The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
Consistory of December 19, 1544 (VIII)


(48) 1. ÁVALOS DE LA CUEVA, Gaspar de (1485-1545)

Birth. 1485 (1), Guadix (2), Spain. Of a distinguished family. Son of Rodrigo de Ávalos and Leonor de la Cueva (3). His last name is also listed as Dávalos and Avolos; and his second last name as Bocanegra. The Ávalos family was very numerous and descended from Ruy López Dávalos, condestable of Castilla (d. 1426), who married three times and had eleven children; one the branches of the family settled in Italy and Cardinal Innico d'Avalos d'Aragona, O.S. Iacobis (1561) was one of its descendants.

Education. Studied under his uncle Hernando de Talavera, O.S.Hier., archbishop of Granada; layer, at the University of Paris (licentiate in theology); and ginallt, at the University of Salamanca (theology).

Early life. Resided in Baeza, Alcaraz and Guadix. Colegial (fellow) of Colegio de Santa Cruz, Valladolid, August 4, 1509; and later, professor. Lector of theology at the convent of Guadalupe, 1517. Canon magistral of the cathedral chapter of Murcia. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Cartagena (4).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Guadix y Baza, November 14, 1524. Consecrated (no information found). Commissary general of the Inquisition in Valencia, 1525, by order of King Carlos I of Spain and by delegation of General Inquisitor Alonso Manrique. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Granada, January 22, 1529. Supported the establishment of the University of Granada. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Compostela, March 29, 1542. He founded several educational institutions and was a close collaborator of the Spanish king.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; died before receiving the red hat and the title. At the death of Cardinal Juan Pardo de Tavera, archbishop of Toledo, which occurred on August 1, 1545, he was nominated by the king of Spain to occupy that see but died before being preconized by the pope.

Death. November 2, 1545, Santiago de Compostela. Buried at the entrance of the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. His native town paid homage to him placing a bass relief in the square, next to the old church where his mother was buried at the foot of the main altar.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 253-254; Casares, M. "Avalos, Gaspar de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, I, 155; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1548; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28, 173, 205 and 206; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 38.

(1) This is according to Casares, "Avalos, Gaspar de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, I, 155; his biography in Spanish, linked above, says that he was born in 1482.
(2) This is according to Casares, "Avalos, Gaspar de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, I, 155; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 253, and Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 38 say that he was born in Murcia; his biography in Spanish, linked above, says that he was born in the fortress-castle of La Puerta de Segura; the site of La Puerta de Segura, also indicates that the cardinal was born there in 1485 and gives the information about the burial place of his mother saying that her name was Ana Ureña.
(3) This is according to Casares, "Avalos, Gaspar de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, I, 155; his biography in Spanish, linked above, says that her name was Ana Dureña.
(4) The bishopric of Cartagena was the same than that of Murcia; the official title is Cartagena, but the see and the cathedral were in Murcia for security reasons; Cartagena, a sea port, was easily attacked by the morisco pirates while Murcia, situated at some 30 kms. inland, was spared from those incursions.

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(49) 2. MENDOZA DE BOBADILLA, Francisco (1508-1566)

Birth. September 25, 1508, Cuenca, Spain. Son of Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, first marquis of Cañete and viceroy of Navarra during the reign of King Carlos I. Initially, he signed his name as Bobadilla y Mendoza and later, reversed the order. His second last name is also listed as Bovadilla. He was the fourth cardinal of the family; the others were Pedro González de Mendoza (1473); Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Quiñones (1500); Íñigo López de Mendoza y Zúñiga (1530).

Education. Studied at the University of Alcalá de Henares (letters); at the University of Salamanca, under Fernando Pinciano, obtaining doctorates in theology and law.

Early life. Schoolmaster of the cathedral chapter of Salamanca, 1528. Professor in Évora and Coimbra. Archdeacon of Toledo.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Coria, February 14, 1533, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age. Consecrated (no information found). Did not participate in the Council of Trent because when he was on his way to the council, he was created cardinal and ordered to return to Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Araceli, December 4, 1545. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, February 28, 1550; on that same day, this title was suppressed and he was assigned the title of S. Eusebio. Transferred to the see of Burgos, June 27, 1550; founder of its seminary, the first one in Spain erected according to the Tridentine norms. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Named by King Felipe II of Spain governor of Siena (1). The same monarch asked him to go to Roncevaux to accompany into Spain Princess Elizabeth of France, whom he was going to marry. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1552 to January 23, 1553. Did not participate in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Resided at the Spanish court for a long time. He donated 935 books to King Felipe II for the library of the monastery of El Escorial and wrote several works in theology. An old friend of St. Ignacio de Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, he protected and promoted the order. He opposed Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza y Miranda of Toledo, who was accused of heresy. He is considered one of the leading figures of the aristocratic humanism of Spain. Desiderius Erasmus sought his friendship and Luis Vives dedicated to him one of his works, De ratione vivendi.

Death. December 1, 1566 (2), Arcos de la Llana, diocese of Burgos. Transferred to Cuenca and buried in his family's chapel in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1234-125; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 256-257; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1549; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28, 63, 64, 66, 142 and 160; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, pp. 17 and 80; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 44; López Martínez, N. "Mendoza y Bobadilla, Francisco de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, III, 1469.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Spanish; arms, engraving and biographical data, in Spanish; engraving and biographical data, in Spanish.

