The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
Consistory of December 16, 1545 (IX)


(61) 1. PACHECO DE VILLENA, Pedro (1488-1560)

Birth. June 29, 1488, Puebla de Montalban, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain. Son of Alonso Téllez Girón , marquis of Villena, señor of Puebla de Montalbán, and María Vélez de Guevara. The cardinal adopted his paternal grandfather's last name. Sometimes he is referred to as Pacheco de Montalbán, for the place of his birth and señorío of his father; as Pacheco y Guevara; and as Pacheco y Ladrón de Guevara. He is also known as Cardinal Giennense (from Jaén). Uncle of Cardinal Francisco Pacheco de Toledo (1561).

Education. Studied at the University of Salamanca, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Royal chaplain since before 1518. In 1522 he was named privy chamberlain of Pope Adrian VI, whom he accompanied to Rome from Spain (1). In the pontificate of Pope Clement VII, he was named domestic prelate and referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Santiago de Compostela, August 17, 1528. Visitor of the Estudio General of Salamanca, 1528. Archdeacon of Valpuesta, 1529. Charged by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, visited the chancery of Valladolid in 1532; and later, the chancery of Granada.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mondoñedo, September 6, 1532. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Ciudad Rodrigo, April 11, 1537. Transferred to the see of Pamplona, May 21, 1539. Transferred to the see of of Jaén, January 9, 1545. Arrived at the Council of Trent on June 29, 1545 and participated in all its sessions, except the second, until the translation of the council to Bologna in March 1547; he was the first one to bring about and advance the discussions on the Immaculate Conception during the assembly on May 28, 1546.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1545; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, March 10, 1550. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. King Carlos I of Spain named him viceroy of Naples in May 1553; occupied the post until May 1555. Transferred to the see of Sigüenza, April 30, 1554. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1556 to January 14, 1558. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, September 20, 1557. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Pope Pius IV named him inquisitor of the tribunal of the Holy Office in Rome. Participated in the Council of Trent.

Death. March 5, 1560, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome; years later, his body was transferred to church of Santa Clara in the Franciscan convent of his native town and buried in the tomb of his ancestors (2). His death was announced in the consistory of March 13, 1560.

Bibliography. Aguilar, F. "Pacheco, Pedro." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, III, 1859-1860; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 280-282; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1558-155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29, 56, 60, 168, 204, 245, 268 and 296; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 43; Martínez Rojas, Francisco Juan. "Cardenal Don Pedro Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara (1545-1554) in "Anotaciones al episcopologio giennense de los siglos XV y XVI", Boletín del Instituto de Estudios Giennenses, Nº 177 (2001), 356-368.

Webgraphy. Biographical data, in Spanish (third entry).

(1) Adriaan Florenszoon Dedel, bishop of Tortosa, future Pope Adrian VI, had been regent of Spain from May 1520 until July 1522.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 281-282; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, cols. 1560-1561; and his biographical data linked above. Aguilar, "Pacheco, Pedro." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, III, 1859, says that there is no documentary proof that his body had been translated to the convent of the Conceptionist nuns in Puebla de Montalbán where he had his sepulchre built.

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(62) 2. AMBOISE, Georges II d' (1488-1550)

Birth. 1488 (1), France. One of the sixteen children of Jean d'Amboise, signeur of Bussy, and Catherine de Saint-Belin. Nephew of Cardinal Georges I d'Amboise (1498). He is also related to Cardinals François Guillaume de Castelnau de Clermont-Ludéve (1503); Louis II d'Amboise (1506) and Georges d'Armagnac (1544). After the death of his wife, Jean d'Amboise, the future cardinal's father, became bishop of Maillezais and of Langres.

Education. He had Philippe Decium and Jean de Silva as preceptors (no further educational information found).

Early life. Canon and archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Rouen; later, its treasurer and archdeacon. Abbot commendatario of Déols.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Rouen, August 8, 1511. Consecrated in December 11, 1513, at the chateau of the archbishops of Rouen, Gaillon, Eure (no further information found). He received the pallium on March 9, 1514. Almoner of King Louis XI of France. Prime minister of King Louis XII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1545; the red hat was sent to him, because of illness, March 15, 1546; received the title of S. Susanna, September 7, 1546. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Opted for the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, February 28, 1550. Governor of Neustria.

Death. August 25 (2), 1550, château of Vigny, near Paris. Buried in the tomb of his uncle, behind the choir of the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen.

