The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
Consistory of June 2, 1542 (VII)


(40) 1. MORONE, Giovanni Girolamo (1509-1580)

Birth. January 25, 1509, Milan. Of a noble family that moved to Modena while he was in his infancy. Son of Girolamo Morone, grand chancellor of the duchy of Milan, and Amabilia Fisiraga.

Education. Completed his primary and secondary education in Modena; studied jurisprudence in Padua; his father trained him in the conduction of public affairs.

Early life. Cleric of Milan. In recognition of his father's services during his imprisonment by the imperial troops that sacked Rome, Pope Clement VII elevated him to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Modena, April 7, 1529 (1); he was only twenty years old and was to govern the diocese through vicars general until reaching the canonical age of 27. His episcopal motto was Coelitus datum. Sent to a diplomatic mission in France in 1529. Cardinal Ippolito d'Este strongly opposed the election, arguing that the see of Modena had been promised to him; he asked Duke Alfonso of Ferrara for help and took possession of the see by force, confiscating all its revenues; on February 6, 1531, the pope asked Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to intercede in favor of Bishop Morone; the dispute was settled in 1532, when Bishop Morone bought off the opposition of Cardinal d'Este, agreeing to pay him an annual pension of 400 ducats.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 12, 1533, Bologna; and on that same day and place received the episcopal consecration; entered his diocese on January 28, 1533. Sent to a diplomatic mission before Duke Alfonso Sforza of Milan in 1535. In 1536, he went as nuncio to the court of Ferdinand I, king of the Romans, to promote in Hungary and Bohemia the celebration of the general council; he was instructed to obtain from the king a safe conduct for those who intended to take part in the meeting and to propose Mantua or another Italian city as the place of council. He was present at the Diets of Hagenau in 1540 and Regensburg in 1541; and was the papal special representative at the Diet of Spiers in 1542; he had a leading role although his tact and resolution did not accomplish much due to the difficulty of the German religious situation.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 2, 1542; received the red hat and the title of S. Vitale, October 16, 1542. Together with Cardinals Reginald Pole and Pierpaolo Parisio, named president of the Council of Trent, November 1, 1542; due to the small number of delegates, the proceedings were suspended on July 6, 1543; the reopening of the council was delayed until December 1545. Legate in Bologna, April 2, 1544 until July 13, 1548. Legate pro pace before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, July 30, 1544. Named by the pope again to the general council, November 2, 1544. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 6, 1549 to January 19, 1551. Opted for the title of S. Stefano in Monte Celio, February 25, 1549. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Resigned the government of the see of Modena in favor of Egidio Foscherari, O.P., May 23, 1550. Named with another ten cardinals to the commission for the reform of the church, February 18, 1551 (2). Named bishop of Novara, September 12, 1552 until March 13, 1560. He worked closely with Ignacio de Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus and future saint; and was instrumental in the foundation of the Collegium Germanicum in 1552. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, December 11, 1553. Legate before Ferdinand, king of the Romans, January 7, 1555; received the legatine cross the following February. Nuncio to the Diet of Augsburg, 1555; he was immediately recalled because of the death of Pope Julius III on March 23. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, June 12, 1556. Pope Paul IV publicly degraded him and imprisoned him in the castle of Sant'Angelo on suspicion of Lutheran heresy on May 31, 1557 (3); Cardinal Michele Ghisleri, future Pope Pius V, carefully examined Cardinal Morone in his prison, found him innocent and declared so in the presence of Pope Paul IV, who on March 27, 1559, restored him to the cardinalitial dignity and assigned him to the suburbicarian see of Albano; Cardinal Morone could have had his freedom, but refused to accept the promotion and to leave prison unless the pope publicly acknowledged his innocence; the pontiff did not, and he remained incarcerated until Pope Paul IV's death on August 18, 1559. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. In the consistory of March 13, 1560, his absolution from the accusation of heresy in the pontificate of Pope Paul IV was read; in the same consistory, he opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, March 10, 1561. Together with Cardinals Federico Cesi and Giacomo Savelli, vicar general of Rome, named to a committee to provide assistance to the poor and vagrants of Rome, June 27, 1561. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, May 18, 1562. Together with Cardinal Bernardo Navagero named legate a latere to the Council of Trent, March 7, 1563; received the legatine cross, March 17, 1563. Named again bishop of Modena, February 23, 1564; resigned the government of the see, November 16, 1571. Legate before Ferdinand, king of the Romans and to Germany, March 8, 1564; the legation was extended due to the tumult caused by the Protestants, April 14, 1563. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 12, 1564. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, February 7, 1565. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V; he came near to being elected pope. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, July 3, 1570. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Legate to solve the domestic controversies in the city and republic of Genoa, March 18, 1575; received the legatine cross the following Sunday. Legate before Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and the Diet of Regensburg, April 23, 1576. Protector of England, 1578-1579.