(1) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, III, col. 1549 says that after this appointment he was elected archbishop of Valencia; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1235, says that he was nominated archbishop of Valencia but that he could not take possession; and his two biographies linked above say that the promotion to the metropolitan see of Valencia took place in 1556; the other sources consulted do not mention this promotion. He may have been nominated archbishop of Valencia at the death of Archbishop Martín Pérez de Ayala on August 5, 1566, but he may never had taken possession because of his own death.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 28 and 63; and Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 17; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 44; and López, "Mendoza y Bobadilla, Francisco de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, III, 1469, say that he died on November 28, 1566; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1235, says that he died on December 3, 1566; his first biography in Spanish, linked above, says that he died on November 26, 1566; and the other two biographies linked above say that he died in 1556 but both mention El Tizón de la Nobleza, a book he wrote in 1560 to defend his nephew's calidad de la sangre (quality of blood) and attack the Spanish nobility saying that most of it had Jewish or Moorish ancestors.

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(50) 3. CUEVA Y TOLEDO, Bartolomé de la (1499-1562)

Birth. August 24, 1499 (1), Cuéllar, diocese of Segovia, Spain. Son of Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, second duke of Alburquerque, and Francisca de Toledo. His last name is also listed as Queva and Gueva. Another cardinal of the family was Alfonso de la Cueva-Benavides y Mendoza-Carrillo (1622).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. When he was young and before receiving the sacred orders, he had an illegitimate son, Bartolomé de la Cueva (2). Cleric of the diocese of Segovia. Worked for the Apostolic See in Spain. Together with his brother Luis, accompanied Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to Italy in 1529.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Canon of the chapter of the cathedral of Toledo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, May 5, 1546; he habitually resided at the papal court in Rome. Charles V, irritated because Pedro Pacheco, bishop of Pamplona, had not been elevated to the cardinalate, prohibited the three Spanish prelates promoted in this consistory to wear the cardinalitial habit until Bishop Pacheco was also named a cardinal a year later. Did not participate in the Council of Trent but closely followed its proceedings through Cardinal Marcello Cervini's lawyer, who kept him informed. Maintained a close friendship with Ignacio de Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus and future saint; joined the Sociedad de la Gracia, founded by Loyola in 1543 at the church of S. Marta in Rome; at his initiative, the first Jesuit church was built under the direction of Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1554.

Episcopate. Named administrator of Avellino e Frigento (3), September 12, 1548; resigned administration, March 10, 1549. Consecrated, Saturday June 8, 1549, vigil of Pentecost, Rome, by Cardinal Juan Álvarez de Toledo, O.P., bishop of Burgos. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, December 4, 1551. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 12, 1554 to January 7, 1555. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, May 29, 1555. Abbot commendatario of Santa María de Párracos, Segovia. Acting viceroy of Naples, October 1558 to June 1559. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. In 1560 he was named by Pope Pius IV to a commission of cardinals for the reform of the church. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Manfredonia (Siponte), September 13, 1560.

Death. June 29 (4), 1562, in the former palace of the Medici family, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Rome (5). Later, his remains were transferred to the chapel of the monastery of San Francisco, Cuéllar, and buried in his family's tomb. The marble slab with his epitaph is currently in the church of S. Maria in Montserrato degli Spagnoli, Rome.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 781; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 261-263; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1551-1552; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28, 61, 62, 67, 126 and 301; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, pp. 854 and 924; Goñi, J. "Cueva y Toledo, Bartolomé de la." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), Supplement, 240-243; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 61; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 341; "Cueva oder Queva, (Bartholomeus de la)." In Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici, VI, col. 1811.

Webgraphy. Biographical data, in English; and biographical data, in German (click on "Cubiculi facri Praefectus" and then on image 923).

(1) This is according to Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, VI, col. 1811; and to Bereton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 752; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1551, says that he was born on anno Christi 1499, die 9. Kal. Septembris; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 61, says that he was born on April 23/24, 1449 (the year is obviously a typographical error and should be 1499); his biography in English, linked above says that he was born on April 23, 1499.
(2) He obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; was professor at the University of Salamanca; and inquisitor in Cuenca.
(3) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 261; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1550; and Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, VI, col. 1811, he was bishop of Córdoba; none of the other sources consulted mention this appointment.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 28 and 62; and Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 924; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 752, says that he died on June 30, 1562; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1551, in the text of his epitaph transcribed in note 5, says that he died ANNO. SALVTIS. MDLXII. PRIDIE. KAL. IVLII, which is June 30, 1562; Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, VI, col. 1811, says that he died in June 1562.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1551: D. O. M. BARTHOLOMÆVS. CVEVA. AB. ILLVSTRISSIMIS. DVCIBVS. DE. ALBVQVERQVE. ORTVS. SANCTÆ. CRVCIS. IN. HIERVSALEM. PRESB. CARD. HVNC. LOCVM. SIBI. AD. IPSA. TEMPLI. LIMINA. OPTAVIT. DOMINVS. PROPITIVS. ESTO. MIHI. PECCATORI. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXII. MENS. X. DIES. VI. OBIIT. ANNO. SALVTIS. MDLXII. PRIDIE. KAL. IVLII.

