III. Legate in Marca Anconitana in the pontificate of Pope Julius III. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, March 9, 1552. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Administrator of the diocese of Gubbio, May 29, 1555 until February 6, 1556; resigned in favor of his nephew Marino Savelli, bishop elect of Nicastro. Administrator of the see of Nicastro, again, February 6, 1556; he had kept il diritto di regressus, the right to return; resigned before January 26, 1560. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 16, 1558. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 19, 1560. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, January 19, 1560. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Benevento, January 26, 1560 until May 17, 1574. Vicar general of Rome, 1560-1587. Together with Cardinals Federico Cesi and Giovanni Girolamo Morone, named to a committee to provide assistance to the poor and vagrants of Rome, June 27, 1561. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 14, 1568 to January 14, 1569. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 8, 1573.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, July 31, 1577; he was the most senior cardinal priest in the Roman Curia. Consecrated (no information found). Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, July 9, 1578. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 9, 1583. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V.

Death. December 5, 1587, Rome. Buried in the church of Gesù, Rome. Thirty-nine cardinals and fifty other prelates attended his funeral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 232-233; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1540; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 57, 58, 59, 66, 73, 74, 75, 112, 132, 193, 256.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait (1800-1899), diocese of Gubbio, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

Cool Archive

(39) 12. SILVA, Miguel da (1480-1556)

Birth. 1480, Évora, Portugal. Second of the seven children of Diogo da Silva, first count of Portalegre, and Maria de Ayala. His last name is also listed as Sylva and Silvio.

Education. Sent by King Don Manuel of Portugal to the University of Paris; later, he studied in Siena, Bologna and Rome, where he established close friendship with leading intellectuals such as Girolamo Osorio, Paolo Giovio, Lilio Giraldi, Pietro Bembo and Jacopo Sadoleto. He wrote very well both in prose and verse; had a perfect knowledge of Greek and Latin; and was a distinguished mathematician.

Early life. From Rome, he went to Venice; then travelled to the principal European countries; and finally returned to his country and was admitted to the royal court. Participated in the Fifth Lateran Council 1512-1517. Portuguese ambassador in Rome during the pontificates of Popes Leo X (1513-1521), Adrian VI (1522-1523), and Clement VII (1523-1534). These popes several times had wanted to make him a cardinal, but King João III of Portugal always objected. Returned to Portugal in 1526 and the king named him his counselor and secretary of the court. Personal friend of painter Raffaello Sanzio; and Baltasar de Castiglione dedicated him the famous "Il Corteggiano". Pope Clement VII twice offered him the cardinalate but the king of Portugal strongly opposed the promotion.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viseu, November 21, 1526. Consecrated, at the end of 1529 (no further information found). Named prime minister. Escrivão of Puridade; abbot commendatario of the monasteries of Landim and of Santo Tirso. He preferred to live in Rome rather than at the Portuguese court, and when he asked the king's permission to leave the realm to attend the Council of Trent, it was denied. The bishop ignored the royal prohibition and secretly left in 1540 for Italy, where he stayed until his death. Sent by the pope to the Republic of Venice.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1539 and reserved in pectore; published in the consistory of December 2, 1541; received the red hat and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, February 6, 1542. The king was very displeased with the promotion and prohibited him from accepting the dignity; the king deprived the new cardinal of his ecclesiastical rents in Portugal, and on January 3, 1542 emitted a public sentence denaturalizing him, prohibiting all citizens of Portugal from writing and dealing with him; the king wanted the pope to name his brother D. Henrique to the cardinalate. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, October 5, 1543. Resigned the government of the see of Viseu, April 22, 1547. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 13, 1548 to January 6, 1549. Administrator of the see of Massa marittima, May 20, 1549. Legate in Venice; and later in Marca Anconitana and in Bologna. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the title of S. Marcello, June 27, 1552. Opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, November 29, 1553. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, December 11, 1553. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV.

Death. June 5, 1556, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 233-236; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1541; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 27, 237 and 335.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Portuguese, part 1; biography, in Poruguese, part 2; brief biographical data in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses - Nota Histórica.

Top Consistories Catalogs Home

©1998-2015 Salvador Miranda.