Bibliography. Anselme de Sainte-Marie ; Dufourny, Honoré Caille ; Ange de Sainte-Rosalie ; Simplicien. Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la couronne & de la maison du roy: & des anciens barons du royaume: avec les qualitez, l'origine, le progres & les armes de leurs familles; ensemble des statuts & le catalogue des chevaliers, cammandeurs, & officiers de l'ordre du S. Esprit. Le tout dresse sur titres originaux, sur les registres des des chartes du roy, du parlement, de la chambre des comptes & du chatelet des Paris ... & d'autres cabinets curieux. 9 vols. Paris : La Compagnie des libraires, 3. éd., rev., corrigée & augmentée par les soins du P. Ange & du P. Simplicien, 1726-1733, II, 221-222; and VII, 119-127; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 273; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1557; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 29-30, 65, 71 and 287; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, I, 310.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; Seigneurs d'Amboise, in French; Genealogie de la Maison d'Amboise, in French, pp. 119-126; Signeurs de Bussy, in French, pp. 126-127; his portrait, school of Jean Clouet, musée Condé, Chantilly, France; and his tomb, metropolitan cathedral of Rouen.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV 273. which says that he was named archbishop of Rouen in 1511 at 23; and that he died in 1550 at 62; the site of his portrait, linked above, says that he was born in 1460, which is the date of birth of Cardinal Georges I d'Amboise. According to the catalog of the bishops of Langres, linked above, the cardinal's father, Jean d'Amboise, occupied that see from 1481 to 1497, when he resigned; he died the following year. According to this chronology, it is not possible that the cardinal would have been born in 1488 when his father had been a bishop for seven years, since 1481, and would have become a widower before that year.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 30 and 65; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1557, says that he died on August 22, 1550.

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(63) 3. PORTUGAL, Henrique de (1512-1580)

Birth. January 31, 1512, Lisbon. Fifth son of the eight children of King Manoel I of Portugal and María of Aragón (1). He was the 17th king of Portugal. Brother of Cardinal Afonso de Portugal (1517); and of King João III of Portugal.

Education. He had perfect knowledge of Greek, Hebrew and Latin; studied arithmetic, geometry mechanics cosmography, navigation and astronomy under the great mathematician Pedro Nunes; he was not very well versed in ecclesiastical sciences.

Early life. Destined to the ecclesiastical life at a young age. Prior commendatario of the Augustinian monastery of Santa Cruz, Coimbra, 1526.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Braga, April 30, 1533; constituted administrator until reaching the canonical gae of 27. Consecrated, April 13, 1539, Domenica in Albis, church of the royal hospital, Lisbon, by his brother, Cardinal Afonso de Portugal, archbishop of Lisbon. In 1539 he was named inquisitor major in Portugal and its ultramarine possessions by the king of Portugal; Pope Paul III did not recognize the appointment and a fight followed between both courts. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Évora, September 24, 1540; he was its first archbishop; resigned the government of the see, June 21, 1564.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1545; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, January 24, 1547. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Named legate in Portugal by Pope Julius III in 1553; deprived of his legation by Pope Paul IV, minime auditus et sine cause (minimal hearing and without cause); Pope Pius V named him legate perpetuo a laterein the kingdom of Portugal, September 19, 1561; named again in 1564 and 1565. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. At first, he opposed the introduction of the Society of Jesus in Portugal but later he turned into a decided supporter of the Society; and entrusted them the foundation and direction of the University of Évora, which was inaugurated in 1559 and visited the following year by the cardinal accompanied by the superior general of the Jesuits Francisco de Borja, future saint. Abbot commendatario of Alcobazar. At the death of King João III in 1557, he became regent, together with Queen Catarina, widow of João, of King Sebastião, who was three years old; in 1562, the queen was retired from the regency and the cardinal became the only regent. Did not participate in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Named metropolitan archbishop of Lisbon, June 21, 1564; resigned the government of the see, November 14, 1569. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII.Named again archbishop of Évora, December 15, 1574; resigned the government of the see, July 4, 1578. In 1578 when Sebastião died without heirs, the cardinal succeeded to the throne on August 28, 1578. It was a particularly difficult time due to the fight for the succession of the throne; the strongest pretender was King Felipe II of Spain; the cardinal-king, giving way to the pressure of those opposed to the Spaniards, asked Pope Gregory XIII to grant him dispensation to marry but the pope, pressured by King Felipe, denied it in August 1579; a few months later, the king died without having resolved the question of succession and shortly after, King Felipe II of Spain became also king of Portugal.

Death. January 31, 1580, palace of Almeirim. Buried in the church of the Jesuits in Évora (2). The pope announced the news of his death on March 9, 1580. Later, by order of King Felipe II, his body was transferred to the Convent of Belem and buried in the tomb of the Portuguese kings (3). With him ended the Avis dynasty started by King Pedro I el Justiceiro in 1357.

Bibliography. Califano, Elio. "Enrico, re di Portugallo." Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-1954, V, 392-393; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 273-280; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1557-1558; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 30, 62, 138, 191 and 322; "D. Henrique." Grande enciclopédia portuguesa e brasileira. 40 vols. Lisboa; Rio de Janeiro : Editorial Enciclopédia, limitada, 1936-1960, XIII, 62-65.