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(51) 4. ARMAGNAC, Georges d' (1501-1585)

Birth. 1501 (1), Gascogne, France. Of the family of the counts of Foix d'Armagnac. Legitimized son of Pierre d'Armagnac, baron of Caussade, and Fleurette de Luppé. His last name is also listed as De Arminiaco; and as De Armeniaco. Another cardinal of the family was Jean d'Armagnac (1408). He was also related to Cardinals Georges I d'Amboise (1498); François Guillaume de Castelanu de Clermont-Ludéve (1503); Louis II d'Amboise (1506); and Georges II d'Amboise (1545).

Education. Completed his intial education under his uncle, Charles, duke of Alençon, and Cardinal Amboise, who assigned him Pierre Gilles d'Alby as preceptor; later, studied at the court of the king of Navarre; obtained a licentiate in decretales (canon law).

Early life. Introduced to the court of King François I of France by the duke and duchess of Alençon. Protegé of Margarite d'Angoulême, sister of the French king. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Meaux. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Ambroise de Bourges. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Rodez. Visited Venice in 1528. Nominated by King Francis I of France to the see of Rodez.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rodez, January 19, 1530. Consecrated, January 25, 1531, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Gabriele Foschi, archbishop of Durazzo, assisted by Giovanni de Rosa, bishop of Scardona, and by Francesco Sperelli, former bishop of San Leone. Governor of Armagnac and Rouergue. Administrator of the see of Vabres (2), June 17, 1536; elected bishop of that see, retaining the one of Rodez, July 3, 1536; resigned the government of the see of Vabres, January 13, 1548. French ambassador to Venice, 1536 (3), to obtain the neutrality of that republic in the war between the French king and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V; returned to France in 1538. Ambassador of King François I of France to Rome, 1540; occupied the post until 1545. Abbot commendatario of Sainte-Marie de Caumonte, 1541. Abbot commendatario of Bec, 1538 until his death. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Sauveur de Persa, diocese of Rodez. Counselor of state of King François I.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, January 9, 1545. Between 1547 and 1560, he traveled to Rome three times. Nominated for the see of Tours by King Henri II. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tours, retaining the one of Rodez, January 13, 1548; recived the pallium on March 17, 1550; resigned the government of the archdiocese, April 6, 1551. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Together with Paul de Carrets, bishop of Cahors, he was named lieutenant-general of the king in Toulouse in 1552. On January 6, 1554, in the chapel of the château of Pau, he baptized Henri of Navarre, future King Henri IV of France. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Administrator of the see of Lescar, 1555; resigned in that same year. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, June 12, 1556. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Resigned the government of the see of Rodez before June 27, 1561. Legate in Campagna e Marittima, 1561. Participated in the Colloquy of Poissy in the Fall of 1561. Opted for the title of S. Nicola in Carcere, July 6, 1562. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Toulouse, August 31, 1562 until November 5, 1582; again, June 8, 1584 until his death. Royal governor in Languedoc, where he fought the propagation of the Huguenots. Invited by Cardinal de Charles de Bourbon-Vandôme, legate in Avignon, he was his co-legate from 1565 until his death. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Avignon, January 6, 1577 until June 8, 1584. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. He was a friend and correspondent of the leading literary figures of his time in France and Italy.

Death. July 10 (4), 1585, Avignon. Buried in the chapel of the archbishops in the cathedral of Notre Dame des Doms, Avignon.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 260-263; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 254-256; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1548-1549; Daniele, Ireneo. "Armagnac, Georges d'." Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-1954, I, cols. 1953-1954; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 28-29, 63, 64, 75, 127, 219, 288, 321 and 325; Farges, Louis. "Armagnac, Georges d'." La Grande encyclopédie, inventaire raisonné des sciences, des lettres et des arts, par une sociité de savants et de gens de lettres. 31 vols. Paris : Larousse, 1886-1902, III, 986; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, III, 35-36; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici, II, 1521-1522.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in German; biography, in Italian; biography, also in German (click on "SS. Arius", then on image 783); his portrait, prefecture, archdiocese of Tolouse, France; his portrait by Tiziano Vecellio, Titian, département des Peintures, musée du Louvre, Paris, France; his engraving; and his arms in a missal.

(1) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 260. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, III, 25; and Zedler; Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, II, 1521, say that he was born in 1500. His biography in German, linked above, says that he was born um 1500 (around 1500). Farges, "Armagnac, Georges d'." La Grande encyclopidie, III, 986, says that he was born vers 1501 (toward 1501). Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 255, says that he died in 1585 before turning 85, therefore, he must have been born in 1500.
(2) According to Frages, "Armagnac, Georges d'." La Grande encyclopédie, III, 986, he was also named administrator of the see of Leictoure but none of the other sources consulted mention this appointment.
(3) This is according to Daniele, Daniele, Ireneo. "Armagnac, Georges d'." Enciclopedia Cattolica, I, col. 1953; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 260, says that he was named in 1541.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 29, 75 and 315; the same source, III, 29, says that he died on July 1, 1585. Zedler; Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, II, 1521, says that he died on July 21, 1585. His first biography in German, linked above, says that he died on June 2, 1585.