Death. December 1, 1580, Rome. Buried in front of the main altar of the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (4) .

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 1-122; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 240-245; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1544-1545; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 27-28, 56, 57, 58, 59, 64, 66, 71, 252, 260 and 310; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 758 and 824; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 36-39.

Webgraphy. Biography by Herbert Thurston, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Massimo Firpo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 77 (2012), Treccani; biography in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his engraving, portrait, effigy on a medal and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait by Sigismondo Nardi (1902), diocese of Trento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 252; and Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 758; Bernabei, Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena, p. 3, says that he was named in 1527, after the death of Bishop Ercole Rangone and the resignation of his successor Pirro Gonzaga. Both Eubel and Gams indicate that Bishop Gonzaga, later cardinal, occupied the see from 1527 to 1529 and that it was then when Bishop Morone was elected. The latter's biography in German, linked above, says that he was bishop of Tortona in 1528 for a brief period of time; but none of the sources consulted mention this. His second biography in English, also linked above, indicates that he was named bishop of Modena in 1527.
(2) These cardinals were Giandomenico de Cupis, François de Tournon, Gian Pietro Carafa, Rodolfo Pio, Pedro Sarmiento, Marcello Cervini, Marcello Crescenzi, Girolamo Verallo, Francesco Pisano and Reginald Pole.
(3) From his times in Germany and throughout his life, he remained a notable member of a group of moderate and intellectual men who believed that in the struggle with Lutheranism, the faults were not all on one side. His ideas on justification, veneration of the saints and relics were considered suspicious; the pope confronted the spirituali and between 1557 and 1558 sent to prison, besides Cardinal Morone, others like Pietro Antonio di Capua, archbishop of Otranto; Giovanni Francesco Verdura, bishop of Chiron; Egidio Foscherari, O.P., bishop of Mantua; Cavaliere Mario Galeota; and nobleman Bartolomeo Spadafora; Cardinal Reginald Pole was saved by the intercession of Queen Mary I Tudor of England.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1544: HIC. IACET. CORPVS. IOANNIS. CARDINALIS. MORONI. PATRICII. MEDIOLANENSIS. EPISCOPI. OSTIENSIS. QVI. FVIT. LEGATVS. APOSTOLICVS. IN SACRO. CONCILIO. TRIDENTINO. ET PRÆSES. VIXIT. ANN. LXXI. MENSES. X. DIES. V. OBIIT. I. DECEMBRIS. MDLXXX. ORATE. DEVM. PRO. EO. HÆRES. HIERONYMVS. MORONVS. COMES. PONTISCORONI. HÆRES. HORATIVS. MORONVS. EPISC. SVTRINVS. ET. NEPESINVS. FRATRIS. FILII. DOMINO. AC. PATRONO. OPTIMO. EX. TESTAMENTO. MÆRENTES. POS.

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(41) 2. CRESCENZI, Marcello (1500-1552)

Birth. 1500, Rome. Of an ancient and noble family. Son of Mario (or Mariano) Crescenzi and Pantasilea Capodiferro. Other cardinals of the family are Pier Paolo Crescenzi (1611); and Alessandro Crescenzi, C.R.S. (1675)

Education. Studied utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Roman cleric. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1525.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Marsi, January 19, 1534; resigned the government of the diocese before May 17, 1546. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 2, 1542; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, November 6, 1542. Named by the pope to the general council, November 2, 1544. Administrator of the see of Conza, May 5, 1546 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Legate in Bologna, March 5, 1550. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 19, 1551 to January 8, 1552. Named with another ten cardinals to the commission for the reform of the church, February 18, 1551 (1). Legate a latere to the Council of Trent, March 4, 1551.

Death. May 28, 1552, in the monastery of the Benedictines Olivetani, Verona, while he was on his return trip from Trent. Transferred to Rome and buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica. (2)

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 236-238; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1542; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28, 65, 175 and 236; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 282.

