The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Julius III (1550-1555)
Consistory of December 22, 1553 (IV)


(17) 1. TAGLIAVIA D'ARAGONIA, Pietro (ca.1500-1558)

Birth. Shortly before 1500, Palermo. Of the noble family of the counts of Castelvetrano and Terranova. Son of Giovanni Vincenzo Tagliavia, count of Castelvecchio, and Beatrice d'Aragonia e Cruillas. The family assumed the last name Aragonia after the marriage of Giovanni Vincenzo with Beatrice. His last name is also listed as Aragonia Tagliavia; as Aragona Tagliavia; as Aragon; and as Aragona. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Simeone Tagliavia d'Aragonia (1583).

Education. He received a good, although not excellent, theological formation. He entered the ecclesiastical state with the prospect of rapid and brilliant career, considering the high social position of the family and the ties of kinship and allegiance to the Aragonese and then to the Hapsburgs.

Sacred orders. Cleric of Mazzara.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Girgenti (Agrigento), May 28, 1537; granted indult to receive the episcopal consecration, June 6, 1537. Consecrated (no information found). In 1541, he was in the retinue of Emperor Charles V in Regensburg, where, if he did not participate in the talks between Catholics and Lutherans, he probably had to follow closely the development. Presented by the emperor for the see of Palermo. Promoted by the pope to the metropolitan see of Palermo, October 10, 1544; he made the solemn entrance in the see in January 1545. He obtained permission from Pope Paul III by a brief of March 20, 1545, to visit and reform the monasteries of Palermo. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1545-1547; in general, he aligned himself with the group of Spanish prelates; he carefully approached the papal legate trying to obtain the promotion to the cardinalate; in that latter year, when the council was transferred to Bologna, Archbishop Tagliavia stayed in Trent following the imperial policy. In 1551, he invited to Palermo Jesuit Father Nicolás Bobadilla, one of the first companions of Saint Ignatius Loyola, to pursue apostolic activities. He also participated in the council in 1551-1552 but without any relevant contribution. During his absence to participate in the council, he left two vicars to administer the archdiocese of Palermo. Archbishop Tagliavia had several encounters with the Sicilian Inquisition concerning his episcopal jurisdiction. He was a prelate of sincere piety, and did not fail to be interested in the religious life of his diocese during his long stays in Trent, showing a sincerely reformist orientation. His promotion to the cardinalate was requested to Emperor Charles V by the deputies of the Kingdom of Sicily as early as 1545; in the following year, the emperor presented it to the pope but initially without a great interest. Pope Julius III was unwilling to introduce in the Sacred College of Cardinals a man who was very devoted to the imperial cause, but finally, due to the insistence of the emperor, the pontiff agreed.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1553. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, July 17, 1555. He celebrated a diocesan synod in 1555, promulgating sanctiones et decreta circa cleri et populi reformationem, ac vitam honestam. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Pietro e Paolo d'Italia. King Felipe II of Spain named him president of Sicily on December 8, 1556 occupied the post until May 1557. In 1557, he had the famous bell known as "la guzza" restored.

Death. Friday, August 5, 1558, Palermo. He is buried in the crypt of the cathedral of Palermo, in a Roman paleochristian sarcophagus of Parian marble (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 331-332; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1600-1601; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 33, 61, 99 and 269; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 943 and 952; Weber, Christopher and Michael Becker. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002 (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 916.

Webgraphy. Biography by Roberto Zapperi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 3 (1961), Treccani; his portrait (1600-1699), diocese of Agrigento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Petrus de Tagliavia ex Comitibus Castriveterani
S.R.E. tituli S. Calixti praesbyter cardinalis
Aragonius civis et Arp. Parnom. in hac quievit tumba
nonis augusti 1558

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(18) 2. GUISE DE LORRAINE, Louis I de (1527-1578)

Birth. October 21, 1527, castle of Joinville, Champagne, France. Fourth of the twelve children of Duke Claude de Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon-Vendôme. princess of royal blood. The other siblings were François I (duke of Guise); Charles (cardinal); Claude, duke of Aumale); Philippe (died in infancy); Pierre (died young); François (grand prior of the Order of Malta); René (duke of Elboeuf); Marie; Louise; Renée, (abbess of Saint-Pierre); and Antonie (abbess of Faremoutier). Duke Claude also had an illegitimate son, Clause (abbot of Cluny). He is also listed as Louis I de Lorraine, cardinal de Guise. His last name is also listed as De Guise Lorraine. Nephew of Cardinal Jean de Lorraine (1518). Brother of Cardinal Charles I de Guise de Lorraine (1547). Uncle of Cardinal Louis II de Guise (1578). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Louis III de Guise (1615).

Education. He entered the church instead of following an army career like most members of his family. (No further educational information found).

Early life. He had an illegitimate daughter named Anne d'Arne (1).