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(52) 5. ANNEBAUT, Jacques d' (ca. 1500-1557)

Birth. Ca. 1500, Normandy, France. One of the six children of Jean VI d'Annebaut, constable hereditary of Normandy, and Marguerite Blosst. His last name is also listed as Denebaud, Anebault and Annebault. Cousin of Cardinal Jean Le Veneur (1533) on his mother's side.

Education. He had straordinaria erudizione, e perizia nella scienza delle divine scritture (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Cleric of Rouen. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Lisieux; and later, its archdeacon. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Evreux. Abbot commendatario of Bec; succeeded his uncle the cardinal. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Taurin d'Evreux; Saint-Serge d'Angers; Mont-Saint-Michel (1543-1557), succeeding his uncle the cardinal; and first abbot commendatario of Notre-Dame de Beauport until 1539.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lisieux (2), August 18, 1539 until his death; succeeded his uncle the cardinal. Consecrated (no information found). King François I of France asked the pope to promote him to the cardinalate at the request of his younger brother, Claude d'Ailly, seigneur d'Annebaut, marshal and admiral of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, November 16, 1547. Opted for the title of S. Susanna, March 22, 1548. Did not participate in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. When his brother fell from grace after the death of King François I, he had to leave the court and retired to Rouen. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV.

Death. June 6, 1557 (3), Rouen. Transferred to Lisieux and buried in its cathedral.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 245; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 257-258; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1549-1550; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 61, 71 and 224; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 567.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 257 (extraordinary erudition and expertise in the science of the divine scriptures).
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 257-258, indicates that he was elected bishop of Bayonne in 1526 and later occupied the sees of Paris, Lisieux, Limoges, Bordeaux and Le Mans; none of the other sources consulted mention that he occupied any see other than Lisieux.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 28 and 71; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, p. 567; and the site of the abbey of Notre-Dame de Beauport, say that he died on June 7, 1557; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1549, says that he died anno Christi 1557. 8. Idus Iunijand that was buried in Rouen; the list of the bishops of Lisieux in the diocese's site indicates that he occupied the see until 1558; and Delphine Lemaitre Philippe, "Notice sur Appeville, dit Annebaut (extrait des Recherches historiques et monumentales sur les églises de l'arrondissement de Pont-Audemer (Eure))", Bulletin Monumental de la Societé française pour la conservation et description des monuments historiques, 1854, Ser. 2, T. 10 Vol 20, p. 277, note 1, says that he died on June 6, 1558 at hôtel du Bec, the residence of the abbot of Bec in Rouen, and buried in the church of Saint-André d'Appeville.

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(53) 6. TRUCHSESS VON WALDBURG, Otto (1514-1573)

Birth. February 25 (1), 1514, Castle Scheer, Swabia. Son of Wilhelm I von Waldburg and Sibylla von Sonnenberg. Truchsess was originally the position that the family carried out hereditarily and soon, as in the case of the Stuarts (Steward), it became their last name.

Education.

Education. University of Tubingen, Tubingen; University of Dole, Dole; University of Padua, Padua; University of Pavia, Pavia; University of Bologna, Bologna (studied law under Ugo Boncompagni, future Pope Gregory XIII; Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, Cristoforo Madruzzo and Stanisław Hosius, all future cardinals, were his classmates; obtained a doctorate in theology).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Trent, Speyer, and Augsburg. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Trent. Imperial councilor, 1541. While on an imperial mission to Rome, he was named privy chamberlain of His Holiness. In August 1542, accompanied by Girolamo Verallo, future cardinal, he was sent to the Diet of Nuremberg to present the bull Initio nostri huius pontificatus of May 22, 1542, with which Pope Paul III summoned the council in Trent on November 1, 1542. Nuncio to Poland, July 29 to November 8, 1542.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Augsburg, June 1, 1543; granted permission to postpone receiving priestly ordination and episcopal consecration, September 1, 1543; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Had the title of prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Helped settle a long dispute between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Pope Paul III.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, November 27, 1545. Sent his procurator Claudio Gallo to the Council of Trent from January 7, 1546 to March 3, 1547. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, February 28, 1550. He founded the University of Dillingen on April 6, 1551 as well as the seminary; in 1564 he placed both institutions under the Society of Jesus. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 23, 1553 to January 12, 1554. Provost of Ellwangen, 1553-1573. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. He protested against the Religious Peace of Augsburg of 1555. Named protector of the Holy Roman Empire, 1558. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 14, 1561. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, May 18, 1562. Participated in the final sessions of the Council of Trent in 1563. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Named member of the Inquisition by Pope Pius V. From 1568 he lived in Rome. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, April 12, 1570. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, July 3, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. He was a friend and admirer of the Jesuits and placed the cornerstone of the church of Gesù in Rome.