Webgraphy. His tomb in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome; and his epitaph.

(1) These cardinals were Giandomenico de Cupis, François de Tournon, Gian Pietro Carafa, Rodolfo Pio, Pedro Sarmiento, Giovanni Girolamo Morone, Marcello Cervini, Girolamo Verallo, Francesco Pisano and Reginald Pole.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1542: D. O. M. MARCELLO CARDINALI CRESCENTIO, qui, ob insignem pietatis, ingenii, laudem 25. natus annos a Clemente Septimo Rotæ Auditor, deinde Episcopus factus, a Paulo Tertio S. R. E. Cardinalis creatus Principum virorum, Regumq; in primis gratia, & benevolentia floruis. Sub Iulio Tertio Bononiæ perpetuus, Tridentini Concilii solus Apostolicæ Ledgatus in Orthodoxa fidei causam cum totus incumberes, gravis morbo correptus Verona decessit ; annus ætatis suæ LII. Salutis humanæ MDLII Kalend. Iunii, Alexander Crescentius Alexandri Nepos Hippolyti filius, Marii pronepos fecit MDCLVII.

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(42) 3. ACQUAVIVA D'ARAGONA, Giovanni Vincenzo (1490/1495-1546)

Birth. Born between 1490 and 1495, Naples. Son of Andrea Matteo III Acquaviva d'Aragona, seventh duke of Atri, and Isabella Piccolomini Todeschini. His second last name is also listed as Aragonia. Grand-uncle of Cardinals Giulio Acquaviva d'Aragona (1570) and Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, seniore (1591). Other cardinals of the family are Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, iuniore (1654); Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona (1706); Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona (1732); and Pasquale Acquaviva d'Aragona (1770).

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate in Naples.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Melfi e Rapolla, February 7, 1537. Consecrated (no information found). Archpriest of Santa Maria in Platea di San Flaviano, June 17, 1537. Prefect of Castle Sant'Angelo, June 2, 1542.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 2, 1542; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, June 12, 1542.

Death. August 16, 1546, Itri. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 238; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1542; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28, 67 and 241.

Webgraphy. The Acquaviva cardinals, in English.

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(43) 4. CECCI, Pomponio (?-1542)

Birth. (No date found), Rome.

Education. Studied science, philosophy and astronomy.

Early life. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orte e Civita Castellana, August 12, 1538. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Sutri e Nepi, November 24, 1539. Vicar general of Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 2, 1542; received the red hat and the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, June 12, 1542.

Death. August 4, 1542, Rome. Buried in his family's tomb in the chapel of the Nativity of Our Lord in the patriarchal Lateran basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 238-239; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1543; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28, 63, and 306.

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(44) 5. PUCCI, Roberto (1464-1547)

Birth. May 29 (or 30), 1464, Florence. Son of Antonio Pucci and Piera Manetti. Brother of Cardinal Lorenzo Pucci (1513). Uncle of Cardinal Antonio Pucci (1531).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Occupied several important posts in the government of Florence, among them gonfaloniere, senator and priore. Married Bianca Lenzi (1) and had three sons and a daughter; after her death in 1526, he entered the ecclesiastical state and went to Rome.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pistoia, August 8, 1541; his nephew Cardinal Antonio Pucci resigned the see in his favor. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 2, 1542; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, June 12, 1542. Opted for the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, October 17, 1544. Grand penitentiary, March 31, 1545 until his death. Transferred to the see of Melfi e Rapolla, December 7, 1546; occupied the post until his death.

Death. January 17, 1547, Rome. Buried at the feet of the tomb of his brother Cardinal Lorenzo in the choir of the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 239-240; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1543; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28, 62, 67 and 275; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 799.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Cristoforo dell'Altissimo; his epitaph.