Sacred orders. Cleric of Châlons.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Troyes, May 11, 1545; constituted administrator at 18 until he would reach the canonical age of 27; permutted the see of the abbey of Saint-Victor, Paris, 1549. Transferred to the see of Albi, June 27, 1550; constituted administrator at 23 until he would reach the canonical age of 27; resigned the administration in favor of Cardinal Lorenzo Strozzi before May 9, 1561.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 22, 1553. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Tommaso in Parione, title declared deaconry pro illa vice, July 17, 1555. He was abbot commendatario of Moissac, Bourgueil-en-Vallée, Saint-Germain d'Auxerre, Regny, and Braisne. Participated in the conclave of 1559. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sens, May 9, 1561; constituted adminstrator; resigned the administration in favor of Cardinal Nicolas de Pellevé, before December 16, 1562. Did not take part in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was restored to the rank of title, March 24, 1568. Transferred to the see of Metz after its chapter consented (2), October 5, 1568 (3). Consecrated, April 1, 1571, infirmary of the Abbey of Saint Victor, Paris, by Cardinal Charles I de Guise de Lorraine, archbishop of Reims, his brother. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Crowned King Henry III of France, Reims, Sunday February 13, 1575.

Death. Saturday, March 29 (4), 1578, Paris. Buried in the choir of the abbey of Saint-Victor, Paris, on the left side of the main altar, without any funeral inscription.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 335-336; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1601; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 33, 71, 101, 242, 298 and 317; Fisquet, Honoré-Jean-Pierre. La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane); histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du Christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 18 provinces ecclésiastiques. 2nd ed. 21 vols. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, vol. 19. "Sens et Auxerre", 123-125; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 293.

Webgraphy. Fisquet, Honoré-Jean-Pierre, "Louis III de Lorraine, Cardinal de Guise (1560-1562)", La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane), pp. 123-125; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; The House of Guise by Georges Goyau, The Catholic Encyclopedia; and his genealogy, A4, Genealogy.EU.

(1) In 1572, she married Johann von Janowitz.
(2) According to Fisquet, La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane), p. 124, he permuted the last three abbeys for the see of Metz.
(3) This is according to Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 293; and Fisquet, La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane), p. 124; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 242; says that he was transferred on June 2, 1558 and occupied the see until his death.
(4) This is according to Fisquet, La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane), p. 125; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 33, says that he died in April 1578 and adds that the day is not known but on page 242, says that he died on March 29, 1578; his biographical note in "The House of Guise", linked above, indicates that he died on March 24, 1578; and his genealogy, also linked above, says that he died on July 29, 1578.

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(19) 3. NOBILI, Roberto de' (1541-1559)

Birth. September 5, 1541, Montepulciano. Son of Vincenzo de' Nobili, count of Civitella, and Maddalena Barbolani, of the counts of Montatoobili. Great-nephew of Pope Julius III, on his mother's side. Uncle of Cardinal Francesco Sforza (1583).

Education. His tutors were Giulio Poggiano, Ottavio Pantagato, and Girolamo Ponzio; at ten he had mastered both Greek and Latin; he also studied philosophy, literature and the Scriptures.

Early life. The family moved to Rome when Pope Julius III was elected. He was elevated to the cardinalate at the age of twelve (1).

Sacred orders. Cleric of Arezzo (2).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 22, 1553; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, February 6, 1555. Abbot commendatario of Spinetta, a relatively poor abbey that he accepted as a source of income for himself and his households. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV (3). Named librarian of the Holy Roman Church by Pope Paul IV. He considered resigning the cardinalate on more than one occasion, and hoped to enter a religious order, the Capuchins or the Jesuits; he was dissuaded from doing this by his confessor, the Spanish Jesuit, Juan de Polanco.

Death. January 18, 1559, Rome. Buried in the Del Monte chapel in the church of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome (4); his entrails were placed in the chapel of S. Francesco in the church of S. Bernardo alle Terme, Rome (5).

Bibliography. Burkle-Young, Francis A. and Michael Leopoldo Doerrer. The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte : a scandal in scarlet ; together with materials for a history of the House of Ciocchi del Monte San Savino. Lewiston, NY : E. Mellen Press, 1997. (Renaissance studies, v. 2), pp. 110-116; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 332-335; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1601-1603; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 33 and 74.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Norwegian, Annas Rom Guide; his tomb in the church of S. Bernardo alle Terme, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his cenotaph, church of S. Bernardo alle Terme, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) According to Burkle-Young, The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, p. 111, he was the youngest cardinal ever created until December 19, 1735, when Pope Clement XII elevated Luis de Borbón, son of King Felipe V of Spain, who was eight years old at his creation.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 33; the same source, III, 74, says that he was a cleric of Orvieto.
(3) According to Burkle-Young, The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, p. 113, he voted actively in both conclaves and became the youngest person ever to participate in the election of a pope.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1602:

IESV. CHRISTO. RESVRERCTIONIS. ET. SALVTIS. AVTORI.
ROBERTO. NOBILI. POLLICIANO, S. R. E. DIAC. CARD.
QVI. XIII. ANNOS. NATVS. OB. EGREGIAM. VISTVTIS. INDOLEM.
AB. IVLIO. III. PONT. MAX. EIVS. MAGNO. AVVNCVLO. PATRIBVS.
VNIVERSIS. APPROBANTIBVS. IN. AMPLISS. COLLEGIVM. COOPTATVS.
ARDENTISSIMO. QVVM. ESSET. RELIGIONIS. ET. LITERARVM. STVDIO.
SEMESTRI. TABE. SVMMA. PATIENTIA. CONFECTVS.
DVM. SE. IVCVNDISS. MORTEM. SENTIRE. AFFIRMARET.
SVOSQ. EXTREMO. SPIRITV. MIRIFICE. CONSOLARETVR.
IN CÆLESTEM. VITAM. QVAM. ASSIDVE. MEDITABATVR.
COMMIGRAVIT. XVI. KAL. REBRVARII. MDLIX.
VIXIT. A. XVII. M. IV. D. XII. H.XVI.
VINCENTIVS. PATER. FILIO. OPT. AC. DVLCISSIMO. P.

(5) This is the text of the inscription in the cenotaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above, which transcribed it from Vincenzo Forcella, Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri (13 Bde., Roma, 1869-1884), Bd. 9, p. 175:

D.     O.     M.
ROBERTO CARDINALI NOBILIO
IUVENI SUPRA AETATEM SAPIENTI
PRINCIPI SUPRA DIGNITATEM EMINENTI CHARITATE
IN DEUM ET HOMINES
RERUM HUMANARUM CONTEMPTU
VICTORIAQUE SUI
CONSPICUO
QUI
CANDOREM VIRGINITATIS
RUBORI PURPURAE
INTEGRITATEM CASTIMONIAE
DIUTURNITATE VITAE
ANTEFERENS
OBIIT IN FLORE AETATIS AC VIRTUTIS
E PURPURATIS TERRAE
IN CANDIDATOS CEALI TRANSCRIPTUS
VIXIT ANNOS XVIII
OBIIT AN SAL MDLIX

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(20) 4. SIMONCELLI, Girolamo (1522-1605)

Birth. 1522 (1), Orvieto. Son of Antonio Simoncelli, count of Castel Piero and patrician of Orvieto, and Cristofora Ciocchi del Monte. Great-nephew of Pope Julius III, on his mother's side. His first name is also listed as Gerolamo and his last name as Simonelli.

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. Ordained for the diocese of Orvieto. Entered the household of his great-uncle the future pope.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 22, 1553; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 5, 1554.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orvieto (2), June 25 (3), 1554. Consecrated, cathedral of Perugia (no further information found). Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Resigned the government of the diocese before April 17, 1562. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Named administrator of the see of Orvieto, 1570; occupied the post until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Prisca, January 15, 1588. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII (4). Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, March 30, 1598. Cardinal primoprete. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, February 21, 1600. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, April 24, 1600. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, June 16, 1603. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. February 24 (5), 1605, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

Bibliography. Burkle-Young, Francis A. and Michael Leopoldo Doerrer. The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte : a scandal in scarlet ; together with materials for a history of the House of Ciocchi del Monte San Savino. Lewiston, NY : E. Mellen Press, 1997. (Renaissance studies, v. 2), pp. 118-120; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 336-337; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1603; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 33, 69, 73 and 323; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. A multio adjutus ed. p. Pius Bonifacius Gams ... Leipzig : K.W. Hiersemann, 1931. 2 v. in 1. Vol. 2 has title, ... qua series, quae apparuit 1873 completur et continuatur ab anno ca. 1870 ad 20. febr. 1885, p. 712; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 36, 37, 38 and 46.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biography, in Norwegian, Annas Rom Guide.

(1) This is according to Burkle-Young, The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, p. 118; his two biographies linked above; Andrea Argoli, Andreæ Argoli D. Marci Serenissimo Annuente Senatu Equitis, In Patavino Lyceo Mathematicas scientias proftendis. De diebus criticis et de ægrorum decubitu libri dvo (Patauij : Apud Paulum Frambottum, 1652), p. 318, says that he was born on November 5, 1536; in the 16th-17th century, astrology was a considered a science; establishing the exact dates of birth and death was extremely important to accurately compose the astrological charts; the author, a professor of mathematics at La Sapienza University in Rome, was a contemporary of the cardinal.
(2) This is according to Burkle-Young, The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, p. 118; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 323, indicates that he was named administrator of the diocese.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 323; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 712, says that he was appointed on July 25, 1554.
(4) According to Burkle-Young, The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, p. 119-120, and note 448, Cardinal Simoncelli achieved a distinction held by only one other cardinal in history, that of having participated in no fewer than ten papal elections. The other cardinal in history to have participated in ten papal elections was Giacinto Boboni Orsini, created a cardinal deacon in 1144 by Celestine II. He participated in the elections of Lucius II (1144), Eugene II (1145), Anastasius IV (1153), Adrian IV (1154), Alexander III (1159), Lucius III (1181), Urban III (1185), Gregory VIII (1187), and Clement III (1187). In the electoral meeting of 1191, his tenth, he was himself elected pope, on March 30, and took the name Celestine III. He died on January 8, 1198, at ninety-two.
(5) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 37; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 69, indicates that he died on February 22, 1605.

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