Death. April 2, 1573, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 258-261; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1550-1551; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 56, 57, 58, 60, 66, 70 and 123; Rummel, Peter. "Trucheß von Waldburg, Otto." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 707-710.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; his portrait, Diocesan Museum of Augsburg; apostolic nuncios to Poland, in Polish; and his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Rummel, "Trucheß von Waldburg, Otto." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648, p. 707; his biography in English, linked above, says that he was born on February 26, 1514.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1551: OTHONI. CARD. TVCHESIO. EPISC. AVGVSTANO. SAC. ROM. IMP. PRINCIPI. INTEGERRIMO. ET. AB. OMNIBVS. PROPTER. EXCELSAS. ANIMI. DOTES. VIRTVTVM. CLEMENTIAM. AFFABILITATEM. INGENIIQ. ET. MORVM. PRÆSTANTIAM. AMABILI. OBIIT. ANNO. MDLXXIII. DE. MENSE. APRILI. LAVRENTIVS. SIRADEVS. DONEC. DIGNVM. ERIGATVR. MONVMENTVM. GRATITVDINIS. ERGO. ADSCRIPSIT.

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(54) 7. CORNARO, Andrea (1511-1551)

Birth. December 18, 1511, Venice. Son of Giacomo Cornaro. He was a member of the family's Cornaro della Regina branch in the S. Maurizio line. Nephew of Cardinals Marco Cornaro (1500); and Francesco Cornaro, seniore (1527). Cousin of Cardinals Luigi Cornaro (1551); and Federico Cornaro, seniore, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1585). Other members of the family promoted to the cardinalate were Francesco Cornaro, iuniore (1596); Federico Cornaro, iuniore (1626); Giorgio Cornaro (1697); and Giovanni Cornaro (1778). His last name is also listed as Corner; and as Cornarus.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Abbot commendatario of S. Zeno, Venice, 1523.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Brescia, March 13, 1532; named administrator of the see until reaching the canonical age; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1534. Petrarch dedicated to him a Commentary (Venice, 1541).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Teodoro, January 9, 1545. Attended some of the sessions of the Council of Trent. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Legate in Viterbo and the Patrimony, June 2, 1550. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, June 27, 1550. He advised the pope on the relations with Venice and the Holy Roman Empire. Also, he was the author of two pastoral works, De statu praelatorium and De residentia episcoporum, and nine collections of his letters were published (two in the Venetian dialect and seven in Latin).

Death. January 30, 1551, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Agostino, Rome; and later, transferred to Venice and buried in the tomb of his ancestor in the church of S. Salvatore.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 269-270; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1556; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 74, 76 and 140.

Webgraphy. Biography by Giuseppe Gullino, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 29 (1983), Treccani; arms and biography, in English, Italian Culture and History; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his bust, attributted to Giuseppe Torretto (1720), patriarchtae of Venice, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

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(55) 8. SFONDRATI, Francesco (1493-1550)

Birth. October 26, 1493, Cremona. Son of Giovanni Battista Sfrondati, patrician of Cremona, and Margherita Homodeo. Patrician of Cremona. Patrician and senator of Milan. Father of Pope Gregory XIV (1590-1591). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfrondati (1590). Great grand-uncle of Cardinal Celestino Sfondrati, O.S.B. (1695).

Education. Studied Greek and Latin; University of Pavia, Pavia (doctorate in law).

Early life. Public professor of law at the University of Padua, 1518; later, professor at the universities of Pavia, Bologna, Rome and Turin. Counselor of Carlo III, duke of Savoy; senator in Turin. Podestà of Pavia, 1527 and 1528. Counselor of Francesco II of Milan; and senator of Milan, 1530. Privy counselor of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Count of the Holy Roman Empire, 1534. Ambassador before the duke of Savoy. The emperor named him count of Riviera di Lecco on October 23, 1537. Governor of Siena. He married Anna Visconti and had seven children; the eldest was Niccolò, future Pope Gregory XIV; after her death on November 20, 1538, he entered the ecclesiastical state. Protonotary apostolic participantium. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sarno, October 12, 1543. Consecrated (no information found). Extraordinary nuncio before Ferdinand, king of the Romans, and the German princes to promote the peace with France, the security of Europe and the celebration of the general council. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Amalfi, October 27, 1544. Nuncio to the Diet of Speyer and to the emperor to congratulate him for achieving the peace with King François I of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, March 2, 1545. Member of the Inquisition. Legate before the emperor, February 25, 1547; received the legatine cross, February 27, 1547; his mission was to negotiate the situation in England after the death of King Henry VIII; he remained in Germany until June 1548. Transferred to the see of Capaccio, March 23, 1547. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, October 10, 1547. Transferred to the see of Cremona, November 9, 1549. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III.

Death. July 31 (1), 1550, Cremona. Buried in the vestibule of the chapel of SS. Sagramento in the cathedral of Cremona (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 263-265; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1552-1553; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 59, 67, 105, 152, 181 and 293; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 92, 93, 102 and 104; Sanclemente, Enrico. Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm svb avspiciis prætantissimi antistitis Homoboni Offredi ex authenticis monvmentis avcta et emendata svaqve integritati maxima ex parte restitvta. Cremonæ : apvd Josephvm Feraboli, MDCCCXI, p. 159-161.