(1) This is according to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, IV, 799; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 239; and Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1543, say that her name was Eleonora.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1543: D. O. M. ROBERTO. PVCCIO. TIT. SANCTORVM. QVATTVOR. PRESB. CARD. MAIOR. POENITENTIARIVS. SVMMA. FIDE. ATQVE. CONSTANTIA. PRÆDITO. PANDVLPHVS. PVCCIVS. FILIVS. PATRI. CARISSIMO. ATQVE. OPTIME. MERENTI. POSVIT. QVI. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXXXII. MENSES VII. DIES. XIX. DECESSIT. XVI. KALENDAS. FEBRVARII. MDXLVII. Ughelli also transcribed on the same column the inscription on his monument in the chapel of the Pucci family in the church of Annunziata in Florence: ROBERTO. PUCCIO. ANTONII. F. TIT. SANCTORVM. QVATTOR. PRESB. CARD. MAIOR. POENIT. EPISC. PISTOR. PIETATE. ATQVE. INTEGRITATE. INSIGNI. A. PAVLO. III. P. M. CREATO. ROBERTVS. PUCCIVS. EX. PAND. EIVS. LEGITIMO. AC. NATVRALI. FILIO. NEPOS. TANTO. AVO. P. ANN. DOMINI. MDCVII. VIXIT. ANN. LXXXIII. OBIIT. ROMÆ. XVII. KALEND. FEBR. MDXLVII.

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(45) 6. BADIA, O.P., Tommaso (1483-1547)

Birth. December 10, 1483, Modena. Of an ancient family originally called "Dall'Abbazia".

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) at a young age in Modena; Dominican houses of studies; Dominican convent of Bologna, 1520.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Lector of theology at the convent of Ferrara; later at the Venice; and finally at the Bologna; in two chapters of the order, 1530 and 1539, he was proposed as master general but not elected because of his reputation of being too strict. Went to Rome and temporarily replaced Silvestro de Prierias, O.P., sent on a mission to the Italian princes, as master of the Sacred Palace; he was named permanently on February 17, 1529 (1). Member of the commission that redacted Consilium de enmendanda ecclesia, 1536-1537. He favored the approval of the constitutions of the Society of Jesus and Pope Paul III confirmed them on September 27, 1540. He participated in the Diet of Worms in 1540 as theologian of Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, who was still working in Rome in 1540, and disputant. In 1541 participated in the Diet of Regensburg also as theologian of Cardinal Contarini.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 2, 1542; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, June 12, 1542; he had to be ordered to accept the promotion. Member of the Inquisition, 1542 (2). On October 16, 1542, the pope was going to name him one of the legates, together with Cardinals Reginald Pole and Pier Paolo Parisio, to preside at the Council of Trent but decided to keep him in Rome to examine the doctrinal and disciplinary memoranda prepared during the sessions of the assembly. On May 11, 1543, he was named, together with another seven cardinals (3), to a preparatory commission for the affairs of the council. Declined the promotion to the episcopate and the see of Urbino as well as all the other prebends offered to him. He authored several philosophical treatises, works on the divine providence, the immortality of the soul as well as several treatises against Lutheranism.

Death. September 6 (4), 1547, in the former house of Felice Moroni, region of S. Eustachio, Rome. Buried in the vestibule of the church of the Dominican church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, near the tomb of Cardinal Tommaso de Vio, O.P. (5)

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 175-180; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 247-249; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1546; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28 and 70.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; and his coat of arms.

(1) This is according to Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti. 39 v. in 41. Roma : Istituto Giovanni Treccani, 1929-1939; his biography in English, linked above, says that he was probably was named permanently in 1523.
(2) With the bull Licet ab initio of July 21, 1542, Pope Paul II reconstituted the Inquisition and named Cardinals Juan Alvarez de Toledo, O.P., Pietro Paolo Parisio, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Dionisio Laurerio, O.S.M., and Tommaso Badia, O.P. as its members headed by Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa.
(3) These cardinals were Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Giovanni Maria del Monte, Marcello Crescenzi, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Marino Grimani, Marcello Cervini, and Gregorio Cortese, O.S.B.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 28; Bernabei, Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena, p. 178, indicates that he died on September 8, 1547.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph taken from the addition of Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1546: D. O. M. THOMÆ. BADIÆ. MVTINENSI. ERVDITIONE. CONTINENTIA. AC. SANCTITATE. CLARISSIMO. CARDINALI. DIVI. SILVESTRI. QVI. ET. AMPLISSIMO. ORDINI. SENATORIO. ET. CVNCTIS. MORTALIBVS. MIRÆ. CVJVSDAM. FRVGALITATIS. RELIGIONIS. ATQVE. OMNIS. VITÆ. INCREDIBILE. EXEMPLUM. RELIQVIT. ALIIS. VERO. QVIBVS. CVMQVE. HONORIBVS. NON. TAM. VTI. VLVIT. QVAM. DIGNVS. VIDERI. QVOS. TAMEN. SOLA. MORTE. EXISTIMATVS. EST. FUGERE. POTVISSE. FRANCISCVS. BADIA. FRATRI. OPTIMO. POSVIT. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXIII. MENSES. IX. DIES. XXVII. THOMAS. BADIA. CARDINALIS. SANCTI. SYLVESTRI. ORDINIS. PRÆDICATORVM. DECESSIT. E. VITA. ANNO. MDXLVII. OCTAVO. IDUS. SEPTEMBRIS.