Webgraphy. Portrait and biography, in Portuguese, Portugal - Dicionário Histórico, Corográfico, Heráldico, Biográfico, Bibliográfico, Numismático e Artístico; portrait, image on a mosaic and biography, in Portuguese, Wikiepdia; portrait and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A3 B7 C6, Genealogy EU; his portrait, Vidas Lusófonas; his engraving, Antique Portrait; and another engraving, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

(1) She was the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, Fernando of Aragón and Isabel of Castilla; and sister of Queen Catalina of Aragón, first wife of King Henry VIII of England. The dynastic name of both her parents was Trastamara.
(2) Other sources indicate that he was initially buried in the major chapel of the palace of Almeirim, where he died.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

HIC IACET HENRICUS GEMINO DIADEMATE CLARUS
QUOD PATRIO SCEPTRO PURPURA IUNCTA FUIT
CONDITUR ET REGNUM PARITER CUM REGE SEPULTUM
UT FORET IMPERIY VITAQ MORSQ SUI

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(64) 4. FARNESE, O.S.Io.Hieros., Ranuccio (1530-1565)

Birth. August 11, 1530, Castello Valentano, Viterbo (1). He was the youngest of the four children of Pier Luigi Farnese, first duke of Parma, son of Pope Paul III; and Girolama Orsini, of the counts of Pitigliano. The other siblings were Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, iuniore (1545); Vittoira; and Ottavio. Great-uncle of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese (1591).

Education. Attended the University of Bologna; and the University of Padua, where he studied Greek and Latin and Sacred Scriptures.

Early life. Entered the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Commendatore of S. Maria Maggiore in Bologna from 1538. Grand prior of San Giovanni dei Forlani in Venice from 1540. Abbot commendatario of S. Pietro della Cimarella, Salerno. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Rosazzo nell'Udinese from January 1544.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Named administrator of the metropolitan see of Naples, August 13, 1544; occupied the post until February 22, 1549; because he had not yet reached the canonical age, full jurisdiction was given to Fabio Arcelli, bishop of Bisignano.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1545; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Lucia in Silice, May 5, 1546. Legate in the province of Piceno e Ancona, August 27, 1546; returned from the legation, November 2, 1547. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, October 8, 1546 (2). Named administrator, until reaching the canonical age, of the titular Latin patriarchate of Constantinople, October 8, 1546; resigned the post, March 19, 1550. Penitentiary major, February 12, 1547 until his death. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, March 25, 1547 (3). Abbot commendatario of Farfa and of S. Salvatore Maggiore, 1547 until 1563. Legate in Viterbo, 1551. In charge of the troops that guaranteed the security of the conciliar fathers in Trent. Precettore commendatario of Persiceto, 1548 until 1562. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Ravenna, October 11, 1549 until April 28, 1564; consecrated (no information found); received the pallium, January 14, 1558. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Legate a latere in the province of the Patrimony, February 18, 1551. During the conflict between Pope Julius III and Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma, 1550-1551, the cardinal had to leave Rome and was exiled to Urbino and later, to Venice; the pope restored his properties on November 4, 1553. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Governor of Montefiascone, 1560. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Bologna, April 28, 1564 until his death. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, February 7, 1565. Governor of Stroncone in Abruzzo. He had as secretary Fulvio Orsini, illustrious antiquarian and librarian; and as chamberlain Francesco Maria Tarugi, Orat., future cardinal. Called to Parma by its duke due to a grave affair, he died in that city. Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, future saint, celebrated him for his doctrine and piety.

Death. October 29, 1565, at 4 p.m., of febbre maligna, Parma. Buried temporarily in the cathedral of Parma. News of his death reached Rome on November 1, 1565. According to his will, he was later transferred and buried in his family's tomb in the Oratory of S. Maria, of the Franciscans, in Lake Bolsena (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 282-284; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1559-1560; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 30, 58, 72, 73, 137, 255 and 283; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 388-392; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 527; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli : Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 117-119.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gigliola Fragnito, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 45 (1995), Treccani; Il cardinale Ranuccio Farnese e la croce di Vallecupola by Alberto Crielesi, in Italian, Controluce, Il Mensilde di attualità e cultura del Castelli Romani e Prenestini, Sommario anno XII numero 1 - gennaio 2003; his genealogy, A2 B4, Genealogy.EU; his portrait by Tiziano Vecellio (Titian), Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., United States of America; his portrait and arms (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; arms and his cenotaph in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

(1) Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 389, says that he was born in Rome; his genealogy, linked above says that he was born in Vetulano.
(2) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1559, says that he also occupied the title of Ss. Quattri Coronati; but none of the sources consulted mention this option; and neither Francesco Cristofori, Francesco, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), nor Louis Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge (Paris : V. Palmé, 1889), list him among the occupants of this title.
(3) This is according to his biography in Italian, linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 282, says that he succeeded Cardinal Giovanni Domenico De Cupis when the latter died in 1553.
(4) This is according to Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 392; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 283, says that he was transferred and buried in the Franciscan church of Ss. Jacopo e Cristoforo, founded by the Farnese family on an island in that lake; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1559, says that he was buried in the church of S. Marta in Lake Bolsena, in the paternal sepulchre. The solution to these discrepancias may be solved in this manner: in the Lake of Bolsena is Isola Bisentina and there is the church of Ss. Giacomo e Cristoforo, where some members of the Farnese family are buried. Among them, a Ranuccio III, who is probably the cardinal, is mentioned in the page Storia di Capodimonte. The page also says that Isola Martana is also in that lake and this might be what caused the confusion of calling the church S. Marta, as Chacón does in his work; Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 119, says that he was buried in the church of Ss. Jacopo e Crisostomo, of the Franciscans, founded by the Farnese family in Isola Bisentina.

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