Webgraphy. Biography, in German.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 29; Sanclemente, Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm, p. 159, which says that he died prid. kal. Augusti MDL (July 31, 1550); his biography in German, also linked above, says that he died on June 30, 1550.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1553: FRANCISCVS SFONDRATVS hic acquiescit, Baptista illius filius, qui Senator & Consiliarius Ludovico Sfortia valde charus fust; ob multas Legationes quas iussu ipsius obiit ad omnes & Reges & illustres Respublicas. Hic Comes Littoris Larii ad Orientem vergensis, Baroq; Assinae vallis ob egregiam fidem, prudentiamq; in Republica adminsitranda, & admirabilem intelligneitam Iuris a Carolo Allobrogum Duce Senator illie creatus est, posteaque a Francisco Secundo Insubrum Duce in ordinem Sanatorium Mediolani adscriptus, in ea dignitate a Carolo V. Imperatore cum in ipsius ditionem Civitas rediisset, retentus fuit, auEusq; Consiliarii gradu. Mortua vero uxore Anna Vicecomite leEissima fæmina, ab eodem summa cum potestate Senas missus est; ut eorum Rempublicam discordiis vexatam, consilio suo regeret, a quibus ob egregia ipsius merita, & Civitate donatus est, & Pater Patriæ appellatus.Postea Romam a Paulo Tertio Pontifice Maximo revocatus Germaniam paulo post missus, ad eodemq; in Amplissimum Cardinalium ordinem cooptatus, ad Carolum Imperatorem magnis de rebus Legatus est. Ornatus demum a Sapientissimo, acerimiq; iudicii Sene omnibus honirbus quibus Summi Antistis persona decorari potesi, mortem obiit nn. MDL. Cremonæ patriæ Episcopus. Nicolaus & Paulus eximiæ pietate præditi filii, hoc monumentum posuerunt. Vixit annos LVI. meses IX. dies VII.

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(56) 9. CESI, Federico (1500-1565)

Birth. July 2, 1500, Rome. Son of Angelo Cesi, Roman noble, and Francesca (Franceschina) Cardoli. Brother of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Cesi (1517). Second cousin of Cardinal Pierdonato Cesi, seniore (1570). Relative of Cardinals Bartolomeo Cesi (1596) and Pierdonato Cesi, iuniore (1641). His last name is also listed as Cesa, Cesio and Cæsi.

Education. Studied law in Rome.

Early life. Worked as a lawyer in Rome but later left the practice to enter the priesthood.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Todi with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, June 12, 1523. Consecrated, Monday July 25, 1524, in Rome, by Paride de Grassis, bishop of Pesaro. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, January 9, 1545. Resigned the government of the see of Todi, March 11, 1545. Administrator of the see of Caserta, November 9, 1549 to February 12, 1552. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, February 28, 1550. Administrator of the see of Vulturara e Montecorvino, July 15, 1550; resigned the administration, March 14, 1551. Administrator of the see of Cremona, March 18, 1551; resigned the administration, March 13, 1560. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1555 to January 10, 1556. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 20, 1557. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 18, 1562. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, May 12, 1564. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. He was a friend of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, Ignacio de Loyola and Filippo Neri, all future saints.

Death. January 28, 1565, at 8 p.m., in his Roman residence. On January 30, 1565, his body was transferred to the church of S. Caterina de' Funari, which he had founded at the instance of Ignacio de Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus; later, taken to the patriarchal Liberian basilica and buried in his family's chapel (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 265-267; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1553-1554; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 57, 59, 68, 69, 155, 181, 321 and 337; Sanclemente, Enrico. Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm svb avspiciis prætantissimi antistitis Homoboni Offredi ex authenticis monvmentis avcta et emendata svaqve integritati maxima ex parte restitvta. Cremonæ : apvd Josephvm Feraboli, MDCCCXI, p. 161-162.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1554:

D.    O.    M.
FEDERICO. CÆSIO. S. R. E. CARDINALI. PORTVENSI.
QVI. HOC. SACELLVM. ET. ALTERVM. IN. ÆDE.
DIVÆ. MARIÆ. PACIS. ET. TEMPLVM. DIVÆ.
CATHARINÆ. VIRGINVM. MISERABILIVM.
FVNDAVIT. ET. DICAVIT.
ANGELVS. CÆSIVS. FRATRVO. OPT. POSVIT.
VIXIT. ANN. LXIV. MENS. VI. DIES. XXVIII.
OBIIT. V. KAL. FEBR. MDLXV.

The photo of the epitaph is also linked above; notice the discrepancies in the text between the two sources.

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(57) 10. DURANTI, Durante (1507-1557)

Birth. October 5, 1507 (1), Palazzolo, diocese of Brescia. Of an illustrious family.

Education. Studied jurisprudence in Brescia.

Early life. Cleric of Brescia. Went to Rome and became privy chamberlain of Pope Paul III. Vicar of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, in the abbey of S. Michele de Coniolo, 1535. Prefect of the Papal Chamber during the pontificate of Pope Paul III.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Alghero, Sardinia, June 25, 1538 (2). Consecrated, March 12, 1540, chapel of Cardinal Juan Pardo de Tavera, Rome, by Cardinal Juan Pardo de Tavera, archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Fabio Colonna, bishop of Aversa, and by Alfonso Oliva, O.S.A., bishop of Bovino, papal sacristan. Transferred to the see of Cassano, February 18, 1541 (3).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, January 9, 1545. Named legate in Camerino, Spoleto and Umbria, October 19, 1545. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Transferred to the see of Brescia, February 18 (4), 1551. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV.