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(46) 7. CORTESE, O.S.B., Gregorio (1483-1548)

Birth. 1483, Modena. Of a noble and ancient family. Son of Alberto Cortese and Sigismonda Gherardino della Molza. Another cardinal of the family was Ludovico Cortese (1294) (1). His baptismal name was Giovanni Andrea.

Education. Studied humanities in Modena under Varino of Piacenza, O. Cist., and acquired a thorough knowledge of Greek and Latin; later, studied jurisprudence for five years, at Bologna and Padua; obtained a doctorate in law in 1500 at seventeen.

Early life. Went to Rome and entered the service of Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, future Pope Leo X, who named him his auditor; he felt that his duties distracted him from his studies and decided to return home. In 1504, urged by his relatives, he accepted, although he was only a subdeacon, the rectory of the church of Ss. Nazzaro e Celso d'Albareto, a village near Modena that was a juspatronato of his family; as well as the prebend of S. Giovanni Battista founded in the cathedral of Modena. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Modena and vicar general of the diocese, 1504. Received the diaconate on July 26, 1504.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 16, 1504, Modena, by Erasmo de' Bertacchi da Crema, bishop of Ario and suffragan of Modena. Resigned all his posts and entered in 1507 the Order of St. Benedict, Cassinese, congregation of S. Giustino de Padua, at the monastery of Polirone near Mantua; took the name Gregory; professed, May 21, 1508 (2). When Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici learned that Dom Cortese had entered a monastic order, he sent him a letter expressing his surprise and his disappointment and asking him to abandon his decision and resume his former post in Rome; the monk answered pointing out the great perils for his soul when he was still involved in worldly affairs and pointed out the inner peace and happiness that he had while chanting the divine office and studying the Holy Scripture; when the cardinal was elected to the papacy in 1513, the monk sent him a letter of congratulation reminding him of his duty to finally begin the urgently needed reform of the church. At the request of Bishop Augustin de Grimaldi of Grasse, abbot commendatario of Lérins, Dom Cortese and other monks moved that monastery to introduce the Cassinese reform; he founded an academy to educate the French youth in the humanities; he was elected its abbot in 1524; because of ill health, he returned to Italy in 1527. Appointed abbot of the monastery of S. Pietro in Modena, 1527. Abbot of the monastery of S. Pietro in Perugia, 1528. Abbot of the monastery of S. Giorgio in Venice, 1532 (3); during his stay in Venice he became a friend of Cardinal Pietro Bembo; he also counted among his friends Cardinals Gasparo Contarini, Reginald Pole, Jacopo Sadoleto, Gian Matteo Giberti, and other humanists; he was considered one of the best writers and most learned men in Italy (4). In 1536 Pope Paul III appointed him to a commission of nine ecclesiastics charged with preparing a statement of the ecclesiastical abuses that most urgently needed to be reformed. Soon afterward, he was named apostolic visitor and reformer for all Italy. Abbot of San Benedetto in Polirone, 1538. Sent to Germany as theologian to Cardinal Tommaso Campeggio, nuncio in Germany, at the colloquy of Worms between Catholics and Lutherans in 1540; ill health prevented him from traveling to Germany. Visitor general of his congregation on several occasions.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 2, 1542; received the red hat and the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, October 16, 1542; granted the faculty of using the black habit proper of his order. Legate to Duke Ercole I d'Este of Ferrara. On May 11, 1543, he was named, together with another seven cardinals (5), to a preparatory commission for the affairs of the council.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Urbino, November 6, 1542 until his death. Named by the pope to the general council, November 2, 1544. Because of illness he could not attend the consistory of January 8, 1546.