Death. December 24, 1557 (5), Brescia. Buried in the cathedral of Brescia (6).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 868-869; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 267; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1554-1555; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 60, 140 and 156; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, pp. 780, 832 and 871 ; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. "Durante de Duranti." Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici, VII, col. 1639.

Webgraphy. Biography, in German (click on "Duppa", then on image 845); Palazzolo sull'oglio, in Italian; and Palazzolo, in Italian.

(1) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col, 868; and Zedler, "Durante de Duranti." Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, VII, col. 1639. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1554, says that he was born anno Christi 1487, die tertia Nonas Octorbris; and the two sites of Palazzolo, his birth place, linked above, indicate that he was born in 1492.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, II, 60. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 832, says that he was named on June 30, 1538.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, II, 156. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 871, says that he was transferred on February 11, 1541. Antonio Nuches, "La diocesi di Algheronel XVI secolo", Alghero, la Catalogna, il Mediterraneo. Storia di una città e di una minoranza in Italia (XIV-XX secolo), a cura di Antonello Mattone e Piero Sanna (Sassari : Eidizioni Gallizz, 1994), says that he was transferred to Cassano on December 18, 1541.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, II, 140. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 780, says that he was named on April 16, 1551.
(5) This is according to Ughelli, in the transcription of the cardinal's epitaph in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1555, text in note 6, below. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 29 and 60; and Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 780, say that he died on December 24, 1558; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 267, says that he died at the end of 1557 according to the epitaph on his tomb; and Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col, 869; and Zedler, "Durante de Duranti." Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, VII, col. 1639, say that he died on May 15, 1558; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1554, says that he died anno Christi 1558. Idibus Maij.
(6) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1555: HIC. SVNT. OSSA. ILLVSTRISSIMI. ET. REVERENDISS. D. D. DVRANTIS. DE. DVRANTIBVS. S. R. E. CARDINALIS. ET. EPISCOPI. BRIXIEN. QVI. OBIIT. ANN. MDLVII. DIE. XXIV. DECEMBR. HIC. EX. ALIO. LOCO. TRANSLATA. DIE. XIX. FEBR. MDCIV.

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(58) 11. ARDINGHELLI, Niccolò (1503-1547)

Birth. March 17, 1503, Florence. Of a noble family. Son of da Pietro Ardinghelli, who was secretary to Pope Leo X.

Education. Studied Greek, Latin and law.

Early life. Secretary of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, iuniore. Canon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Florence. Vicar of Marca, 1539. Datary of His Holiness (1), 1540. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fossombrone, July 13, 1541. Consecrated (no information found). Prefect of supplicum libellis. Nuncio before King François I of France, to conclude the peace negotiations with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and promote the celebration of the general council, 1541. Accompanied Cardinal Farnese, legate to France and Spain.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the title of S. Apollinare, January 9, 1545. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, 1545. Resigned the government of the diocese, March 16, 1547. He was a poet and academician.

Death. August 23, 1547, in the residence of Marquis Baldassini, region of Campo Marzio, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 267-269; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 60 and 198; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, III, 12-13.

Webgraphy. Biography by Mario Rosa, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 4 (1962), Treccani; biography, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait by Jacopo Carrucci, called Pontormo, The National Gallery, Washington, D.C., United States of America; his sepulchral monument, church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; another view of the same portrait by Jacopo Carrucci, called Pontormo, la Repubblica.it; portrait of Monsignor Della Casa by Jacopo Carrucci, called Pontormo, Private Collection.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 268 and 269; neither Nicola Storti, La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni (Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969); nor any of the other sources consulted mention that he occupied this post.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1555:

D.     O.     M.
NICOLAO. ARDINGHELLO. FLORENTINO. PRIMARIÆ. NOBILITATIS. VIRO
QVEM. IVRIS. VTRIVSQQVE. CONSVLTIS. OMNISQ. VIRTVTIS
AC. SAPIENTIÆ. LAVDE. PRÆSTANTEM. AD. EPISCOPATVM
FOROSEMPRONIENSEM. PROVECTVM. CVM. PAVLI. TERTII. PONT. MAX
PICENO. PRIMVM. CVM. HONORE. VICARIÆ. LEGATIONIS
IMPONERET. ET. DEINDE. SVPPLICVM. LIBELLIS. PRÆFICERET
DEMVM. IN SACRVM. CARDINALIVM. COLLEGIVM. ADOPTARET. TITVLOQ
S. APOLLINARIS. INSIGNIRET. NON. TAM. HOMINEM
QVAM. HONOREM. COHONESTARE. VISVS. EST
ANNOS. NATVS. QVATVOR. ET. QVADRAGINTA
IN. MEDIO. VISTVTVM. ET. HONORVM. EREPTVS
ACERBVM. SVI. DESIDERIVM. RELIQVIT. OMNIBVS
X. KAL. SEPTEMBR. MDXLVII
ALEXANDER. RVSPVLVS. BARTHOLOMEI. ET. MARIÆ. ARDINGHELLÆ. FILIVS
OB. MEMORIAM. ERGA. CONSANGVINEVM. OPTIMAM. VOLVNTATEM
POS. ANNO. POST. CONDITAM. SALVTEM
M D C I.