Death. September 21, 1548, at 9 p.m., after a long illness, in the former house of Girolamo Godefredi, Parione region of Rome. Buried next to the altar of S. Eugenia, in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome; his mother had been buried there in 1527.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 180-187; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 245-247; Cesareo, Francesco C. Humanism and Catholic reform : the life and work of Gregorio Cortese (1483-1548). New York : P. Lang, 1990; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1545-1546; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28, 63 and 233; Gothein, Eberhard. Rafael und der abt Gregorio Cortese. Heidelberg, C. Winter, Year: (Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger akademie der wissenschaften ... Philosophisch-historische klasse. [bd. 3] jahrg. 1912, 3.abh); Piva, Paolo ; Giulio Romano. L' "Altro" Giulio Romano : il duomo di Mantova, la chiesa di Polirone e la dialettica col medioevo. Quistello [Italy] : Grafica Ceschi, 1988; Piva, Paolo ; Egidio Del Canto. Dal Correggio a Giulio Romano : la committenza di Gregorio Cortese. Mantova : Casa del Mantegna, 1989.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; and his coat of arms.

(1) He is only mentioned by Bernabei, Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo, pp. 133-134; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 247; neither Chacón nor Eubel list him among the cardinals created by Pope St. Celestine V in his only consistory for the creation of cardinals of September 18, 1294.
(2) This is according to Bernabei, Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo, p. 182; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, III, col. 1545, says that he professed on March 19, 1508.
(3) This is according to Bernabei, Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo, p. 183; his biography in English, linked above, says that he was named in 1537.
(4) His works were collected and edited, with a biography, by Bishop Giovanni Agostino Gradenigo, C.C.S.S., of Ceneda in two volumes: Gregorii Cortesii ... Omnia, quae huc usque colligi potuerunt : sive ab eo scripta, sive ad illum spectantia. (Patavii : Excudebat J. Cominus, 1774).
(5) These cardinals were Giovanni Domenico de Cupis, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Giovanni Maria del Monte, Marcello Crescenzi, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni, Marino Grimani, Marcello Cervini, and Tommaso Badia, O.P.

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(47) 8. MADRUZZO, Cristoforo (1512-1578)

Birth. July 5, 1512, Madruzzo/Castel Nanno, diocese of Trent. Son of Giovanni Gaudenzio I di Madruzzo, baron of the Holy Roman Empire, and Eufemia von Sporenberg. His last name is also listed as Madruzzi, von Madrutz, von Madrutsch, and de Madruce. He was known with the appellative of Cardinal Tridentinus. Uncle of Cardinal Ludovico Madruzzo (1561). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo (1604).

Education. Studied at the University of Padua (human letters, philosophy and theology); at the University of Bologna (jurisprudence, under the guidance of Ugo Buoncompagni, future Pope Gregory XIII); at the university he met future Cardinals Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, Otto Truchsess von Waldburg and Stanisław Hosius.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Augsburg. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Trent and titular pastor of Tirolo, April 29, 1529; dean of the chapter, 1535. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Salzburg, 1536. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Bressanone, 1537. Returned to Trent in 1537. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Trent.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate.

Episcopate. Elected unanimously prince-bishop of Trent by its cathedral chapter, August 5, 1539; confirmed by the pope, November 10 (1), 1539. Received the diaconate in 1542.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1542. Consecrated, May, 28, 1542, cathedral of Trent, by Christoph Fuchs, bishop of Brixen, assisted by Matteo Giberti, bishop of Verona, and by a prevost of the Canons Regular of the Lateran.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 2, 1542 and reserved in pectore; published on January 7, 1545; received the red hat and the title of S. Cesareo in Palatio, January 9, 1545. Coadjutor of the prince-bishop of Bressanone, December 1, 1542; confirmed by the pope, December 11, 1542. Prince-bishop of Brixen, December 11, 1542; confirmed by the pope, December 17, 1542; occupied the post until his death. Papal legate to the Council of Trent; participated in its first session in 1545. Sent to Rome by Holy Roman Emperor to request assistance for his struggle against the Protestants, 1546; successfully accomplished his mission. Travelled to Spain in 1548 with Archduke Maximilian, nephew of the emperor, for his marriage to Queen Mary. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Avoided the sack of Siena by the troops of Grand Duke Cosimo in 1555. Named by King Felipe II of Spain lieutenant and governor general of the duchy of Milan, 1555; freed the city and its fortress from French control; also, freed Cremona from French control; occupied the post until 1558. In Parma and Piacenza, in the name of the king of Spain, had the fortress restored to Ottavio Farnese. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. As prince of the empires, took part in the congress held in Augsburg for the cause of Prince Maximilian, who had been elected emperor; together with other cardinals, solved the controversy between the emperor and Pope Pius IV for the formula of the solemn imperial oath to the pope. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, January 16, 1560. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, March 13, 1560. Pontifical legate in Marca Anconitana and in the province of Ascoli, April 26, 1560. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, April 14, 1561. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, May 18, 1562. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, May 12, 1564. Ended the Pallavicini family dispute between Sforza and Girolamo. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Governor of Spoleto, 1566. Resigned the government of the see of Trent in favor of his nephew Ludovico Madruzzo, November 14, 1567. Legate in Gualdo Tadino from 1569 until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, July 3, 1570. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII.

Death. July 5, 1578, Tivoli, where he had gone seeking a healthier climate. Buried in the church of S. Francesco, Tivoli. Transferred to Rome three years later and buried in his family's chapel in the church of S. Onofrio, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 249-253; Caterbi, Giuseppe. La Chiesa di S. Onofrio e le sue tradizioni religiose, storiche, artistiche e letterarie. 1858; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1547-1548; Dal Prà, Laura. I Madruzzo e l'Europa, 1539-1658 : i principi vescovi di Trento tra Papato e Impero. Milano : Charta, 1993. Note: Exhibition catalog./ "Trento, Castello del Buonconsiglio; Riva del Garda, Chiesa dell'Inviolata, 10 luglio-31 ottobre 1993", p. 57-62; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28, 56, 57, 58, 61, 66, 141 and 318.

Webgraphy. Biography by Francis Schaefer, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Italian, Istituto Comprensivo di Cavedine, Italy; his portrait, effigy on a medal and biography, in Italian, Villa Madruzzo; biography by Rotraud Becker, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 67 (2007), Treccani; his coat of arms, supereva; the Madruzzo prince-bishops, portraits and biographical data in English, Castello del Buonconsiglio, Trento, Italy; Castello del Buonconsiglio, residence of the prince-bishops of Trent, in English; his tomb in the church of S. Onofrio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his arms, portraits, engravings and image on a postal stamp, Aralidca Vaticana; his portrait by Sigismondo Nardi (1902) diocese of Trento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 318, which says that other sources, not mentioned, indicate that he was confirmed by the pope on November 24, 1539.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1548:

CHRISTO RESVSCITATORI ·
CHRISTOPHORI · MADRVTII · EPISC · PROTVENSIS ·
CARDINALIS · TRIDENT · OSSA · HIC · REQVIESCVNT ·
OBIIT · V · IVULII · MDLXXVII · ÆTAT ·
SVÆ · LXVI · EODEM · QVO · NATVS · EST · DIE · RECVRRENTE.

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GUIDICCIONI, Giovanni (1480-1541)

Birth. 1480, Lucca (1). Relative of Cardinal Bartolomeo Guidiccioni (1539).

Education. Studied humanities and philosophy Bologna, Padua and Ferrara; he entered in contact with Pietro Bembo, future cardinal; Trifone Gabriele and other literary figures.

Early life. Went to Rome and entered the service of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, future Pope Paul III.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fossombrone, December 16, 1534 (2). Consecrated (no information found). Named governor of Rome in 1535. Shortly after, on January 28, 1535, he was sent as nuncio before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and accompanied him in his expedition against Tunisia; he fell sick on August 21, 1536. Named president of Romagnola on December 7, 1539. On July 1, 1541, he was named governor of Marche Anconitana. He was an erudite and man of letters who wrote poetry, discourses and satires addressed to Trifone Gabriello, called the Socrates of his epoch. His works were reprinted numerous times.

Cardinalate. Was going to be promoted to the cardinalate in the next consistory but died before its celebration.

Death. After July 16, 1541. Buried in the church of S. Francesco, Lucca.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1065; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 198; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici, XI, col. 1324.

Webgraphy. Emilio Torchio : Le rime di Giovanni Guidiccioni (10 febbraio 2005) by Stefano Giazzon, in Italian; with emphasis on his poetry; biographical data, in Italian, Italica, Rai International.

(1) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1065; and his biography in German, linked above. His two biographies in Italian, also linked above, indicate that he was born in 1500.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 198; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1065, says that he was named by Pope Clement VII in 1524.

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