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(59) 12. RECANATI CAPODIFERRO, Girolamo (1502/1504-1559)

Birth. June 22 , 1502 (or 1504), Rome. Of a patrician family. Son of Alfonso Recanati and Bernardina Capodiferro. He is also listed as Girolamo Capodiferro; as Girolamo Capodiferro Mignanelli; and as Girolamo Antici Capodiferro; the order of his last names as Capodiferro Recanati; and his second last name as Testaferrata. Related to Cardinal Gianantonio Capizucchi (1552).

Education. Educated in Rome.

Early life. Admitted to the court of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, at a young age. Pope Clement VII gave him several charges in the Roman Curia as well as some important nunciatures. Nuncio to Portugal in 1541 to announce the celebration of a general council at Trent. Nuncio to France in that same year for the same purpose. Datary of His Holiness, 1541-1544. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, 1541. Chosen together with Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, nephew of the pope, to announce the measures to take in the Papal States in reference to the war against the Turks who were menacing Italy from Hungary.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nice, February 6, 1542. Transferred to the see of Saint-Jean de Maurienne when he was still bishop elect of Nice, July 30, 1544. Consecrated (no information found). At the instance of Cardinal Jacopo Sadoleto, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, January 9, 1545. Named legate in Romandiola, August 26, 1545. Named legate before the king of France to request permission for the French bishops to attend the council that had been transferred from Trent to Bologna, February 25, 1547. Sent again to France in that same year to recommend the marriage of Orazio Farnese, the pope's natural son, thus strengthening the friendship between the two states; the French king received the papal wishes very coldly. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Legate to Romandiola again during the pontificate of Pope Julius III. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV; died during its celebration.

Death. December 1 (1), 1559, at 10 p.m., in conclave, Rome; transferred to the chapel of S. Maria febribus. Buried in the church of S. Maria della Pace, Rome.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 615-616; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 270-271; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1556; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 73, 238 and 257; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 587 and 830; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 168.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 18 (1975), Treccani; brief biographical data, in English, in note 1, Theatrum Pompei Project by Ulysses Vestal; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait (1600-1699), diocese of Macerata-Tolentino-Recanati-Cingoli-Treia, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 29 and 73; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 830, says that he died on October 1, 1559; Bertone, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 616, says that he died in 1559 during the celebration of the conclave; that conclave took place between September 5 and December 25, 1559.

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(60) 13. CRISPI, Tiberio (1498-1566)

Birth. January 31, 1498, Rome. Son of Vincenzo Crispi and Silvia Ruffini, concubine of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, future Pope Paul III. Brother, on his mother's side, of Costanza Farnese, daughter of the cardinal (1).

Education. Studied belle lettere; he had una fervida immaginativa, molta sottigliezza di spirito, e tenace memoria, a cui si univa un'assoluto posseso delle filosofiche facoltà, e di una sorbita eloquenza (2). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Prefect of Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, 1542-1545; he supervised most of the impressive decorations painted by Pierino del Vaga and his assistants at the castle.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sessa Aurunca, July 6, 1543; occupied the see until June 7, 1546. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 19, 1544; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Agata alla Suburra, January 9, 1545. Legate in Perugia, March 23, 1545 to 1548. Administrator of the see of Amalfi, April 1, 1547 until March 17, 1561; and again, June 21, 1564 to September 7, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, with his deaconry elevated to title, November 20, 1551. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 27, 1559 to January 15, 1561. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, May 18, 1562. Administrator of the see of Nepi e Sutri, January 19, 1565 until his death. Administrator of the see of Sessa Aurunca, 1565 until January 27, 1566. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, November 7, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V.

Death. Sunday October 6, 1566, of fever, Sutri. Buried in the cathedral of Sutri; and later, transferred to Capranica and buried in its principal church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 271-272; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1556-1557; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 58, 66, 72, 105-106, 305 and 306.

Webgraphy. Biography by Luisa Bertoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 30 (1984), Treccani; Il palazzo del cardinale Tiberio Crispo a Bolsena, in Italian.

(1) According to the site of Palazzo Rondanini, it "has often been suggested that Cardinal Crispo was a natural son of the Pope Farnese, and there is some evidence to support this theory. According to a document found in the Lateran archives, Tiberio's mother was the Roman noblewoman Silvia Rufini, without a doubt identifiable as 'la Rufina', also Paul III's lover according to Rabelais, and as well as the mother of a number of his children, according to many history books. It may be deduced that Silvia habitually spent her summer holidays at the Villa Rufini in Frascati, where both Paul III and Cardinal Crispo were frequent guests."
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 272 (a fervent imagination, subtlety of spirit, and a tenacious memory, to which he united an absolute possession of the philosophical faculties, and a remarkable eloquence).

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